Allergies, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Metabolic Syndrome, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders, Surgical Research / 16.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nina Berentzen Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services National Institute for Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven The Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This study in 11-12 year old children shows that self-reported characteristics of sleep quality were not associated with blood pressure and HbA1c; and that in girls, but not in boys, some sleep characteristics were associated with anthropometric outcomes (BMI, waist circumference) and cholesterol levels. More specifically, in girls, longer time in bed was associated with lower BMI and waist circumference; having night-time awakenings with higher total cholesterol, going late to bed while rising early with higher total and HDL cholesterol; and feeling sleepy/tired during daytime with lower HDL cholesterol and with higher total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio. We report new findings for daytime outcomes of sleep quality that were not studied before in relation to cardiometabolic risk; e.g. difficulty with getting up in the morning, feeling rested after waking, and feeling sleepy or tired during the day. Our study therefore offers insight not only in characteristics of sleep at night, but also in consequences of sleep during the day. (more…)
Author Interviews, Chocolate, Nature, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 12.11.2013

Magdalena Cuenca García, PhD University of Granada Department of Physiology, School of Medicine Avd. Madrid 12; 18012 Granada (Spain)MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Magdalena Cuenca García, PhD University of Granada Department of Physiology, School of Medicine Avd. Madrid 12; 18012 Granada (Spain) MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that a higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower levels of central and total fatness in European adolescents. Of note is that the observed association was independent of total energy intake and saturated fat intake as well as objectively measured physical activity. In addition, results remained unchanged after adjusting for foods with high catechins concentration as fruit, vegetables and tea; as well as other products such as coffee that could influence the observed association between chocolate consumption and markers of total and central body fat. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Toxin Research / 11.11.2013

Mark A D’Andrea, MD, FACRO University Cancer and Diagnostic Centers Houston, TexasMedicalResearch.com interview with: Mark A D’Andrea, MD, FACRO University Cancer and Diagnostic Centers Houston, Texas MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? D’Andrea: Human exposure to benzene is associated with multiple adverse health effects leading to hematological malignancies including leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia and chromosomal aberrations. In addition, benzene exposure can affect a variety of organs such as the liver, kidney, and brain. Compared to adults, children have a higher susceptibility to environmental chemical exposures including benzene. In this study, we assessed the adverse health effects of the benzene exposure in children (< 17 years) following a flaring incident at the British petroleum refinery in the Texas City, Texas. The findings were compared with those children not exposed to the benzene. We found that white blood cell counts were significantly decreased in benzene exposed children compared with the unexposed children. Conversely, platelet counts were increased significantly in the benzene exposed group compared with the unexposed group. Similarly, benzene exposed children had significantly higher levels of serum creatinine levels than those unexposed to benzene. Furthermore, considered indicators of hepatic damage, the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase, and alanine amino transferase were elevated in the benzene exposed children compared with the unexposed children. Moreover, children exposed to benzene experienced somatic symptoms, with headache, unsteady gait, and memory loss being reported the most frequently occurring events, followed by upper respiratory symptoms cough, nausea/vomiting, skin rash, shortness of breath, wheezing, dizziness, chest pain, painful joints, and weight loss. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Pediatrics / 10.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com interview with: Martha Mullett, MD MPH Neonatology West Virginia Universty Ped&Neo 1 Medical Center Dr Morgantown, WV 26506Martha Mullett, MD MPH Neonatology West Virginia Universty Ped&Neo 1 Medical Center Dr Morgantown, WV 26506   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mullett: The unique findings in this study relate to differences in triglycerides (TG) in premature infants and small for gestational age (SGA) infants when in 5th grade, at which time the children are approximately 11 years old.  Premature infants have higher triglyceride levels in 5th grade than term infants.(p<.05)  This difference appears in those premature infants who become overweight/obese by this age, but this reaches only a trend level. (p=.058) SGA infants who become overweight/obese by 5th grade (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) have TG that are significantly higher than all other 5th grade groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 09.11.2013

