Author Interviews, Autism, Lancet, Mental Health Research / 26.06.2014

Dr Sarah Cassidy PhD Autism Research Centre,Department of Psychiatry University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Sarah Cassidy PhD Autism Research Centre,Department of Psychiatry University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cassidy: We found that adults with late diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome (31 years on average), were at significantly higher risk of contemplating suicide during their lifetime (66%) than those from the general UK population (17%), and a sample of patients with Psychosis (59%). We also found that adults diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome with a history of depression, were significantly more likely to experience suicidal thoughts, and suicide plans or attempts, than those with Asperger Syndrome without a history of depression.  A higher level of autistic traits was also a significant risk factor for having planned or attempted suicide. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Lancet / 24.06.2014

Professor Lixin Jiang MD, PhD, F.A.C.C. National Clinical Research Center of Cardiovascular Diseases State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases Beijing , ChinaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Lixin Jiang MD, PhD, F.A.C.C. National Clinical Research Center of Cardiovascular Diseases State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases Beijing , China MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Professor Jiang: In this first representative nationwide assessment of quality of care in China, we studied 13,815 hospital admissions for STEMI in 162 hospitals across China over the past decade. We found that the incidence of hospital admission for STEMI quadrupled from 3.7 per 100,000 in 2001 to 15.8 per 100,000 in 2011. There were substantial changes in testing and treatment patterns. Over the study period, the rate of testing for troponin increased from 21.4% in 2001 to 66.5% in 2011. Additionally, based at the ideal patients’ analysis, the use of several highly effective treatments for STEMI, including aspirin, clopidogrel and statins, improved over the study period. However, other therapies known to reduce mortality in STEMI patients – such as β-blockers and ACE inhibitors – were underused with only 57.7% of patients receiving beta-blockers and 66.1% ACE inhibitors respectively in 2011. While the proportion of patients receiving reperfusion therapy remained constant, there was a notable shift away from fibrinolysis, which was the primary means of reperfusion in 2001, towards primary PCI. However, in 2011, only 27.6% of patients admitted to Chinese hospitals for STEMI received primary PCI, the gold standard of treatment, while 27.4% received fibrinolytic therapy in the ideal patients. Despite increasing overall intensity of treatment, procedure use, and testing, no significant change in the rate of in-hospital death from STEMI was seen over the study period. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Lancet, Mental Health Research / 18.06.2014

Professor Louis Appleby Professor of Psychiatry C.B.E The University of Manchester in the UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Louis Appleby Professor of Psychiatry C.B.E The University of Manchester in the UK   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Professor Appleby: “Patients with mental illness are two and a half times more likely to be victims of homicide than people in the general population according to our research published in The Lancet Psychiatry today. “In this study, the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness (NCI), based at The University of Manchester, examined data on the victims and perpetrators of all homicides in England and Wales between January, 2003 and December, 2005. We found that during the 3-year study period, 1496 people were victims of homicide, and 6% (90) of them had been under the care of mental health services in the year before their death. A third (29) of these patient victims were killed by other patients with mental illness. In 23 homicides in which the victim was a mental health patient killed by another mental health patient, the victim and the perpetrator were known to each other either as partners (9, 35%), family members (4, 15%), or acquaintances (10, 38%). In 21 of these 23 cases, both the victims and perpetrators were undergoing treatment at the same National Health Service Trust. Alcohol and drug misuse (victims 66%, perpetrators 93%) and a history of violence (victims 24%, perpetrators 24%) were common among both patient victims and perpetrators. The study also found that in the 3 years to 2005, 213 mental health patients were convicted of homicide—accounting for 12% of all homicide convictions.” (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Parkinson's / 11.06.2014

Richard Gray Professor of Medical Statistics Clinical Trial Service Unit Richard Doll Building, OxfordMedicalResearch Interview with: Richard Gray Professor of Medical Statistics Clinical Trial Service Unit Richard Doll Building, Oxford MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Gray: We found that, when we asked patients with Parkinson’s disease how their drugs affected their overall quality of life, the older drug levodopa was better than newer, more expensive drugs and that this benefit persisted for at least seven years from starting treatment. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Heart Disease, Lancet / 03.06.2014

​MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eleni Rapsomaniki, PhD The Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research Department of Epidemiology & Public Health University College London London MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rapsomaniki: Our data shows that hypertension is associated with considerable reduction in CVD-free life expectancy. Based on our estimates a 30-year old with hypertension suffered from CVD 5 years earlier compared to a similarly aged individual with normal blood pressure. We noted substantial heterogeneity in the associations of blood pressure with specific cardiovascular outcomes. For example a 20 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure was associated with ~40% higher risk of stable angina, and intracerebral or subarachnoid haemorrhage but less than 10% increase in risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm. In all age groups from 30 to over 80 people with a systolic blood pressure 90–114 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure of 60–74 mm Hg had the lowest risk of all cardiovascular diseases, and we found no J-shape associations. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Weight Research / 01.06.2014

Rhonda Stewart Senior Communications Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation  Seattle, WA 98121, USAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rhonda Stewart Senior Communications Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Seattle, WA 98121, USA MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Globally, obesity has become a public health epidemic. Obesity is affecting not just developed countries, but developing countries as well. Almost one-third of the world’s population, over 2 billion people, are considered to be overweight or obese. Of this group, nearly two-thirds (62%) are in developing countries. If current trends continue, this number will continue to rise. Between 1980 and 2013, the prevalence of overweight or obesity for children and adolescents increased by nearly 50%. This study is the first analysis of global trends on obesity and covers more than 30 years and 188 countries. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, Infections, Lancet / 27.05.2014

Dr. Duncan ChandaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Duncan M. Chanda MD Institute for Medical Research & Training and UNZA-UCLMS Research and Training Project University Teaching Hospital Lusaka, Zambia MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chanda:  The main findings are that in this cohort of relatively healthy patients, with a median CD4 of 367, ART can be delayed till the end of TB short course chemotherapy without deleterious effects. This differs from studies that looked at cohorts with very low median CD4  ( around 25-150 in most cases) in which early cART was found to reduce mortality and other AIDS defining events.   (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, Lancet, Pediatrics / 20.05.2014

Adnan Custovic DM MD PhD FRCP Professor of Allergy Institute of Inflammation and Repair University of Manchester University Hospital of South Manchester Manchester M23 9LT, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adnan Custovic DM MD PhD FRCP Professor of Allergy Institute of Inflammation and Repair University of Manchester University Hospital of South Manchester Manchester M23 9LT, UK MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Custovic: In a longitudinal analysis of the data from our birth cohort study collected from birth to age eleven years, we demonstrated an association between early-life antibiotic prescription and development of wheezing, but not atopy. Furthermore, amongst children with wheezing, antibiotic prescription in infancy increases the risk of subsequent severe wheeze/asthma exacerbations and hospital admissions. This is the first demonstration that children who receive antibiotics in infancy have impaired antiviral immunity later in life, and that early-life antibiotic prescription is associated with variants on chromosome 17q21 locus (which is an asthma susceptibility locus). Our findings suggest that the association between antibiotics and childhood asthma reported in previous studies arises through a complex confounding by indication, in which hidden factors which increase the likelihood of both antibiotic prescription in early life and subsequent asthma development are increased susceptibility to virus infections consequent to impaired antiviral immunity, and genetic variants on 17q21. Our results raises an important issue that effects which are often attributed to environmental exposures may be a reflection of genetic predisposition. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Karolinski Institute, Lancet / 14.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Viveca Ritsinger MD Karolinska Institute, Department of Medicine, Cardiology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm Unit for Research and Development Kronoberg County Council, Växjö, Sweden MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ritsinger: This is a long-term follow-up of the Swedish DIGAMI 1 study where patients with acute myocardial infarction and diabetes were randomized to either intensified insulin-based glycaemic control or to standard glucose lowering treatment. Patients and controls were followed for mortality for over 20 years and 90% of the patients died during follow up. Survival improved during a period of about 8 years. Intensified insulin-based glycaemic control increased survival time by an average of 2.3 years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Mental Health Research / 13.05.2014

