Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Kidney Disease / 29.04.2017 Interview with: Sean Bagshaw MD MSc Director for Research for the Division of Critical Care Medicine School of Public Health University of Alberta, Canada What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The rationale for SPARK stemmed from two general observations. First, experimental and pre-clinical data have suggested the timely utilization of loop diuretics in early AKI could provide “kidney protection” largely mediated through reduction in medullary oxygen demand. Yet, this is in apparent paradox with clinical data (largely derived from older observational studies at some risk of bias) suggesting use of loop diuretics in AKI may be associated with increased risk for death and/or non-recovery of kidney function. Second, in AKI, loop diuretics are used exceedingly often. Surveys of healthcare practitioners and observational data suggest more than two-thirds to three-quarters of patients are exposed to diuretics at some point during their course. This represents a significant misalignment between evidence and clinical practice. This would suggest there is need to generate new evidence and knowledge that would ideally help inform best practice in the management of AKI. SPARK was designed as a pilot trial largely aimed at evaluating the feasibility of the approach to use of loop diuretics in early AKI. While SPARK did not find significant differences in risk of worsening AKI, utilization of RRT or mortality, we recognize the trial was underpowered to meaningfully inform about these and other patient-centered outcomes. We did see differences in secondary endpoints (i.e., fluid balance); however, use of loop diuretics in this setting was also associated with greater incidence of electrolyte abnormalities. (more…)
Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, Mineral Metabolism, Nutrition, Social Issues, Transplantation / 25.04.2017 Interview with: Ms. Shifra Mincer Medical Student in the class of 2019 SUNY Downstate Medical School What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Hypophosphatemia is commonly encountered in the post-transplant setting. Early post-transplant hypophosphatemia has been ascribed to excess FGF23 and hyperphosphaturia. Many patients remain hypohosphatemic months or even years after their transplant and the mechanism was assumed to be the same, however, our group recently reported that patients with late post-transplant hypophosphatemia had very little phosphorous in their urine (Wu S, Brar A, Markell, MS. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016,67(5): A18). We hypothesized that they were not eating enough phosphorous to compensate for the acute phosphorous losses they experienced immediately post-transplant. In this study, using both 3-day diet journals and 24-hour diet recall questionnaires, we found that mean intake of phosphorous and protein was barely at the Recommended Daily Allowance, and that despite 70% of the patients using EBT, 30% of those patients still reported concerns regarding food security. Patients who reported that the cost of food influenced their dietary choices ate 43% less protein (average 48,5 gms vs. 85.8 gms) and 29% less phosphorous (average 887 mg vs 1257 mg). When ability to rise from a chair over a 30 second period was evaluated, only patients who expressed food cost concerns were unable to complete the test. (more…)
Author Interviews, Kidney Disease / 20.04.2017 Interview with: Francesco Violi MD Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties e Sapienza University Rome, Italy What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The paper reports on the protocol of a trial where we will test the effect of aspirin on renal disease progression in diabetic patients. The study will start shortly and will be terminate next year. (more…)
Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, Transplantation / 04.04.2017 Interview with: Amanda Miller, MD, FRCPC Dalhousie University Transplant Nephrology What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Earlier studies have shown that there may be a higher risk of kidney transplant failure if a kidney donor is smaller than their recipient. This may be due to increased strain on the relatively smaller transplanted kidney. Very few studies have investigated outcomes associated with donor and recipient weight mismatch measured directly by differences in body weight however. There is also a suggestion that sex mismatch between kidney donor and recipient may lead to worse outcomes post-transplant, however results from earlier studies have been controversial and conflicting. The combined effect of weight and sex matching/mismatching between kidney donor and recipient (two very important and physiologically relevant factors) has not been rigorously studied previously. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if receiving a kidney transplant from a smaller donor of the opposite sex would impact transplant outcomes. Accounting for other transplant variables, we demonstrated that if a kidney transplant recipient is more than 30 kg (66 pounds) heavier than the donor there is a 28% increased risk of the transplant failing compared to equally weighted donors and recipients. If the kidney is from a smaller donor of the opposite sex, the risk of transplant failure is further increased to 35% for a male receiving a kidney from a female donor, and 50% for a female receiving a kidney from a male donor. This risk is high and is similar to that when a recipient receives a kidney transplant from a donor who has diabetes; a known risk factor for kidney failure in the non-transplant population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Kidney Disease, Pediatrics / 16.03.2017 Interview with: Constadina Panagiotopoulos, MD, FRCPC Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology & Diabetes Unit British Columbia Children’s