Alastair Sutcliffe M.D., Ph.D. From the Institute of Child Health University College LondonMedicalResearch.com  Interview with: Alastair Sutcliffe M.D., Ph.D. From the Institute of Child Health University College London   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?   Dr. Sutcliffe: Good NEWS for couples who need assisted conception. All the births (106,000) from Great Britain over 18 years were linked to the National Childhood Cancer Registry from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (which has recorded all births sine 1991 by law.)Those children who showed up on both registries, had IVF conception and childhood cancer. We predicted the number we would expect from the known national childhood cancer rates. We found ALMOST IDENTICAL rates 108 in our group and 109 predicted. NO INCREASED RISK OF CANCER AFTER IVF CONCEPTION IN OFFSPRING. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Pediatrics / 07.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chris Fritz BSs PEZZ Center for Pediatric Endocrinology Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous physical activity (PA) behaviour in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase. 102 healthy school children were randomly placed in two groups. The control group continued three PE classes per week, whereas the intervention group had two out of three PE classes replaced by an individualised strength training program. At baseline there was no difference in anthropometry, body composition and PAEE between the groups. At the end of the training intervention, we found a significant increase of upper and lower body strength in the intervention group in boys and in girls. Boys significantly increased their PA by 10%. Without taking into account the energy expenditure during the strength training, the 10% PAEE increase corresponds to a weekly bike ride of 28 miles for a child of 40 kg body weight. Or in other words, an individualised school based strength training program increases energy expenditure outside the intervention by an equivalent of about 7kg of body fat corresponding to 10kg of chocolate per year. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 07.11.2013

Thomas H. Inge, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics Director of the Surgical Weight Loss Program for Teens Director for the Center for Bariatric Research and Innovation Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Thomas H. Inge, MD, PhD, FACS, FAAP Surgical Director, Surgical Weight Loss Program for Teens Director, Center for Bariatric Research and Innovation Attending Surgeon, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Professor, UC Department of Surgery Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Inge: The mean age of the 242 participants of this observational study was 17.1±1.6 years and the median BMI was 50.5 kg/m2.  Fifty-one percent demonstrated four or more major co-morbid conditions.  Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and adjustable gastric banding were performed in 66%, 28%, and 6% of subjects, respectively.  There were no deaths during the initial hospitalization or within 30 days of surgery; major complications were seen in 19 subjects (8%). Minor complications were noted in 36 subjects (15%).  All re-operations and 85% of re-admissions were related to WLS. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders, Weight Research / 05.11.2013

Chantelle Hart, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Public Health Center for Obesity Research & Education Department of Public Health 3223 N. Broad Street Philadelphia, PA 19140MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chantelle Hart, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Public Health Center for Obesity Research & Education Department of Public Health Philadelphia, PA 19140   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hart: Following one week of sleeping their typical amount, children 8-11 years old were asked to decrease and increase their time in bed by 1.5 hours/night for one week each in random order.  Compared to when children decreased their sleep, when they increased their sleep, they reported consuming 134 kcal/day fewer, had lower fasting levels of leptin, a hunger-regulating hormone that is also highly correlated with the amount of adipose tissue, and weighed approximately 0.5 lbs less.  Reported decreases in food intake were most pronounced later in the day. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 30.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview Jennifer M. Poti PhD Candidate, Nutritional Epidemiology University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Consumption of solid fat and added sugar (SoFAS) by children exceeds recommendations, but it was not known where kids obtain these “empty calories.” Analyzing data from over 22,000 US children, we found that children consumed about 1/3 of their calories as solid fat and added sugar for foods consumed from retail food stores (including grocery stores and supermarkets), schools, or fast food restaurants in 2009-2010, despite significant decreases from 1977 to 2010 at each location. These mean levels of empty calorie intake greatly exceeded recommended amounts not just for fast foods, but also for foods consumed from schools and from stores. For all survey years, foods consumed by children from schools were higher in solid fat content than foods obtained and consumed from retail food stores. (more…)
Author Interviews, Flu - Influenza, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 29.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Karen K. Wong, MD MPH Community Interventions for Infection Control Unit Division of Global Migration & Quarantine Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wong: There were 830 pediatric influenza-associated deaths reported to CDC during the 2004–2005 through 2011–2012 seasons; deaths occurred in children of all ages, and 43% had no high-risk medical conditions. Of children 6 months of age or older whose vaccination status was known, only 16% had been fully vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccine. (more…)
Author Interviews, Johns Hopkins, Pediatrics, Vitamin D / 24.10.2013

Meredith Atkinson, MD, MHS Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Division of Pediatric Nephrology Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD 21287 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Meredith Atkinson, MD, MHS Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Division of Pediatric Nephrology Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD 21287   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Atkinson: First, among a healthy cross-section of U.S. children, vitamin D deficiency defined as levels below 30 ng/mL (the currently accepted threshold for adequate vs. inadequate vitamin D) were associated with nearly twice the risk for anemia compared to those with sufficient vitamin D levels.  Secondly, when we looked specifically at Caucasian and African-American children, we found that children with the lowest vitamin D levels were at increased risk for anemia in both groups, but that the specific vitamin D level below which the anemia risk started to increase was much lower in the African-American children (12 ng/mL) than in the Caucasian children (20 mg/mL). (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 22.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Katherine Auger, MD, MSc Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Division of Hospital Medicine Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Auger: We examined hospitalization rates in infants for pertussis before versus after the recommendation to universally vaccinate all adolescents with Tdap.  We used mathematical modeling to predict the number of infant hospitalizations that would be expected without the Tdap vaccine policy.  We then compared these predicted numbers to the actual observed numbers of infant hospitalizations.  In 3 of the 4 years after Tdap vaccine policy, there were significantly fewer infant hospitalizations for pertussis than expected base on the predictions. (more…)
Cost of Health Care, Emergency Care, Pediatrics, University of Michigan / 20.10.2013