Dr Alexandra Pitman MBBS MRC Psych MRC Clinical Research Fellow, UCL Division of Psychiatry, UCL (University College LondonMedicalResearch.com interview with: Dr Alexandra Pitman MBBS MRC Psych MRC Clinical Research Fellow, UCL Division of Psychiatry, UCL (University College London MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We conducted a systematic review of all published research comparing the experience of suicide bereavement with bereavement due to other causes, in which we considered the evidence from 57 studies evaluating the effect of bereavement on death, mental health, and social functioning of family members, friends, and other close contacts of the deceased. These studies showed that parents and children bereaved by suicide were at higher risk of mental health problems after the loss than parents and children bereaved by other causes, and that spouses and mothers bereaved by suicide were at higher risk of suicide than spouses and mothers bereaved by other causes. We also found some evidence that people from a range of kinship groups bereaved by suicide report more rejection and shame than people bereaved by other violent deaths, and that feeling stigmatised by the death is commonly experienced after any violent bereavement. It seemed that people bereaved by violent deaths, for example due to accidental death, homicide, drug-related death, motor vehicle crash, undetermined death or suicide, shared a sense of feeling blamed for the death or tainted by their association with the deceased. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Lancet / 30.04.2014

Prof. Paul E O'Brien Centre for Obesity Research and Education Monash University Melbourne, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Paul E O'Brien Centre for Obesity Research and Education Monash University Melbourne, Australia   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. O'Brien: Using a randomised trial format we compared the diabetes status at two years after a program of multidisciplinary diabetes care (MDC) alone or with the addition of a Lap-Band procedure in 50 people who were overweight (BMI 25-30) and with diabetes. 52% of the Lap-Band group had remission of their diabetes as measured by glucose tolerance testing compared to 8% in the multidisciplinary diabetes care group. The Lap-Band procedures were performed as outpatients with a 2-3 hr length of stay. There were no perioperative adverse events. The surgical group had lost a mean of 11.5kg in weight. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) for remission of diabetes was AUD $20,700. (more…)
Author Interviews, Frailty, Lancet, Vitamin D / 23.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Mark Bolland, PhD Bone and Joint Research Group, Department of Medicine University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Bolland: In a meta-analysis of 20 randomized clinical trials, there was no effect of vitamin D with or without calcium on falls.  In a trial sequential analysis of these trials, the effect estimate for vitamin D with or without calcium on falls lay within the futility boundary, providing reliable evidence that vitamin D supplementation does not alter the relative risk of falls by ≥15% and suggesting that future trials that are similar in design to current trials are unlikely to change that conclusion. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Mental Health Research / 20.04.2014

