MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Peter Würtz, PhD, Docent
Head of Molecular Epidemiology, Computational Medicine,
Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland
Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Dr. Würtz: Obesity is linked with unfavorable cholesterol and blood sugar levels, but the fine-grained metabolic consequences of excess body weight remain unclear. We used a novel profiling technology developed in our research group to examine the metabolic consequences of excess body weight. We profiled over 12,000 healthy young volunteers from the general population to determine the detailed metabolic effects of having higher BMI (body mass index). We found that higher BMI is causing adverse metabolic changes in the blood levels of many amino acids and lipids, as well as an altered balance of omega-fatty acids and sex hormones. These measures have been linked with higher risk for developing heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Importantly, the metabolic deviations were not limited to obese individuals, but were observed in a continuous manner including for those who are lean or overweight. In other words, the metabolic profile becomes more adverse for any increase in BMI, with no threshold below which an increase in BMI would not affect the cardiometabolic risk profile. Genetic information was used to demonstrate that the metabolic effects are actually caused by having higher BMI. On the positive side, even a modest weight loss helped to diminish the adverse metabolic influences of excess body fat.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof. Erik Ingelsson, MD, PhD, FAHA
Professor of Molecular Epidemiology and
Andrea Ganna PhD student
Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: Coronary heart disease (CHD) comprises a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Measurement of metabolites, small molecules, in the blood could allow earlier diagnosis and inform about mechanisms leading to CHD. We examined the metabolic profiles (including thousands of metabolites) of blood samples from more than 3,600 individuals from Sweden that had been followed-up for up to 10 years, and found two lipid-related metabolites, lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin that reduced the risk of developing coronary heart disease and another lipid metabolite, monoglycerides, that was instead associated with increased risk.(more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Barbara J. Drew, RN, PhD, FAAN, FAHA
David Mortara Distinguished Professor in Physiological Nursing Research, Clinical Professor of Medicine, Cardiology
University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)
Department of Physiological Nursing San Francisco
MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Dr. Drew: Hospital cardiac monitors are plagued with alarms that create a cacophony of sounds and visual alerts causing “alarm fatigue” which creates an unsafe patient environment because a life-threatening arrhythmia may be missed in this milieu of sensory overload. Our study is the largest prospective study to date on the alarm fatigue problem. We found a staggering total number of alarms (>2,500,000 in one month) in 461 consecutive patients treated in our 77 adult intensive care unit beds. Although many of these alarms were configured to be visual text messages, we still found a high audible alarm burden of 187 audible alarms per bed per day. A noisy alarm environment interrupts patients’ sleep and invokes fear in patients and their families. We analyzed nearly 13,000 arrhythmia alarms and found that 88% of them were false alarms.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Marcus Munafò PhD
Professor of Biological Psychology
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit
UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies
School of Experimental Psychology
University of Bristol United Kingdom
Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Dr. Munafo: We were conducting an analysis of data on smoking behaviour and body mass index (BMI), in order to better understand the potential causal effects of smoking on different measures of adiposity. Mendelian randomisation uses genetic variants associated with the exposure of interest (in this case smoking) as proxies for the exposure, in order to reduce the risk of spurious associations arising from confounding or reverse causality. As expected, we found that, among current smokers, a genetic variant associated with heavier smoking was associated with lower BMI, providing good evidence that smoking reduces BMI. However, we also unexpectedly found that the same variant was associated with higher BMI in never smokers. This suggests that this variant might be influencing BMI via pathways other than smoking.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Martin C. Tammemägi
Professor (Epidemiology), Brock University
Department of Health Sciences
St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2S 3A1
Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Dr. Tammemägi: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in North America and the world. Lung cancer survival following diagnosis is generally poor, in the range of 10% to 15%, and has improved little over the last four decades. The biggest recent breakthrough for reducing lung cancer mortality came with the findings of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a large, well-conducted randomized screening trial, which demonstrated that low dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening versus chest X-ray (CXR) screening can reduce lung cancer mortality by 20%. Currently, most guidelines for selecting screenees for lung screening use the NLST enrolment criteria of 30 or more pack-years smoked, former smokers must have quit smoking within 15 years and ages between 55 and 74, or use a variant of the NLST criteria. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) essentially recommends using the NLST criteria but extended the inclusion age to 80 years.