Hospital Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada What is the background for this study? Response: I decided to conduct this study after observing a few cases of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in children hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (with two patients requiring dialysis) while on call in the 18 months prior to initiating the study. While caring for these patients, I scanned the literature and realized that aside from 2 published case reports, there had been no large-scale systematic studies assessing AKI in children with DKA. It immediately became apparent to me that managing patients with AKI and DKA was more challenging. On presentation to hospital, many of these children with DKA present quite volume depleted but fluid management is conservative because of the risk for cerebral edema. One of the most important management strategies for acute kidney injury in patients with DKA is early detection and correcting volume depletion in a timely manner to prevent further injury. I discussed my observations and these clinical cases with pediatric nephrologist and co-investigator Dr. Cherry Mammen, a pediatric AKI expert, and he confirmed my initial literature review findings. Thus, we decided to conduct this study to better understand the scope of the problem and any associated risk factors. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Heart Disease, Kidney Disease / 13.03.2017 Interview with: Hon-Yen Wu, MD, PhD, on behalf of all authors Attending Physician and Assistant Professor, Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Assistant Professor, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Assistant Professor, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Assistant Professor, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The effect of intensive blood pressure (BP) control in nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has long been a topic of debate. We summarized the published information comparing intensive BP control (< 130/80 mmHg) with standard BP control (< 140/90 mmHg) on major renal outcomes in CKD patients without diabetes. We pooled data from 9 randomized clinical trials with more than 8000 patients and over 800 events of kidney disease progression. We found that targeting blood pressure below the current standard did not provide additional benefit for renal outcomes compared with standard BP control, but may benefit nonblack patients or those with heavy proteinuria. What should readers take away from your report? Response: For the optimal blood pressure target in CKD patients without diabetes, an individually tailored treatment rather than a general rule to control hypertension is suggested. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Genetic Research, Kidney Disease, Nature, Race/Ethnic Diversity, University of Pennsylvania / 07.03.2017 Interview with: Katalin Susztak MD, PhD Associate Professor of Medicine Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104 What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previous studies showed an association between genetic variants in the APOL1 gene and kidney disease development, but it has not been confidently shown that this genetic variant is actually causal for kidney disease. For this reason we developed a mouse model that recapitulates the human phenotype. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JAMA, Kidney Disease / 31.01.2017 Interview with: Geoffrey A. Block, MD Director of Research at Denver Nephrology Denver, Colorado What is the background for this study? Response: Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a chronic and progressive disorder characterized by elevations in parathyroid hormone (PTH). It is seen in most patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and has been associated with a number of important adverse health effects such as bone pain, fracture, premature cardiovascular disease, abnormal heart enlargement, pathologic calcium accumulation in blood vessels and tissues and premature death. Currently there are several classes of drugs used to treat high PTH but each are associated with challenging side effects which limit their effectiveness. Active vitamin D compounds are effective in lowering PTH but do so at the expense of causing elevations in other minerals such as calcium and phosphorus which are felt to be harmful. An oral drug known as cinacalcet (Sensipar®) is in the class of medicine known as ‘calcimimetics’ and reduces PTH and simultaneously reduces calcium and phosphorus however it must be taken daily due to its short half-life and is commonly associated with nausea when first initiated or the dose is increased. Clinical trials with cinacalcet are suggestive though not conclusive of a beneficial effect on improving cardiovascular events and prolonging life. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Cost of Health Care, Kidney Disease / 23.01.2017 Interview with: Talar W. Markossian PhD MPH Assistant Professor of Health Policy Loyola University Chicago 2160 S. First Ave, CTRE 554 Maywood, IL 60153 What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Approximately 10% of U.S. adults currently have non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD), while dialysis dependent CKD accounts for only 0.5% of the U.S. population. The escalation in healthcare expenditures associated with CKD starts prior to requirement for dialysis, and treatment costs escalate as non-dialysis dependent CKD progresses. We examined the total healthcare expenditures including out-of-pocket costs for non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease and compared these expenditures with those incurred for cancer and stroke in the U.S. adult population. After adjusting for demographics and comorbidities, the adjusted difference in total direct healthcare expenditures was $4746 (95% CI $1775-$7718) for CKD, $8608 (95% CI $6167-$11,049) for cancer and $5992 (95% CI $4208-$7775) for stroke vs. group without CKD, cancer or stroke. Adjusted difference in out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures was highest for adults with CKD ($760; 95% CI 0-$1745) and was larger than difference noted for cancer ($419; 95% CI 158–679) or stroke ($246; 95% CI 87–406) relative to group without CKD, cancer or stroke. (more…)