Dr. George Patton Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, VIC, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. George Patton Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Patton: Although there has been wide acceptance that the teens are a time when emotional problems are common, views have been polarized about their significance. Some have viewed these problems are usual for this phase of life with little significance for later life mental health; others have argued that early psychiatric intervention was essential given the risks of ongoing disorders. In this sample almost two thirds of girls and a third of boys had an episode of emotional troubles (anxiety and depression) at a level that would concern a family physician. For those where the episode were brief lasting weeks to months, recovery without further later life episodes was common. In contrast those with persistent (longer than 6 months) or recurrent emotional problems during the teens had a high likelihood of similar problems with depression and anxiety in their twenties. In general these emotional problems persisted more in females than in males. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, OBGYNE / 17.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nestor E. Vain M.D. Professor of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires Vice-President, FUNDASAMIN (Foundation for Maternal Infant Health), Argentina Director, Neonatology, Hospital Sanatorio de la Trinidad Palermo and San Isidro, Buenos Aires MedicalResearch.com: What is the background of this study? Prof. Vain: Delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) is currently recommended by many professional associations. The main reason is that it decreases the incidence of iron deficiency in infancy, a very serious public health problem in developing countries, but also prevalent in the USA and in western Europe. Besides it has other advantages in premature infants such as better adaptation of the cardiovascular system to extra-uterine life. How does Delayed umbilical cord clamping work?. Approximately 30% of the fetal blood volume is in the placenta at the time of delivery. Waiting for a couple of minutes before clamping the cord allows for a large part of that blood volume to return to the infant. (this process is known as placental transfusion) Despite of these well known facts, and the absence of serious complications, the compliance with the recommendation of delayed umbilical cord clamping is low. Why is that? There may be a variety of reasons but we are certain that one very important one is that the majority of obstetricians and neonatologists believe that to achieve an efficient placental transfusion and to avoid a negative effect from gravity, it is necessary to hold the infant at or below the level of the vagina during those 2 minutes. In that way the procedure is cumbersome and it prolongs unwillingly a separation between the infant and the mother. The believe that the infant needs to be at that low level is based on small studies performed more than 35 years ago. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Exercise - Fitness, Lancet / 13.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zoe Michaleff PhD Student, Musculoskeletal Division The George Institute for Global Health Sydney NSW 2000 Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our study showed that a 30 minute advice session with two phone call follow ups was as effective for chronic whiplash as the comprehensive physiotherapy exercise program in which participants received twenty, one-hour individually-tailored and supervised exercise sessions over a 12-week period. While people's pain and activity improved in both treatment groups, the most important finding is that there were no differences between groups. This finding held true for all outcome measures except for two secondary outcome measures of self rated recovery (global perceived effect) and functional ability (patient specific functional scale) which were in favour of the comprehensive exercise program however the size of these effects were too small to be considered clinically meaningful. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, OBGYNE / 09.04.2014

Enrique F. Schisterman, Ph.D. Chief and Senior Investigator Epidemiology Branch, DIPHR Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Rockville, MD 20854MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Enrique F. Schisterman, Ph.D. Chief and Senior Investigator Epidemiology Branch, DIPHR Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Rockville, MD 20854 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schisterman: Our results indicate that aspirin is not effective for reducing the chances of pregnancy loss in most cases. For the total number of women in the study, 13 percent of women who took aspirin and became pregnant subsequently experienced another loss, compared with 12 percent who took the placebo. Ultimately, 58 percent of women taking aspirin and 53 percent of the placebo group got pregnant and later gave birth. However, additional research is needed to investigate the finding that women who had experienced a single, recent pregnancy loss (before 4 1/2 months of pregnancy and within the past year) had an increased rate of pregnancy and live birth while on aspirin therapy. Among this group, 78 percent of those who took aspirin became pregnant, compared with 66 percent of those who took the placebo. For this subset of women, 62 percent of the aspirin group and 53 percent of the placebo group gave birth. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, General Medicine, Lancet, Lifestyle & Health / 04.04.2014

Prof Guangwei Li MD Department of Endocrinology China-Japan Friendship Hospital Center of Endocrinology and Cardiovascular Disease, National Center of Cardiology & Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, ChinaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Guangwei Li MD Department of Endocrinology China-Japan Friendship Hospital Center of Endocrinology and Cardiovascular Disease, National Center of Cardiology & Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, China MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our study first shows that a six-year period of lifestyle intervention in Chinese people with IGT reduced the incidence of diabetes over a protracted time period and was ultimately associated with a significant reduction in total and cardio-vascular disease mortality. This reduction in mortality appears to be mediated in part by the delay in onset of diabetes resulting from the lifestyle interventions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Health Care Systems, Lancet, Nursing, University of Pennsylvania / 04.03.2014