Adrianne Haggins, MD, MS University of Michigan Health System Department of Emergency Medicine Ann Arbor, MI  48109-5303MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adrianne Haggins, MD, MS University of Michigan Health System Department of Emergency Medicine Ann Arbor, MI  48109-5303 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Haggins: Since the implementation of the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) in 1997, the last national health care reform that broadly expanded insurance coverage, adolescent use of primary care and specialty care has increased substantially in comparison to no change seen among the comparison group (young adults, who were not covered).  Broadening insurance coverage for adolescents did not result in a decrease in emergency department use, while ED use in the comparison group increased over time.   (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 16.10.2013

Dr. Elizabeth V. Asztalos, MD, M.Sc., FRCPC Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre 2075 Bayview Ave., Room M4 230 Toronto, ON M4N 3M5MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Elizabeth V. Asztalos, MD, M.Sc., FRCPC Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre 2075 Bayview Ave., Room M4 230 Toronto, ON M4N 3M5   MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This study was focused to see if there were differences in the main neurodevelopmental outcomes of children whose mothers had participated in the original MACS trial. We found that there were no differences in the main outcomes of the trial as it related to the aspects of death and/or developmental. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 15.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ali Rowhani-Rahbar PhD, MD, MPH Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, California University of Washington Department of Epidemiology Health Sciences Seattle, WA 98195Dr. Ali Rowhani-Rahbar PhD, MD, MPH Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, California University of Washington Department of Epidemiology Health Sciences Seattle, WA 98195   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study? Answer: We found that the magnitude of increased risk of fever and seizures following immunization with the first dose of measles-containing vaccines during the second year of life depends on age.  Specifically, the risk of seizures attributable to the vaccine during the 7 to 10 days following vaccination was significantly greater among children 16-23 months of age (9.5 excess cases per 10,000 doses) than among children 12-15 months of age (4.0 excess cases per 10,000 doses). (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Pediatrics, Probiotics / 10.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Valerie Sung MBBS(Hons) FRACP MPH
NHMRC PhD Candidate Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, and Community Health Services Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Paediatrician, Centre for Community Child Health The Royal Children’s Hospital Parkville | 3052 | Victoria
 Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sung: The systematic review identified 12 studies (1825 infants)  that investigated the use of probiotics to treat or prevent infant colic (excessive crying of unknown cause in babies less than 3 months old). Three of the 5 treatment trials concluded probiotics effectively treat colic in breastfed babies; one suggested possible effectiveness in formula-fed babies with colic, and one suggested ineffectiveness in breastfed babies with colic. The three effective trials used the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in breastfed babies only; in two of these trials, the mothers were on a dairy-free diet. Five of the 7 prevention trials suggested probiotics to be ineffective in preventing colic. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics, Social Issues / 09.10.2013

Dr. Elisabeth Jeppesen MPH, PhD-fellow National Resource Center for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology, Oslo University, Hospital, The Norwegian Radiumhospitalet, OslMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Elisabeth Jeppesen MPH, PhD-fellow National Resource Center for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology, Oslo University, Hospital, The Norwegian Radiumhospitalet, Oslo, Norway mobil +47 951 05271 
Wisit: Ullernchaussen 70 (Radiumhospitalet) www.oslo-universitetssykehus.no MedicalResearch.com: What is the background of this study? Answer: Each year a considerable number of parents with children younger than 18 years of age are affected by cancer in a parent. Cancer in one of the parents might represent a potentially traumatic event and thereby may be a risk factor for psychosocial problems in the offspring. So far, teenagers’ psychosocial responses to parental cancer have only been studied to a limited extent in controlled trials. Using a trauma theory perspective many studies have shown significant direct associations between parental cancer and psychosocial problems in teenagers. However, the literature also indicates that most children and teenagers have normal stress reactions to such events. In order to identify the need for eventual prevention and intervention among teenagers exposed to such a stressor, we need more empirical knowledge of their psychosocial situation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Gluten, Nutrition, Pediatrics / 08.10.2013

