Author Interviews, Cancer, Endocrinology, Pediatrics, Thyroid / 20.03.2014

Melanie Goldfarb MD Assistant Professor of Surgery, Endocrine Surgery University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CaliforniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with Melanie Goldfarb MD Assistant Professor of Surgery, Endocrine Surgery University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Goldfarb: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who develop thyroid cancer as a secondary cancer are six times more likely to die than AYAs with primary thyroid cancer, though survival with treatment is excellent for both primary and secondary cancers at greater than 95 percent. Additionally, Hispanics, Males, and those of lower socioeconomic status have worse overall survival. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 19.03.2014

Dr Joe Brierley Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Joe Brierley Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH, UK   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Brierley: In the UK babies under 2-months of age cannot be verified as having died using ‘neurological criteria,’ due to national guidelines; whereas in North America, Australasia and other European countries his is possible. Because of this no organ donation from those under 2-months occurs in the UK contributing to the lack organs for small children who could benefit from such lifesaving interventions. Our study finds that if the rules were changed to be compatible with other countries their would be a significant yield of organs from one specialist children’s hospital, and likely to be many more nationally. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Tobacco, UCSF / 12.03.2014

Lauren Dutra, ScD Postdoctoral Scholar, UCSF School of Medicine Cardiovascular Research Institute San Francisco, CA 94143MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lauren Dutra, ScD Postdoctoral Scholar, UCSF School of Medicine Cardiovascular Research Institute San Francisco, CA 94143 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Middle and high school students who used e-cigarettes were more likely to smoke tobacco cigarettes. They were also more likely to progress from experimenting with tobacco cigarettes to becoming regular smokers. Teen smokers who used e-cigarettes were more likely to be planning to quit in the next year and less likely to have abstained from smoking recently, compared to smokers who had never used e-cigarettes. They were also more likely to be heavier smokers (smoke more cigarettes per day) than those who had never tried e-cigarettes, that being said there are eliquids available that have no nicotine content whatsoever and these are therefore a much healthier option, you can see a wide variety of these at Gourmet E-Liquid. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 11.03.2014

Mitch van Geel, PhD Institute of Education and Child Studies, Leiden University Leiden, the NetherlandsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mitch van Geel, PhD Institute of Education and Child Studies, Leiden University Leiden, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr.van Geel: We performed a meta-analysis, which is a way to statistically summarize effect sizes from earlier studies. Individual studies often provide varying effect sizes, which makes it difficult to judge whether and how strong variables are related. Furthermore, study characteristics (sampling methods, response rates, controlling for certain confounders) might influence study results. By using a meta-analysis it can be analyzed to what extent study characteristics are related to results; if a particular result only tends to be established in studies with certain designs (for example a convenience sample), we might wonder whether such an effect really exists; but if we find that a particular outcome is unrelated to study characteristics or found in studies with relatively stronger designs, we might feel more certain in concluding that a relation between variables (bullying-suicide thoughts or attempts) exists. By using a meta-analysis we established a significant relation between bullying and thoughts about suicide, and bullying and suicide attempts, and we found that these results were unrelated to study characteristics. (more…)
Author Interviews, CT Scanning, Lancet, Medical Imaging, MRI, Pediatrics, Stanford / 20.02.2014

Dr Heike Daldrup-Link Associate Professor of Radiology Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo AltoMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr Heike Daldrup-Link Associate Professor of Radiology Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We use magnetic resonance imaging, a technology based on magnetic fields rather than radiotracers or x-rays. The underlying technology is not new – it has been used for tumor staging for many years. This is an advantage as MR scanners are available in nearly every major Children’s Hospital where children with cancer are treated. What is new about our approach is that we combined anatomical and functional images, similar to current approaches that use radiotracers and CT (PET/CT):  We first acquired scans that showed the anatomy of the patient very well and we then acquired scans that depict tumors as bright spots with little or no background information. We did that by using an iron supplement as a contrast agent: The iron supplement can be detected by the MRI magnet and improved tumor detection and vessel delineation MR scans. We then fused the anatomical scans with the tumor scans. (more…)
Author Interviews, Flu - Influenza, Pediatrics / 14.02.2014