The current study applied the PLCOm2012 lung cancer risk prediction model1 to NLST data and identified that the risk above which lung cancer mortality is consistently lower in the LDCT arm compared to the CXR arm, is ≥1.51% 6-year risk (65th percentile). The USPSTF and the PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151 criteria were then applied to the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) intervention arm smokers (the PLCOm2012 was developed in PLCO controls) to determine who would be selected for lung cancer screening. Compared to USPSTF criteria, the PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151 threshold selected 8.8% fewer individuals, but identified 12.4% more lung cancers (sensitivity 80.1% vs. 71.2%), and had fewer false positives (specificity 66.2% vs. 62.7%). 26% of smokers who were USPSTF criteria positive had risks below the PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151 threshold. Of PLCO former smokers who quit more than 15 years ago, 8.5% had PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151, suggesting that they might benefit from screening (2.9% of them developed lung cancer in 6 year). None of 65,711 never-smokers in the PLCO had PLCOm2012 risk ≥0.0151, indicating that never-smokers should not be screened. Individuals age ≥65–80 years had significantly higher risks and more lung cancers than those 55-64 years.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Marcus Povitz MD
Department of Community Health Sciences
University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Adjunct Professor and Clinical Fellow
Western University Department of Medicine,
Western University, London, Ontario, Canada
Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Dr. Povitz: Both depression and obstructive sleep apnea are important causes of illness and have overlapping symptoms. Both feature poor quality sleep, difficulty with concentration and memory as well as daytime sleepiness or fatigue. Previous research showed that depression is common in individuals with sleep apnea, but studies investigating the effect of treating sleep apnea on depressive symptoms have had conflicting results. Our study combined the results of all randomized controlled trials of participants who were treated for sleep apnea with CPAP or mandibular advancement devices where symptoms of depression were measured both before and after treatment. We found that in studies of individuals without a lot of symptoms of depression there was still a small improvement in these symptoms after treatment with CPAP or mandibular advancement device. In 2 studies of individuals with more symptoms of depression there was a large improvement in symptoms of depression.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof. Roberto Lent
Diretor, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas
Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Bloco K, sala 2-35
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Prof. Lent: Our group has been studying the absolute numbers of cells in the human brain, using a novel technique that we have developed. We have done it for
the whole male brain, and arrived at a figure of 86 billion neurons and 85
billion glial cells, 15% less than the round number that became a neuromyth
(one hundred billion neurons). We did it also for the demented brain, in
this case working with females, and showed that it is dementia that is
associated with a loss of neurons, because people with alzheimer, but no
dementia, displayed normal numbers of neurons.
The present paper focuses on sexual dimorphism in the olfactory bulb, and
revealed that women have around 40% more neurons and glial cells than men,
what correlates with their superior performance in many olfactory
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Pharmacist, PhD Student, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University
Uppsala, Sweden, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: The main findings from our study are that patients with a low number of prescribed drugs benefited more from a comprehensive clinical pharmacist intervention than patients with a higher number of drugs. There was no difference in effect between the patients with higher and lower levels of inappropriate prescribing, as measured by two validated tools for inappropriate prescribing.
Clinical pharmacist interventions have in several studies shown positive effects on inappropriate prescribing and clinical outcomes. Since the concomitant use of a large number of drugs is associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events, it is often assumed that patients receiving a larger number of drugs would benefit most from interventions aiming to improve the quality of drug use. However, differences in the effects of clinical pharmacist intervention between different subgroups of patients have rarely been analyzed.
We have, in a randomized controlled trial, previously demonstrated that a clinical pharmacist intervention at an acute internal medicine hospital ward reduces emergency department visits by 47%, revisits to hospital by 16%, and drug-related readmissions by 80% for patients aged 80 years or older. We aimed to investigate whether there was any difference in treatment effect of the clinical pharmacist interventions on number of subsequent revisits to the emergency department between the patients with less than five drugs and those with five or more drugs on admission to hospital. We also explored whether the effect of the intervention was consistent for patients with a high or low level of inappropriate prescribing.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Professor Robert Insall
CR-UK Beatson Institute for Cancer Research
Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?Prof. Insall:The principal message is that melanoma cells make their own steering signals, and thus drive themselves out of the tumour and into the bloodstream. This comes in two parts:
(a) The principal steering signal when we assay melanoma spread in vitro is lysophosphatidic acid, LPA. LPA steers cells with really remarkable accuracy; blocking LPA receptors stops them from spreading without hurting their health or ability to move.