Professor Linda H Aiken PhD, FAAN, FRCN, RN Claire M. Fagin Leadership Professor in Nursing, Professor of Sociology Director of the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research University of Pennsylvania School of NursingMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Linda H Aiken PhD, FAAN, FRCN, RN Claire M. Fagin Leadership Professor in Nursing, Professor of Sociology Director of the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing MedicalResearch.com: Austerity measures and health-system redesign to minimise hospital expenditures risk adversely affecting patient outcomes. Against that backdrop, can you start by letting us know the background of the study?  Prof. Aiken: European Surgical Outcomes Study in 28 countries showed higher than necessary deaths after surgery. A comparable study in the US showed that despite the nation spending hundreds of millions of dollars on improving patient safety, there were no improvements in adverse outcomes after surgery in US hospitals between 2000 and 2009.  Clearly it is time to consider new solutions to improving hospital care for surgical patients, who make up a large proportion of all hospital admissions.  Our study was designed to determine whether there are risks for patients of reducing hospital nurse staffing, and what, if any, are the benefits to patients of moving to a more educated nurse workforce. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Lancet / 21.02.2014

Norbert Stefan, MD Heisenberg Professorship for Clinical and Experimental Diabetology Department of Internal Medicine IV University Hospital Tübingen Tübingen, GermanyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Norbert Stefan, MD Heisenberg Professorship for Clinical and Experimental Diabetology Department of Internal Medicine IV University Hospital Tübingen Tübingen, Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Stefan: Currently there is little evidence for an effective and safe pharmacological treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Based on the fact that inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), the enzyme, that converts inactive cortisone into active cortisol in metabolic tissues such as liver and adipose, was found to be effective to improve lipid metabolism in animals, we hypothesized that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 may also prove to be effective to decrease liver fat content in patients with NAFLD. In our 12 week trial in 82 patients with NAFLD, inhibition of 11β-HSD1 with RO5093151 resulted in a 14 % decrease of liver fat content and in a resolution of NAFLD in 20 % of the patients. This was accompanied by a decrease of liver enzymes. Furthermore, inhibition of 11β-HSD1 brought about a reduction of body weight and total body- and visceral adipose tissue mass, while insulin sensitivity did not change. In agreement with findings from other trials, also in our study 11β-HSD1 inhibition was well tolerated and safe. (more…)
Author Interviews, CT Scanning, Lancet, Medical Imaging, MRI, Pediatrics, Stanford / 20.02.2014

Dr Heike Daldrup-Link Associate Professor of Radiology Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo AltoMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr Heike Daldrup-Link Associate Professor of Radiology Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We use magnetic resonance imaging, a technology based on magnetic fields rather than radiotracers or x-rays. The underlying technology is not new – it has been used for tumor staging for many years. This is an advantage as MR scanners are available in nearly every major Children’s Hospital where children with cancer are treated. What is new about our approach is that we combined anatomical and functional images, similar to current approaches that use radiotracers and CT (PET/CT):  We first acquired scans that showed the anatomy of the patient very well and we then acquired scans that depict tumors as bright spots with little or no background information. We did that by using an iron supplement as a contrast agent: The iron supplement can be detected by the MRI magnet and improved tumor detection and vessel delineation MR scans. We then fused the anatomical scans with the tumor scans. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Pulmonary Disease / 19.02.2014