Philip M. Polgreen, MD, MPH. Associate Professor of Internal Medicine - Infectious Diseases University of Iowa Carver College of MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Philip M. Polgreen, MD, MPH. Associate Professor of Internal Medicine - Infectious Diseases University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Polgreen: In this paper, to determine if well-child visits are associated with increased risk for subsequent influenza-like-illness visits, we used a large database that tracks healthcare expenditures of families over time. Controlling for other factors such as the presence of other children, insurance and demographics, we found that well-child visits were a risk factor for subsequent influenza-like-illness within the next two weeks for a patient or for a family member. The estimated probability of a subsequent influenza-like illness visit was increased by 3.2 percentage points for those with well-child visit. We estimated that this additional risk translates to over 700,000 cases of influenza-like-illness per year in the United States. Total costs (lost wages, medical costs, etc.) for these infections could amount to $500 million annually. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics / 11.02.2014

Jim Tsung, MD, MPH Department of Emergency Medicine Mount Sinai School of Medicine Guggenheim Pavilion 1 Gustave Levy Place Box 1149 New York, NY 10029MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jim Tsung, MD, MPH Department of Emergency Medicine Mount Sinai School of Medicine Guggenheim Pavilion New York, NY 10029 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tsung: 1.  Point-of-care ultrasound performed by clinicians was as accurate as ultrasound performed in the radiology department for evaluating appendicitis in children. 2.  This led to significant reductions in emergency department stays when point-of-care ultrasound was able to contribute to the decision to send the patient to the operating room or to discharge home without further imaging studies. On average, a 2 hour (46%) reduction in ED LOS for patients only requiring radiology ultrasound and a 6 hour (68%) reduction in ED LOS for patients that needed CT scan. 3.  Point-of-care ultrasound can also reduce the rate of CT scans obtained when used as a front-line test, 44% to 27%. (more…)
Author Interviews, CHEST, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders / 10.02.2014

David Gozal, MD The Herbert T. Abelson Professor and Chair Department of Pediatrics Physician-in-Chief, Comer Children's Hospital The University of Chicago Chicago, IL 60637MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Gozal, MD The Herbert T. Abelson Professor and Chair Department of Pediatrics Physician-in-Chief, Comer Children's Hospital The University of Chicago  Chicago, IL 60637 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gozal: Our study shows that in children with mild obstructive apnea, treatment with an anti-inflammatory combination of 2 medications, namely nasal corticosteroid and oral montelukast is associated with favorable outcomes in the vast majority of the children. Thus, rather than pursue treatment with adenotonsillectomy as is currently the case in most places, this study paves the way for non-surgical alternative therapies in pediatric OSA. (more…)
Author Interviews, Johns Hopkins, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 31.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Golda Ginsburg, Ph.D Professor Director, Research, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MarylandGolda Ginsburg, Ph.D Professor Director, Research, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, Maryland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr Ginsburg: This study examined the long-term outcomes of youth treated for an anxiety disorders. Findings revealed that almost half of anxious youth treated for an anxiety disorder were in remission (i.e., did not meet diagnostic criteria for any of the three study entry anxiety disorders) at an average of six years since starting treatment. Youth showing clinically meaningful improvement after 12 weeks of treatment, were more likely to be in remission, had lower anxiety severity, and had better functioning compared to youth who showed minimal or no initial clinical improvement. Treatment type did not affect long-term outcomes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 31.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Sanjay Mahant, MD, FRCPC Division of Pediatric Medicine, Pediatric Outcomes Research Team (PORT), Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Health Policy, Evaluation and Management, University of Toronto, Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, CanadaDr. Sanjay Mahant, MD, FRCPC Division of Pediatric Medicine, Pediatric Outcomes Research Team (PORT), Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Health Policy, Evaluation and Management, University of Toronto, Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mahant: In a large cohort of children undergoing same-day tonsillectomy at 36 children's hospitals in the U.S., we observed substantial variability in several areas. These include: processes of care, the use of steroids and antibiotics - for which there are national guidelines that outline the recommended use of these medications - and outcomes of usage, as well as revisits to hospital after surgery for complications within 30 days following surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, General Medicine, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics / 22.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Kathryn M Abel Professor of Psychiatry & Honorary Consultant Psychiatrist University of Manchester and Honorary Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main study findings were that exposure of a mother to a severe psychological stress of losing a close family member up to either 6 months before conception or at any time during pregnancy did not increase risk of subsequent psychotic illness in the offspring. Secondly, we found during childhood, if a close family member died then, especially a sibling of the child or one of their parents, these children were at slightly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness later in life. This was most likely to happen following a sudden death especially suicide and in particular following suicide a psychotic mood disorder was more likely than other kinds of psychosis such as schizophrenia (although the risk of schizophrenia was also increased following suicide). This effect was not accounted for by having  a family history of a psychotic illness or suicide. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 17.01.2014