(b) Where does the LPA gradient come from? They make it themselves. There seems to be lots of LPA around; they break down the LPA near them, leading to a gradient that's low near the cells and high further away. This is the gradient that steers the tumour cells.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tanja Stadler, ETH Zürich
Department of Biosystems Science & Engineering (D-BSSE)
Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?Response: We quantified the speed of spread of the ebola epidemic using the genetic information of ebola.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Eero Haapala, MSc in Exercise Medicine, BASc PhD student
University of Eastern Finland,School of Medicine
Institute of Biomedicine, Physiology
Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?
Answer: Our study is one of the first studies to investigate the different types of physical activity and sedentary behavior with academic achievement in children. Our main finding was that children who were more physically active during school recess were better readers in Grades 1-3 than less active children. We also found a direct relationship between physically active school transportation, which was mainly walking and cycling, and reading skills in boys. These findings suggest that particularly physical activity within a school day benefits academic achievement and that physical activity benefit academic achievement more in boys than in girls 6-8 years of age.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Giulio Ruffini PhD
Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Ruffini: We demonstrated that it is possible to transmit information directly from a brain to another one, without intervention of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) - e.g., the senses. By hyperinteraction we mean this: the technologically mediated transmission of information directly from one brain to another, bypassing our senses or effectors (all which require the intervention of the PNS).
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Peter B. Marko
Department of Biology
University of Hawaii at Mānoa,
Medical Research: What are the main findings of the studyProf. Marko: The main finding of the study was that species substitutions and fishery stock substitutions together obscure a complex pattern of mercury contamination in Chilean sea bass (or Patagonian toothfish) that can put consumers unknowingly at risk of ingesting greater levels of mercury than the labeling would suggest. Although it is well appreciated that mercury levels vary dramatically among different species of fish, and that species substitutions have the potential to expose consumers to unwanted mercury, our study shows that for Chilean sea bass, fish mislabeled as to their country or region of origin (but labeled as the correct species) have a high potential to expose consumers to unexpectedly high levels of mercury.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Effie Viguiliouk
M.Sc. Candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences
University of Toronto
Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?Effie Viguiliouk: This systematic review and meta-analysis of the totality of evidence from 12 randomized clinical trials in 450 participants with type 2 diabetes found that eating about 1/2 a cup of tree nuts per day (equivalent to about 60 g or 2 servings) significantly lowered the two key markers of blood sugar, HbA1c and fasting glucose, in comparison to calorically matched control diets without tree nuts.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael A. Collins PhD
Professor of Molecular Pharmacology
Loyola University Chicago
Stritch School of Medicine
Maywood IL 60153
Medical Research: What are the main findings of your study?Dr. Collins: There were several:
First, we found that a cadre of neuroinflammatory proteins which promote or are stimulated by increased oxidative stress were significantly altered in a brain neurodegeneration model involving high alcohol binges in adult (male) rats. Most surprising was that the alterations were selectively evident in the three brain regions that contain a lot of dying neurons, and not in regions lacking neurodamage.
Additionally, in an alcohol-binged adult rat brain cultures, the same neuroinflammatory protein alterations, along with the neuronal damage, were replicated.
We further observed that binging the cultures depleted a key omega-3 fatty acid, termed DHA, in brain membranes. When these binged brain cultures were then supplemented with DHA, the neuroinflammatory protein changes and the neurodegeneration were largely or completely inhibited.
The results link specific oxidative stress-associated neuroinflammatory routes to the brain neuronal demise arising from high binge alcohol exposures.
They also reveal that supplementation with an omega-3 fatty acid reported to be neuroprotective with respect to other insults may be effective as well in suppressing the brain-damaging effects of excessive alcohol binges.
MedicalResearch Interview with: Dr. Don C. Des Jarlais PhD
Director, International Research Core, Center for Drug Use and HIV Research
Research Fellow, NDRI
Director of Research, Baron Edmond de Rothschild Chemical Dependency Institute, Beth Israel Medical Center
Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Des Jarlais: HIV infection among non-injecting users of heroin and cocaine doubled doubled over the last several decades, from 7% to 14%. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) increases both susceptibility to and transmissibility of HIV. We examined HSV-2 infection among non-injecting heroin and cocaine user over the same time period using stored serum samples. HSV-2 infection was strongly related to HIV infection, and both increased over time. We calculated population attributable risk percentages (PAR%) to estimate the extent to which HSV-2 was driving increased HIV infection. HSV-2 infection was responsible for approximately half of the increase in HIV infection
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Marion M. Hetherington BSc (Hons) DipEd DPhil
Institute of Psychological Sciences
University of Leeds , Leeds, England
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Professor Hetherington: This study was part of a much larger, funded project called HabEat (European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement n°245012.