Ganesh Raghu, M.D.,FCCP, FACP Professor of Medicine & Lab Medicine (Adjunct) Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine University of Washington(UW) Director,CENTER for Interstitial Lung Disease(ILD),UW Medicine, ILD, Sarcoid and Pulmonary Fibrosis Program Co-Director, Scleroderma Clinic, UW Medical center(UWMC) Seattle, WA 98195MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ganesh Raghu, M.D.,FCCP, FACP Professor of Medicine & Lab Medicine (Adjunct) Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine University of Washington(UW) Director,CENTER for Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD),UW Medicine, ILD, Sarcoid and Pulmonary Fibrosis Program Co-Director, Scleroderma Clinic, UW Medical center(UWMC) Seattle, WA 98195 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Raghu: In a subgroup of patients with typical clinical features of Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ( IPF) , further evaluation by a thorough evlauation by regional experts experienced in management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and related diseases may lead to a diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis without the need for surgical lung biopsy if the HRCT features have a Possible-UIP pattern AND if there are no suspicion for environmental factors or collagen vascular diseases to explain the pulmonary fibrosis . (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Pulmonary Disease / 14.02.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jinping Zheng MD FACCP on behalf of Prof. Nanshan Zhong --Jinping Zheng, MD, FCCP Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University 151 Yanjiang Rd. Guangzhou 510120, China MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: PANTHEON is the largest, evidence-based study of long-term treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in COPD patients conducted to date. The main finding of this study is that 1-year of treatment with high dose NAC (600mg twice daily) was effective at reducing exacerbations in patients with COPD, especially in the earlier stage [GOLD II (moderate) of disease. NAC was well tolerated. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Lancet, Sexual Health / 14.02.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Naeemah Abrahams Senior Specialist Scientist:  Gender & Health Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council Extraordinary Professor:  Faculty of Community Health Sciences -School of Public Health: University of the Western Cape Associate Professor: Faculty of Health Sciences - School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences: University of Cape Town MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Abrahams: We found a global estimate of non-partner sexual violence of 7.2%  for women 15 years and older - but this estimate varied across the globe. The regions with the highest prevalence was Sub Sahara Africa Central and Southern with a prevalence was 21% in the central region and  17.4 % in the Southern region. This is nearly 3 times the global estimate . The region with the lowest prevalence was  Asia South at 3.3%. The low level could be due to a number of reasons. Firstly data from this region was very limited – from 2 countries only  and we have found that if sexual violence questions are added to other larger studies the level of disclosure is not very high. It is also  more likely that people from Asia region do not disclose the violence in research studies because of stigma and shame. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Lancet, Nutrition / 12.02.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kirstie Bell Diabetes Dietitian, CDE & PhD Candidate Human Nutrition Unit The University of Sydney MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Overall, the evidence to support carbohydrate counting is limited, with current data showing a non-significant improvement in HbA1c.  Pooled results from 7 quality randomised control trials studies showed carbohydrate counting had no significant effect on glycemic control (-0.35%, p = 0.096).  There was a significant improvement in HbA1c of 0.64% points in studies in adults that were conducted in a parallel design. This is the first meta-analysis of carbohydrate counting in type 1 diabetes. Up until now, it has not been known what improvement in glycemic control can be expected. Current international guidelines for diabetes management have been based merely on gradings of the available evidence. However, assessing the overall effectiveness of carbohydrate counting is critical in clinical practice to guide medical and dietary management decisions. (more…)
Alcohol, Author Interviews, Lancet / 10.02.2014

Dr John Holmes PhD, MA, BA (Hons) (York) Section of Public Health, ScHARR, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 4DA, UKMedicalResearch.com with: Dr John Holmes PhD, MA, BA (Hons) (York) Section of Public Health, ScHARR, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 4DA, UK MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Holmes: The study aimed to examine which groups in society would be affected by a 45p minimum unit price for alcohol.  This was in response to concerns expressed by, among others, the UK Government that the policy may not tackle harmful drinking and may penalise responsible drinkers. We found no support for these concerns.  As the policy targets the cheap alcohol which is disproportionately purchased by those drinking at harmful levels, the effects are mainly felt by those at greatest risk of suffering harm from their drinking.  On the other hand, moderate drinkers, including those on low incomes, buy very little of this cheap alcohol so are relatively unaffected. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Weight Research / 28.01.2014

Professor Sally Wyke Deputy Director, Institute of Health and Wellbeing Professor (Institute of Health and Wellbeing Social Sciences) The University of GlasgowMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Sally Wyke Deputy Director, Institute of Health and Wellbeing Professor (Institute of Health and Wellbeing Social Sciences) The University of Glasgow MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Wyke: The FFIT programme was very effective.  The men who did the programme lost nine times as much weight as the men who did not.  On average, they lost over 5.5kg  (11lbs)and kept it off for the full 12 months. In addition, we found highly significant differences in favour of the intervention objectively-measured waist, percentage body-fat, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and self-reported physical activity, diet and indicators of well-being and physical aspects of quality of life. (more…)
Allergies, Asthma, Author Interviews, Lancet / 15.01.2014