Dr. Daniel S.  Budnitz MD MPH CAPT, USPHS Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Medication Safety Program Atlanta, GeorgiaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Daniel S.  Budnitz MD MPH CAPT, USPHS Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Medication Safety Program Atlanta, Georgia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Budnitz: To reduce dosing errors when administering orally ingested over-the-counter (OTC) liquid medications, especially among children, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released and the Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA) released recommendations for how to display dosing directions and markings on dosing devices. This study assessed recommendation adherence for national brand name orally ingested OTC liquid pediatric analgesics/antipyretics and cough, cold, and allergy products available after the FDA guidance was finalized in 2011.  To identify and prioritize specific areas for improvement, recommendations were categorized as ‘top tier’ (potential to address ≥3-fold errors) or ‘low tier’ (intended to improve clarity and consistency). Of 68 products, 91% of dosing directions and 62% of dosing devices adhered to all top tier recommendations; 57% of products adhered to every top tier recommendation, and 93% adhered to all or all but one. A dosing device was included with all products (e.g., oral syringe, dosing cup). No dosing directions used atypical volumetric units (e.g., drams), and no devices used volumetric units that did not appear in dosing directions. Six products used trailing zeros or failed to use leading zeros with decimal doses; eight did not use small font for fractions.  Appropriate use of zeros and decimals is important to avoid 10-fold overdoses; using small font for fractions (½ vs. 1/2) helps avoid potential  4-fold errors if 1/2 interpreted as 1 or 2.  Product adherence to low tier recommendations ranged from 26% to 91%. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 16.01.2014

Sophie Grigoriadis, MD, MA, PhD, FRCPC Head, Women's Mood and Anxiety Clinic:  Reproductive Transitions, Fellowship Director, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Scientist, Sunnybrook Research Institute Adjunct Scientist, Women's College Research Institute, Associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine, University of TorontoMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sophie Grigoriadis, MD, MA, PhD, FRCPC Head, Women's Mood and Anxiety Clinic:  Reproductive Transitions, Fellowship Director, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Scientist, Sunnybrook Research Institute Adjunct Scientist, Women's College Research Institute, Associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Grigoriadis: Infants of women exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during late pregnancy (but not early) are at risk for developing persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). PPHN is a condition in which blood pressure remains high in the lungs following birth and which results in breathing difficulties.  The symptoms can range from mild to severe, but the condition can be managed successfully typically after SSRI exposure. It is important to note that the baseline risk for PPHN in the general population is low (about 2 per 1,000 live births), and so the increase in risk with SSRIs still represents a low overall risk for developing PPHN following SSRI exposure in late pregnancy (increasing to approximately 5 per 1,000 live births). This increased risk means that 286 to 351 women would have to be treated with an SSRI during late pregnancy in order to result in 1 additional case of PPHN. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, NEJM, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 15.01.2014