In this study we investigated the effects of offering a new vegetable (artichoke puree) to 332 children in the UK, Denmark and France from weaning age to 38 months. During the experiment each child was given between five and 10 servings of at least 100g of the artichoke puree in one of three versions: basic; sweetened, with added sugar; or added energy, where vegetable oil was mixed into the puree.
There was a strong effect of repeated exposure with no additional, clear benefit of adding sweetness or energy. Thus little difference in how much was eaten between children fed basic puree and those who ate the sweetened puree. This suggests that making vegetables sweeter does not make a significant difference to the amount children eat.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Beatrice A. Golomb MD, PhD
Professor of Medicine
Family and Preventive Medicine
University of California, San Diego
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Golomb:The main finding is that veterans with Gulf War illness have bioenergetic defects -- dysfunction of mitochondria, the energy producing elements of cells -- that is evident in comparing affected veterans to matched healthy controls.
An estimated 1/4 to 1/3 of the ~700,000 US veterans from the 1990-1 Gulf War developed chronic multisymptom health problems that entail fatigue, cognitive and other CNS problems, muscle pain, weakness and exercise intolerance, with high rates of gastrointestinal (especially diarrhea) and neurological problems, and other symptoms - as well as autonomic dysfunction. Evidence suggests these problems have not abated with time. Veterans from other nations that have conducted epidemiological studies, including the UK, Canada, and Australia, also show elevated rates of problems.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Prof. Natalia N. Kudryavtseva
Head of Neurogenetics of Social Behavior Sector,
Institute of Cytology and Genetics SD RAS,
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: Hostile environment and social instability stress can have a significant impact on adolescents, causing the development of anxiety and depression.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Tobias Teichert
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Teichert: "Our study provided three main findings:First, we measured how long it takes subjects to allocate attention to a relevant target and how effectively they can block out the distractors. We found that after 120 msec selective attention is fully engaged and completely blocks out the distractor. Based on this finding, we predicted that subjects should be able to improve decision accuracy by delaying decision onset, and that this should be more effective than simply prolonging the whole decision process.
Most importantly, we found that subjects indeed use this more effective way of improving decision onset: On average, subjects delayed decision onset by about 50 msec when we asked them be as accurate as possible. The good news is that people seem to use this more optimal mechanism automatically, without being told to do so and without being aware of what they do. The bad news is that we don’t seem to be using this skill quite as effectively as we could. In our case, subjects could have improved accuracy even further by delaying decision onset by an additional 50 ms. However, taken together, our findings show that decision onset is to some degree under cognitive control, and that we might be able to devise training strategies to harness its full potential”
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nir Y. Krakauer Ph.D
Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering
The City College of New York
New York, New York
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Krakauer: We studied the association between the recently proposed body shape index (ABSI) -- which combines waist circumference, height and weight measurements -- and risk of death in a United Kingdom population sample. We found that high ABSI predicted greater mortality hazard, with death rates increasing by about 13% per standard deviation increase in ABSI. Further, ABSI was a stronger predictor of early death than BMI, waist circumference, or other indices based on waist circumference such as waist to height ratio and waist to hip ratio. For a given starting ABSI value, reducing A Body Shape Index over a 7-year period was associated with lowered mortality risk, .
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bodour Salhia, PhD
Integrated Cancer Genomics Division
Translational Genomics Research Institute
Phoenix, Arizona, 85004
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Salhia: Our study identified novel rare genomic and epigenomic events underlying breast cancer metastasis to brain. We demonstrated that we could molecularly subtype breast cancer brain metastasis the same way we can subtype primary breast cancer. From this analysis we found that the Luminal B subtype was the most common subtype in our cohort, followed by Her2+/ER- enriched tumors and Basal-like tumors. Each of these subtypes displayed genetic and epigenetic features reminiscent of primary breast cancer. We demonstrated that these tumors have a strong predilection to grow by activating pathways involved in G2/M cell cycle progression, whereas, many genes involved in cell migration were epigenetically silenced. Broad amplification of chromosome 8q was common, which resulted in the upregulation of important genes.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Nicholas J. Wald
Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine
Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry
Queen Mary University of London
London, United Kingdom
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Prof Wald: The percentage of women who become pregnant without having taken folic acid supplements to reduce the risk of a neural tube defect declined from a relatively low proportion (35%) to an even lower one (31%) between 1999 and 2012.