Anemia, Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, Pharmacology, Stanford / 16.01.2017 Interview with: Dr. Glenn M. Chertow, MD Professor Medicine, Nephrology Stanford University School of Medicine What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Iron deficiency is common in persons with moderate to advanced (non-dialysis-dependent) chronic kidney disease (CKD), for a variety of reasons. Conventional iron supplements tend to be poorly tolerated and of limited effectiveness. In earlier studies of patients treated with ferric citrate for its effect as a phosphate binder, we saw increases in transferrin saturation and ferritin (markers of iron stores) and hemoglobin and hematocrit (the “blood count”). Therefore, we thought we should test the safety and efficacy of ferric citrate specifically for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA). With respect to the key findings, more than half (52%) of patients treated with ferric citrate experienced a sizeable (>=1 g/dL) increase in hemoglobin over the 16-week study period compared to fewer than one in five (19%) patients treated with placebo. Rates of adverse events (“side effects”) were similar to placebo; diarrhea in some patients and constipation in others were the most common. There were also favorable effects of ferric citrate on laboratory metrics of bone and mineral metabolism. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Kidney Disease, Pediatrics / 05.01.2017 Interview with: Jonathan Slaughter, MD, MPH Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Center for Perinatal Research Nationwide Children's Hospital/The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43205 What are the main findings? Response: The ductus arteriosus, a fetal blood vessel that limits blood flow through the lungs, normally closes shortly after birth. However, the ductus often remains open in premature infants, leading to patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Infants with PDA are more likely to die or develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the major chronic lung disease of preterm infants. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID) treatment has been shown to close PDAs in preterm infants and NSAID treatment of PDA is common. However, it has never been shown that PDA closure with NSAIDs leads to decreased mortality or improved long-term respiratory outcomes. NSAID closure of PDA has become increasingly controversial in recent years since NSAID treatment has been associated with acute renal injury. Also, these medications are expensive, with the usual three-dose treatment course costing well over $1000 per patient. Due to these controversies, the likelihood of a preterm infant with PDA being treated with NSAIDs varies by clinician and institution and has decreased over time. Meta-analyses of randomized trials that investigated NSAID (indomethacin and/or ibuprofen) treatment for PDA closure in preterm infants did not show a benefit. However, they were principally designed only to study whether the ductus itself closed following treatment and not to determine if there was an improvement in mortality risk or in respiratory outcomes following NSAID treatment. Given the difficulty of conducting randomized trials in preterm infants and the urgent need for practicing clinician's to know whether treatment of PDA in all preterm infants is beneficial, we used a study design that incorporated the naturally occurring practice variation in NSAID treatment for PDA as a mechanism to reduce the risk of biases that are commonly found in non-randomized investigations. This is based on the premise that if NSAID treatment for PDA in preterm infants is truly effective, we should expect to see improved mortality and respiratory outcomes in instances when clinician preference-based NSAID administration rates are higher. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, Neurology / 19.12.2016 Interview with: Kay Deckers, MSc PhD student School for Mental Health and Neuroscience Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology Maastricht University The Netherlands What is the background for this study? Response: In an earlier review (, we found that renal dysfunction was one the new candidate risk factors of dementia and needed further investigation. What are the main findings? Response: Albuminuria is associated with an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment or dementia. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Kidney Disease / 30.11.2016 Interview with: Georg Schlieper, MD MVZ DaVita Rhein-Ruhr Duesseldorf, Germany What is the background for this study? Response: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in hemodialysis patients is associated with higher risk for systemic infection. Recent hospitalization and temporary dialysis access are known risk factors for MRSA colonization. Whether MRSA colonization rates in hospital-based dialysis centers differ from separate dialysis centers is unknown. Data on MRSA decolonization strategies in hemodialysis patients are scarce. (more…)