W. Katherine Yih Ph.D., M.P.H Department of Population Medicine Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care InstituteMedicalResearch.com Interview with: W. Katherine Yih Ph.D., M.P.H Department of Population Medicine Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Yih: The main findings are that vaccination with the first dose of RotaTeq is associated with a small increase in the risk of intussusception, which is concentrated in the first week after vaccination.  The estimated risk is about 1.5 excess cases per 100,000 first doses administered.  This risk is fairly small, amounting to roughly 1/10 of the risk seen after the original rotavirus vaccine (called Rotashield) that was used in 1998-1999, before it was withdrawn from the market. We also found evidence that Rotarix increases the risk of intussusception.  However, the number of infants receiving Rotarix and the number getting intussusception after Rotarix were too small to allow us to estimate the risk after Rotarix with any precision. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Nutrition, Pediatrics / 14.01.2014

Flavia Indrio, MD Department of Pediatrics Aldo Moro University of Bari Bari, ItalyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Flavia Indrio, MD Department of Pediatrics Aldo Moro University of Bari Bari, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding is that for the first time the use in prevention instead of treatment with a probiotic for the colic regurgitation and constipation. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Nutrition, Pediatrics, University of Michigan / 14.01.2014

Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath, MSA Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann ArborMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath, MSA Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This study examined 2007-2012 commercialism trends in schools attended by nationally representative samples of US elementary and secondary students. While some measures showed significant decreases over time (especially beverage vending measures), most students at both elementary and secondary school levels continued to be exposed to school-based commercialism. Commercialism increased significantly with grade level. The most frequent type of commercialism varied by school level:  food coupons used as incentives was most common at the elementary school level, while exclusive beverage contracts were the most prevalent type of commercialism for middle and high school students. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Pediatrics, Stanford / 11.01.2014

Naama Barnea-Goraly M.D. Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research Stanford UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Naama Barnea-Goraly M.D. Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research Stanford University MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our main findings showed that compared with age and sex matched controls, children with type 1 diabetes have significant differences in white matter structure in widespread brain regions. Within the type 1 diabetes group, earlier onset of diabetes and longer duration were associated with greater alterations in white matter structure. In addition, measures of hyperglycemia and glucose variability, but not hypoglycemia were associated with white matter structure; however, hypoglycemia exposure and the number of severe hypoglycemia events in our sample were too small to identify statistically meaningful differences. Finally, we observed a significant association between white matter structure and cognitive ability in children with type 1 diabetes, but not in controls. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Pediatrics / 07.01.2014

William P. Meehan III, MD Director, Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention Director, Sports Concussion Clinic, Boston Children?s Hospital 9 Hope Avenue, Suite 100 Waltham, MA 02453MedicalResearch.com Interview with: William P. Meehan III, MD Director, Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention Director, Sports Concussion Clinic, Boston Children?s Hospital Waltham, MA 02453 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Meehan: The study has 2 findings that I believe are the most worthy of attention.  First, although cognitive rest has been recommended as a therapy for concussion for several years now, there has been little data showing its effect. This lack of data has led to variability in the recommendations for cognitive rest, with some experts not recommending it all, and others recommending athletes avoid all cognitive activity, lying alone in a dark room even, until they are completely recovered.  As you can imaging, this has generated controversy.  We believe this is the first study showing the independent, beneficial effect of limiting cognitive activity on recovery from concussion. (more…)
Author Interviews, Duke, JAMA, Pediatrics, Sexual Health / 31.12.2013