Mariona Pinart, PhD CREAL-Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology ISGlobal alliance Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona Doctor Aiguader, 88 | 08003 BarcelonaMedicalResearch.com Interveiw with: Mariona Pinart, PhD CREAL-Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology ISGlobal alliance Doctor Aiguader, 88 | 08003 Barcelona MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study examined 23.434 children at 4 and 8 years from 12 ongoing European population-based birth cohort studies that recorded information on current eczema, rhinitis, and asthma from questionnaires and serum-specific IgE to six allergens. We wanted to assess how often eczema, rhinitis and asthma coexist in the same children (comorbidity) and whether the occurrence of comorbidities was due to causality or casualty and finally we wanted to examine whether the occurrence of comorbidity was modified by IgE sensitization. We found that comorbidity affects about 4% of children aged 4–8 years and that about 50% of this comorbidity is due to causality, suggesting that these diseases share common pathophysiological mechanisms. In addition, we found that children comorbidity at age 4 are 30 to 60 times more likely to have comorbidity at age 8 years, suggesting that the presence of comorbidity at age 4 years is a strong determinant of comorbidity at age 8 years. Even children with one single disease are also at high risk of developing comorbidity by age 8 years. Interestingly, we found that not only comorbidity is present in children both sensitized and not sensitized to IgE but also that only 38% of incident comorbidity at age 8 years is explained by the presence of IgE sensitization at age 4 years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Lancet / 14.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Jonathan Banks  Programme Manager: The Discovery Research Programme  Centre for Academic Primary Care  NIHR School for Primary Care Research  School of Social and Community Medicine  University of Bristol  Bristol BS8 2PSDr Jonathan Banks Programme Manager: The Discovery Research Programme Centre for Academic Primary Care NIHR School for Primary Care Research School of Social and Community Medicine University of Bristol  Bristol BS8 2PS MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Banks: We asked members of the public attending their local general practice or primary care centre to consider a series of hypothetical scenarios or vignettes which depicted cancer symptoms, their risk of cancer and the investigative processes involved in testing for cancer. We wanted to measure the point at which the risk of cancer outweighed the burden and inconvenience of testing in relation to lung, colorectal and pancreas cancers. Most people, around 88%, opted for testing even at the lowest risk of cancer which in our vignettes was 1%. Further analyses showed variation between cancers with fewer people opting for testing for colorectal cancer at a low (1%) risk and more people choosing to be tested for all cancers in the 60-69 age group. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Pulmonary Disease / 05.01.2014

Prof Sirpa Jalkanen MD, PhD MediCity Research Laboratory and Department of Medical Microbiology University of Turku Turku, FinlandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Sirpa Jalkanen MD, PhD MediCity Research Laboratory and Department of Medical Microbiology University of Turku Turku, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Pulmonary vascular leakage occurs early in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Mortality is high (35-45%), but no effective pharmacotherapy exists. Production of anti-inflammatory adenosine by ecto-5’-nucleotidase (CD73) maintains endothelial barrier function. Interferon-beta-1a (IFN-beta) increases CD73 synthesis and might thus reduce vascular leakage and mortality in ALI/ARDS. We tested this hypothesis and the findings were as follows: 1.IFN-beta increased the number of CD73-positive vessels in human lung culture (4- and 14.3-fold on days 1 and 4 respectively, p=0.04 and 0.004). 2. The optimal tolerated FP-1201 dose (a unique intravenous formulation of interferon-beta 10 μg /day for six days) caused a significant rise in serum MxA (a marker for interferon response) and CD73 levels and a fall in interleukin-6 (an inflammatory cytokine) concentration. 3. Most importantly, odds of 28-day mortality was 81% lower in the treated than untreated subjects (8% vs 32%, OR[95% CI]0.19[0.03 to 0.72], p=0.01). (more…)