Moreover such use of folic acid in some groups of the population is much lower for example 17% in Afro-Caribbean women and 6% in women aged under 20.
MedicalResearch.com: Interview with:Sylvia Lui
Tommy’s Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre
The University of Manchester
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer:The research shows women who drink alcohol at moderate or heavy levels in the early stages of their pregnancy might damage the growth and function of their placenta – the organ responsible for supplying everything that a developing infant needs until birth
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dorte Vistisen
Senior researcher, MSc PhD
469 - Epidemiology
DK-2820 Gentofte Denmark
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Vistisen: Our study highlights the complexity of type 2 diabetes. We show that in most people the development of type 2 diabetes is preceded by many years of overweight and not by massive weight gain.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jenifer I Fenton
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Fenton:This was a cross-sectional study, and thus, a snapshot in time. Although it cannot infer cause or temporality of obesity and colon polyp risk in men, it does show that obese men were more likely to have a polyp than their lean counterpart. In addition, there were serum biomarkers also associated with this risk. This could eventually lead to future blood tests to identify individuals at greater risk for polyps and inform screening recommendations.
Medical Research.com Interview with: Dr. Beate Wieseler
Head of Department Dept. Drug Assessment
Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) Im Mediapark
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
Dr. Wieseler: Our study shows that unpublished clinical study reports, i.e. reports submitted to regulatory authorities during the approval procedure for a drug, provide substantially more information on patient-relevant outcomes than publicly available sources, i.e. articles published in medical journals and reports published in online clinical trial registries. (A “patient-relevant outcome” is an outcome describing morbidity, mortality or health-related quality of life.)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Kamal Ivory
Institute of Food Research
Norwich Research Park Norwich, UK
Gut Health & Food Safety ISP
The Institute of Food Research receives strategic funding from BBSRCMedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Ivory: In the present study we show that administration of probiotics in the gut can induce changes at the nasal mucosa where the immune system meets pollen allergen. This implies a potential to alter the course of allergic rhinitis. However, in our single high dose pollen challenge in the clinic (out of pollen season), we did not measure any significant changes in the clinical parameters we had set. It is not clear if this was because a single challenge fails to replicate occurrence during natural seasonal exposure to pollen in terms of dosage and timing. That aside, the mode of action may vary from one probiotic organism to another and it is possible that a cocktail of probiotic organisms may be needed for clinical effectiveness. If funding becomes available, we would like to repeat the study during the pollen season.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Alize J. Ferrari
University of Queensland
School of Population Health
Herston, Queensland, Australia
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: In our paper recently published in PloS Medicine, we report findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 for depression. We found that depression (defined as major depressive disorder and dysthymia) accounted fr 8% of the non fatal burden in 2010, making it the second leading cause of disability worldwide. Burden due to depression increased by 35% between 1990 and 2010, although this increase was entirely driven by population growth and ageing. Burden occurred across the entire lifespan, was higher in females compared to males, and there were differences between world regions.When depression was considered a risk factor for other health outcomes it explained 46% of the burden allocated to suicide and 3% of the burden allocated ischemic heart disease.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Guang Sun MD, PhD
Professor, Discipline of medicine
Faculty of medicine, Memorial University Canada
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Sun: Plenty of anecdotal reports on how ‘Food Addiction’ may be a potential culprit of the rising prevalence of obesity. However to date no scientific study, based on a comprehensive criterion of the diagnosis of Food Addiction, has been performed at the population level. The main findings are in the following fours aspects:
1) Food Addiction is indeed an important contributing factor in the development of obesity.
2) The prevalence of Food Addition was 5.4% and increased concomitantly with
obesity status defined by either body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage
(%BF). In another word, there is one food addict in every twenty adults (Newfoundland Province, Canada)
3) Clinical Symptom Count(s) of Food Addiction is strongly associated with the severity of obesity.
4) Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with “Food Addiction” than men.
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