Stewart C. Alexander, PhD Department of Medicine Duke University Medical Center Durham, North CarolinaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Stewart C. Alexander, PhD Department of Medicine Duke University Medical Center Durham, North Carolina MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Alexander: Adolescents are reluctant to talk about sex with their doctors and won't raise the topic with their doctors. For physicians, there are common and valid barriers to talking about sexuality with adolescents, including time pressures and discomfort with the topic. Two-thirds of adolescents in our study had some sexuality talk during their annual visit, lasting 36 seconds long. Girls, African Americans, and older teens were more likely to receive sexuality talk. Additionally, longer visits and visits where the physician talked confidentially with their adolescent patient were more likely to have sexuality talk. Our study suggest that sexuality conversations in annual visits can be improved. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pain Research, Pediatrics / 26.12.2013

Scott W. Powers, PhD APBB Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology and Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OhioMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Scott W. Powers, PhD APBB Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology and Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Powers: Cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline resulted in greater reductions in days with headache and migraine-related disability compared with the use of headache education plus amitriptyline.  Children and adolescents with chronic migraine began the study with an average of 21 days with headache per 28 days and disability measured in the severe range.  After 20 weeks of treatment, 2 out of 3 participants in the CBT group had a 50% or greater reduction in headache days and 3 out of 4 had a reduction in disability to the mild to none range. (more…)
Author Interviews, Flu - Influenza, NEJM, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 15.12.2013

Ghassan Dbaibo, M.D., FAAP Professor and Vice-Chair for Research and Faculty Development Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine Head, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Director, Center for Infectious Diseases Research Professor, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics American University of Beirut Beirut, LebanonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ghassan Dbaibo, M.D., FAAP Professor and Vice-Chair for Research and Faculty Development Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine Head, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Director, Center for Infectious Diseases Research Professor, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics American University of Beirut Beirut, Lebanon MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dbaibo:
  • 55% efficacy (95% CI 39–67%) for prevention of all influenza
  • These results are comparable with other estimates of efficacy and effectiveness for trivalent inactivated flu vaccines in this age group
  •  73% efficacy (97.5% CI 47–86%) for prevention of moderate-to-severe influenza
  • By preventing moderate-to-severe influenza, vaccination prevented the most clinically consequential outcomes of infection, reducing hospitalisations by 75% and medical visits by 69%.
  • Seroprotection rates of more than 95% for each of the four influenza strains in the vaccine
  • An acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 14.12.2013

Sylvie Mrug, PhD Departments of Psychology and Health Behavior University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama;MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sylvie Mrug, PhD Departments of Psychology and Health Behavior University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama;   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mrug: Experiencing early puberty and having a best friend who misbehaves at age 11 both contribute to more aggressive and delinquent behavior in adolescent girls. Although most of these effects are transient and disappear by age 16, early maturing girls are at risk for continually higher delinquent behavior. Early puberty also seems to make girls more vulnerable to negative peer influences. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Transplantation / 10.12.2013

Rachel Patzer, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Emory University School of Medicine Department of Surgery, Division of TransplantationMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rachel Patzer, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Emory University School of Medicine Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Patzer: We found significant racial/ethnic differences in important health outcomes among pediatric and adolescent patients who received a liver transplantation at a large transplant center in the Southeastern U.S., where rates of mortality and graft failure were higher among minorities compared to white patients. (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, BMJ, Pediatrics / 06.12.2013

Dr. Meghan Azad, PhD Banting Postdoctoral Fellow Department of Pediatrics University of AlbertaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Meghan Azad, PhD Banting Postdoctoral Fellow Department of Pediatrics University of Alberta MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Azad: In this study, our goal was to evaluate the clinical evidence for using probiotics (live "healthy bacteria") to prevent childhood asthma.  We reviewed the results of 20 clinical trials involving over 4000 infants, where probiotics were administered during pregnancy or the first year of life, and found no evidence to support the use of probiotics for asthma prevention.  Children receiving probiotics were just as likely to develop asthma as children receiving placebo.  Similarly, there was no effect of probiotic supplementation on the development of wheezing. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Nutrition, Pediatrics, University of Michigan / 01.12.2013