Anemia, Author Interviews, Kidney Disease / 30.11.2016 Interview with: Dorota Drozdz M.D., Ph.D Jagiellonian University Kraków Response: In Poland and Portugal we use EPO beta for anemia treatment. Our interest was to find differences in clinical patterns taking in consideration that both countries are adherent to KDIGO recommendations an guidelines. We found that in both countries the mean hemoglobin (Hb) level and percentage of patients in target Hb level (10-12 g/dl on ESA treatment) are the same, but the approaches were different – in Poland the ESA dose was statistically lower than in Portugal and iron dose was statistically higher than in Portugal. Most other lab tests results were similar. Future secondary outcomes analysis should answer the question, which method is safer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, Lancet, Transplantation / 28.11.2016 Interview with: Prof. Dr. med. Christian Hugo Head, Division of Nephrology Medical Clinic III Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus an der Technischen Universität Dresden Dresden What is the background for this study? Response: At the end of 2007, the harmony trial was designed predominantly based on the one year results of the ELITE-Symphony trial, demonstrating that low dose tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetile, and steroids together with monoclonal interleukin-2-receptor (CD 25 antigen) antibody induction therapy has superior efficacy in renal transplant patients compared to all other regimens (low or normal dose cyclosporine or sirolimus) tested. While these advantages of the low dose tacrolimus protocol were so convincing to become the new gold standard of immunosuppressive therapy within the next few years (see KDIGO guide lines for renal transplantation in 2009), the low dose tacrolimus treatment arm also demonstrated increased incidence rates regarding post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM, at that time called new onset of diabetes after transplantation - NODAT) compared to the low cyclosporine treatment arm. Previous studies had also demonstrated a detrimental association between NODAT and cardiovascular events and mortality, the leading cause of death in renal transplant recipients. Corticosteroid-free or rapid withdrawal regimens were relatively encouraging regarding influencing NODAT rates but only at the price of an increased rate of T cell mediated acute rejections. (more…)
Author Interviews, Johns Hopkins, Kidney Disease, Nutrition, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 21.11.2016 Interview with: Deidra C. Crews, MD, ScM, FASN, FACP Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Nephrology Associate Vice Chair for Diversity and Inclusion, Department of Medicine Director, Doctoral Diversity Program Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore MD 21224 What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Studies suggest that dietary patterns influence risk of kidney function decline. Barriers may hinder urban African Americans' following healthful diets that could mitigate their increased risk of kidney function decline. In this study, we characterized contextual barriers to healthful eating among urban African Africans with hypertension and examined the association of these barriers to kidney function decline over 1 year. We examined the presence of healthy foods in neighborhood stores of study participants. We also assessed them for food insecurity (the inability to afford nutritionally adequate and safe foods), directly observed and documented the presence of fruits and vegetables in their homes, and examined their fruit and vegetable intake via questionnaire. (more…)
Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, UCSF / 21.11.2016

Tanushree Banerjee, PhD Research Specialist in the Department of Medicine Division of General Internal Medicine Interview with: Tanushree Banerjee, PhD Research Specialist in the Department of Medicine Division of General Internal Medicine UCSF What is the background for this study? Response: Acidosis is usually noted in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) while it is relatively unexplored whether changes in the undetermined anions, as measured by anion gap occur earlier in the course of CKD. Consumption of animal-sourced protein is acid-inducing and therefore such diet presumably increases undetermined anions. Since higher dietary acid load is associated with progression of CKD, we wanted to explore whether the increase in undetermined anions in moderate CKD is associated with CKD progression. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Emergency Care, Heart Disease, Kidney Disease / 21.11.2016 Interview with: Paul E Ronksley, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Community Health Sciences Cumming School of Medicine University of Calgary Calgary Canada What is the background for this study? Response: Prior studies have observed high resource use among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is related to the medical complexity of this patient population. However, there has been limited exploration of how patients with CKD use the emergency department (ED) and whether utilization is associated with disease severity. While the ED is essential for providing urgent or emergent care, identifying ways of improving ED efficiency and decreasing wait times has been recognized as a priority in multiple countries. Improving coordination and management of care for patients with multiple chronic conditions (the norm for CKD) in an outpatient setting may meet health care needs and ultimately improve patient experience and outcomes while reducing the burden currently placed on the ED. However, this requires an understanding of ED use among patients with CKD and the proportion of use that is amenable to outpatient care. Using a large population-based cohort we explored how rates of ED use vary by kidney disease severity and the proportion of these events that are potentially preventable by high quality ambulatory care. We identified all adults (≥18 years) with eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73m2 (including dialysis-dependent patients) in Alberta, Canada between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011. Patients with CKD were linked to administrative data to capture clinical characteristics and frequency of ED encounters, and followed until death or end of study (March 31, 2013). Within each CKD category we calculated adjusted