Richard Schwartz, Ph.D. Professor, Associate Dean for Graduate Academic and Student Affairs College of Natural Science Michigan State University Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-4320MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Richard Schwartz, Ph.D. Professor, Associate Dean for Graduate Academic and Student Affairs College of Natural Science Michigan State University Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-4320 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schwartz: The main finding is that exposure to a high fat diet from the age of puberty onwards hastened the development of chemical carcinogen-induced breast cancer in absence of weight gain. We also found that prior to the appearance of any tumors, we could detect changes in the mammary gland that included increased cellular proliferation, increased vascularity, and changes in immune function. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Pediatrics / 28.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Marzia Lazzerini, PhD Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo,” Trieste, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In children and adolescent with Crohn’s disease refractory to first and second line treatment, thalidomide was effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission. About 60% of children achieved clinical remission, and clinical remission was  maintained for a mean time of 180 weeks. The main reason to stop thalidomide was peripheral neuropathy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, McGill, Pediatrics / 25.11.2013

Dr. Michael Shevell Chair of the Pediatrics Department at the McGill Faculty of Medicine and Pediatrician-in-Chief at the Montreal Children’s Hospital and the McGill University Health CentreMedicalResearch.com Interview Dr. Michael Shevell Chair of the Pediatrics Department at the McGill Faculty of Medicine and Pediatrician-in-Chief at the Montreal Children’s Hospital and the McGill University Health Centre MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Shevell: At risk term infants who have spent some time in a Level III NICU after birth are at substantially increased later risk for an autistic spectrum disorder. Frequently this disorder occurs in conjunction with substantial co-morbidity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 22.11.2013

Dr.. Melissa HoltMedicalResearch.com Melissa K. Holt, PhD School of Education, Boston University Boston, Massachusetts   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Dr. Holt: Results from this study indicated that among the sample of adolescents surveyed, bullies and bully-victims (i.e., youth who are both perpetrators and targets of bullying) engaged in more sexual risk taking behaviors than their peers.  Specifically, they were more likely to report casual sex and sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs. For instance, 33.8% of bullies and 23% of bully-victims reported sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs in contrast to 14% of youth not involved in bullying.  Notably, findings suggested that bullying involvement might be a more salient predictor of sexual risk taking for heterosexual than GLBTQ adolescents. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders / 19.11.2013

Dr. Kathryn Orzech  PhD Postdoctoral fellow,Charting the Digital Lifespan University of Dundee, Scotland, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Kathryn Orzech  PhD Postdoctoral fellow,Charting the Digital Lifespan University of Dundee, Scotland, UK   MedicalResesarch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Orzech: We found that acute illnesses, such as colds, flu, and gastroenteritis were more common among healthy adolescents with shorter sleep.  Specifically, our main analysis found that reported bouts of illness (analyzed on a bouts-of-illness-per-interview basis) declined with longer sleep for both male and female high school students.  Longer sleep was also generally protective against school absences that students attributed to illness. There were sex differences, with males reporting fewer illness bouts than females, even with similar sleep durations.  This is consistent with another recent study that showed a lower impact of shorter sleep on male adolescents (in that case the outcome was male adiposity), but more research is needed. We also conducted a secondary analysis to examine total sleep time in matched 6-day windows before illness and before wellness in the same adolescents. Although the number of participants who met our strict criteria for a healthy 6-day window before illness or wellness was only 18 (I was amazed at how difficult it was to find adolescents who reported being completely well for 6 consecutive days), we were able to see a trend in the data toward shorter sleep before illness vs. wellness. Because of the difficulty in comparing sleep before illness vs. wellness, we conducted a qualitative analysis as well, choosing two 17 year old males who were both shorter sleepers, but who reported very different illness profiles - 0 days of illness vs. 35 days of illness across the school term. An in-depth look at notes made by interviewers allowed us to create brief case studies to illustrate that not all shorter sleepers are alike.  More irregular sleep timing across weeknights and weekends (much shorter sleep during the week and longer sleep times on the weekend), and a preference for scheduling work and social time later in the evening hours may both contribute to differences in illness outcomes. (more…)