rates of overall  emergency departmentt use, as well as rates of potentially preventable ED encounters (defined by 4 CKD-specific ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs); heart failure, hyperkalemia, volume overload, malignant hypertension). (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Kidney Disease / 21.11.2016 Interview with: Dr. Csaba P. Kovesdy Fred Hatch Professor of Medicine Director, Clinical Outcomes and Clinical Trials Program Division of Nephrology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center Nephrology Section Chief, Memphis VA Medical Center Memphis TN, 38163 What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Many ESRD patients initiate dialysis in an inpatient setting. This practice is expensive, and carries potential risks (e.g. hospital associated infections, medication errors, etc.). There is very little information about the characteristics of patients who transition to ESRD (i.e. start dialysis) in an inpatient setting, and about their outcomes. We examined a cohort of >50,000 US veterans who started dialysis during 2007-2011, and found that about half of them performed their first treatment in an inpatient setting. Compared to patients starting dialysis as outpatients, those who transitioned in an inpatient setting had a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid conditions, and were much less likely to have received pre-dialysis nephrology care, or to have a mature AV fistula or AV graft at the first hemodialysis treatment. Mortality was significantly higher in the inpatient start group, but the differences were attenuated by adjustment for comorbid conditions and vascular access. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Kidney Disease, Nutrition / 20.11.2016 Interview with: Dr. Teodor G. Paunescu PhD Assistant Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Boston What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Patients with kidney disease frequently report food aversion and poor dietary intake leading to malnutrition, a complication associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, there are no effective treatments currently available to address this complication, and the mechanisms underlying anorexia and food aversion in these patients remain unclear. Because of the critical role of olfaction in flavor appreciation and dietary intake, we decided to quantify olfactory (smelling) deficits in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We found that patients with kidney disease have significant olfactory deficits that need objective assessments for accurate characterization. Our results also indicate that olfactory deficits likely attribute to nutritional impairment in patients with kidney disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Kidney Disease, Stem Cells / 20.11.2016 Interview with: Dr. Ryuji Morizane MD, PhD Associate Biologist, Renal Division Brigham and Women’s Hospital Affiliated Faculty, Harvard Stem Cell Institute Instructor, Harvard Medical School What is the background for this study? Response: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) accounts for 10% of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), and there is currently no curable treatment available for patients with PKD. The adult onset form of PKD, the most common type of PKD, takes 30 years to form cysts in humans; therefore, it is difficult to study mechanisms of PKD to find novel therapeutics for patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gout, Kidney Disease / 19.11.2016 Interview with: Gerald D. Levy MD Internal Medicine/Rheumatology Southern California Kaiser Permanente Downey, CA What are the main findings of your study? Patients with hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease (CKD)  improve when serum Uric Acid (sUA) is brought below 6mg/dl with urate lowering therapy. We found a 6% improvement in this group compared to patients not at goal. More importantly the stage of CKD appears to be important with CKD II showing approximately 3% who improve with nearly 10% of patients improving in the CKD III group. We did not see benefit in those patients who are stage 4 CKD. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gout, Kidney Disease, Pharmacology / 19.11.2016 Interview with: Dr. Ana Beatriz Vargas dos Santos Médica do Serviço de Reumatologia Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro What is the background for this study? Response: Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis worldwide and, despite available treatment, the management of gout remains suboptimal. One of the reasons for this suboptimal management of gout is the hesitant use of urate-lowering therapy, including a common reduction in dose or discontinuation of allopurinol in patients with gout who have kidney dysfunction based on the assumption that allopurinol may be worsening kidney function. However, there is no evidence that allopurinol is toxic for the kidneys, and this dose reduction or discontinuation results in more difficult-to-treat gout. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 or above occurs in approximately 20% of people with gout, and there is emerging evidence that urate-lowering therapy may improve kidney function in patients with both gout and CKD. Although CKD is common, most people with gout start out with normal kidney function. Yet, there are limited data regarding the effects of allopurinol on kidney function in such individuals. We, therefore, undertook this study to assess whether people with newly diagnosed gout who are starting allopurinol are at increased risk for developing CKD stage 3 or worse. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Kidney Disease, NEJM, Pediatrics / 18.11.2016 Interview with: Stuart L. Goldstein, MD, FAAP, FNKF Clark D. West Endowed Chair Professor of Pediatrics University of Cincinnati College of Medicine Director, Center for Acute Care Nephrology | Associate Director, Division of Nephrology Medical Director, Pheresis Service | Co-Medical Director, Heart Institute Research Core Division of Nephrology and Hypertension | The Heart Institute Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Cincinnati, OH 45229 What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: This was a prospective international multi-center assessment of the epidemiology of acute kidney injury in children in young adults. Over 5,000 children were enrolled from 32 pediatric ICUs in 9 countries on 4 continents. The main findings are: 1) Severe AKI, defined by either Stage 2 or 3 KDIGO serum creatinine and urine output criteria carried an incremental risk of death after adjusting for 16 co-variates. 2) Patients with AKI by low urine output would have been misclassified as not having AKI by serum creatinine criteria and patients with AKI by urine output criteria have worse outcomes than patients with AKI by creatinine crtieria. 3) Severe AKI was also associated with increased and prolonged mechanical ventilation use, increased receipt of dialysis or ECMO (more…)
Author Interviews, Emergency Care, Kidney Disease, Kidney Stones, UCSF / 04.11.2016 Interview with: Ralph Wang, MD, MAS Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine University of California, San Francisco What is the background for this study? Response: Medical expulsive therapy, most notably tamsulosin, has been studied extensively to improve stone passage in patients diagnosed with ureteral stone. Prior trials and meta-analyses have identified a benefit. In fact, tamsulosin is recommended by the American Urologic Association for patients diagnosed with ureteral stones < 10mm that do not require intervention. However, recent well-conducted multi-center randomized trials have not found any improvement in stone passage. Thus we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all double blinded, placebo controlled randomized trials of tamsulosin to determine whether it improves stone passage. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, Kidney Disease, Mineral Metabolism / 03.10.2016 Interview with: Jonas Esche Dipl.-Mol. Biomed University of Bonn Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences DONALD Study What is the background for this study? Response: Modern western diets increase diet-dependent acid load and net acid excretion which are suggested to have adverse long-term effects on bone. Urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) is an established parameter to assess nutritional acid load. Urinary citrate, on the other hand, integrates nutritional and also systemic influences on acid-base homeostasis with high citrate indicating prevailing alkalization. Against this background urinary citrate excretion was used as a new index of acid-base status and its relationship with bone strength and long-term fracture risk was examined. (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, Genetic Research, Kidney Disease, Nature / 28.09.2016 Interview with: Prof Adrian S. Woolf Chair, Professor of Paediatric Science University of Manchester, UK What is the background for this study? Response: Several years ago, Laurent Fasano discovered that the Drosophila teashirt gene was needed to pattern the body of embryonic flies. He then found that this transcription factor had three similar genes in mammals. Working with Adrian Woolf in the UK, they found that Teashirt-3 (Tshz3) was needed in mice to make muscle form in the ureter When the gene was mutated, mice were born with ureters that were 'blown-up' and they failed to milk urine from the kidney with the bladder. (more…)
Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, Transplantation / 26.09.2016 Interview with: Adam Johnson, MD, PhD, MBA, FACS Thomas Jefferson University Dr. Cataldo Doria, senior author and designer of the study, emphasized that the work was a team effort What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The goal was to develop an algorithm to identify which donors would be most suitably transplanted as dual kidneys instead of as single kidneys. Dual kidney transplantation is a resource intensive procedure, but may make the most out of two kidneys whose function may be too marginal to transplant independently. Currently allocation decisions are based on individual surgeon and institutional experience and without much available outcome data. This score provide decision support for which donor grafts would have the greatest benefit if transplanted as dual kidneys. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Kidney Disease, Surgical Research / 25.09.2016 Interview with: Pablo Codner, MD; Amos Levi, MD (firsts authors) and Prof. Ran Kornowski, MD, FACC, FESC (senior author) Rabin Medical Center Derech Ze`ev Israel. What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a well-established treatment for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who are deemed inoperable by the “heart team”, for those at high risk for surgery and also for patients at intermediate surgical risk. Currently this therapeutic alternative is being compared with surgical aortic valve replacement in patients at low risk for surgery. Patients with chronic kidney disease were excluded from most randomized trials. We evaluated outcomes within a large multicenter cohort of patients undergoing TAVR distinguished by renal function, from 11 high volume centers in 8 different countries across Europe and Asia. In our experience patients with renal dysfunction were associated with poor clinical outcomes. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates during the follow-up period increased with declining renal function. A glomerular filtration rate ≤30 mL/min was identified on multivariate analysis as an independent predictor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. We also found higher rates of severe bleeding and vascular complications among patient with advanced or end stage renal failure. (more…)