Ketil Stordal Researcher/consultant paediatrician National Institute of Public Health NorwayMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ketil Stordal Researcher/consultant paediatrician National Institute of Public Health Norway MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study identified 324 children with celiac disease from a cohort of 82 000. Start of gluten in the diet later than 6 months was associated with a 27% increased risk of celiac disease compared to those starting during the 5th or 6th month of life. Breastfeeding was not protective; the duration of breastfeeding was slightly longer among children with celiac disease (10.4 vs 9.9 months) and breastfeeding at the time of gluten introduction was not associated with the later risk of celiac disease. The participating mothers had submitted detailed data since pregnancy including infant feeding practices, and these were collected before onset of the disease. (more…)
Hospital Acquired, Infections, Outcomes & Safety, Pediatrics / 07.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elias Iosifidis, MD, PhD Pediatric Infectious Disease Fellow Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Hippokration Hospital Thessaloniki, Greece MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Iosifidis: A large outbreak of VRE colonization was found in neonates hospitalized in an intensive care unit (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, NICU) after the implementation of an active surveillance program. Both high incidence of VRE colonization (or “colonization pressure”) and antibiotic use promoted VRE spread according to the results of the case control study. No proven sources of VRE were found (in local hospital or even in local livestock). A multifaceted management was implemented and included enhanced infection control measures, active surveillance cultures, cohorting of colonized patients, daily audits and optimization of antibiotic therapy. Although the outbreak had a biphasic pattern (monoclonal first wave followed by a polyclonal second wave) strict adherence to the aforementioned bundle of actions was proved essential for reducing VRE colonized cases. During the study period no new VRE infection occurred in neonates. (more…)
ADHD, Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics / 04.10.2013

Tanya Froehlich, MD, MS Associate Professor Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 4002 Cincinnati, OH  45229MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tanya Froehlich, MD, MS Associate Professor Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 4002 Cincinnati, OH  45229 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Froehlich: In a national sample of 2 to 5 year olds, the likelihood of psychotropic prescription peaked in the mid-2000s (at 1.5%), then stabilized in the late 2000s (to 1.0%). Increased psychotropic use in boys, white children, and those lacking private health insurance was documented. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 02.10.2013

 Shaon Sengupta, MD MBBS MPH Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shaon Sengupta, MD MBBS MPH Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sengupta: In this study we looked at all full-term neonates, which are defined as those born between 37 weeks 0 days to 41 weeks 6 days. Early term deliveries (37–38 weeks) are a significant part of all full-term deliveries, but are not the norm. In our study, 27% of neonates were born early term (37-38 weeks) while almost 62% were born at or after 39 weeks (term neonates). Similar data has been reported by other established sources of vital statistics. While traditionally, full term neonates are perceived to be a homogenous low-risk group, the findings from our study urge the pediatrics/neonatal provider to recognize early term (37-38 weeks) neonates as a higher risk group. They have significantly higher risk of NICU admission, respiratory morbidity, hypoglycemia, need for IV fluids and antibiotics. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 25.09.2013

Spencer P. Bass, MD Twenty-First Century Professor of Family Medicine Director, International Family Medicine Clinic Department of Family Medicine University of Virginia, PO Box 800729 Charlottesville, VA  22908-072MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Fern R. Hauck, MD, MS Spencer P. Bass, MD Twenty-First Century Professor of Family Medicine Director, International Family Medicine Clinic Department of Family Medicine University of Virginia, PO Box 800729 Charlottesville, VA  22908-072 Co-author of "14 Ways to Protect Your Baby from SIDS" (www.parentingpress.com/sids.html) MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hauck: We looked at data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, which followed mother from pregnancy through the first year of infant life. Mothers received several surveys that asked about infant feeding and bedsharing (sleeping with their infant in the same bed or other sleep surface). We found that mothers who bedshared for the longest time had the longest duration of breastfeeding compared with mothers who did not bedshare or bedshared for shorter times. Breastfeeding duration was also longer among mothers who were better educated, were white, had previously breastfed another child, had planned to breastfeed this baby, and had not returned to work in the first year after the baby was born. (more…)
Author Interviews, MRSA, Pediatrics / 23.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Martha Iwamoto, MD, MPH Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Iwamoto: We have been successful in decreasing invasive MRSA infections among infants younger than 3 months, mostly due to declines in hospital –onset infections in NICUs. However, more needs to be done among pediatric patients older than 3 months, especially those in the community settings and without recent healthcare exposures. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 23.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Selma Salihovic, Doctoral student Center for Developmental Research Örebro University MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Salihovic: Although previous research has examined the stability of psychopathic traits, our study offer a more nuanced perspective on development. Rather than asking whether psychopathic traits simply increase or decrease in adolescence, we asked about patterns of change for youths with different initial level of psychopathic traits. In this way, we could tease apart those youths with extreme levels from those with low and more transient levels, and follow their unique trajectories over four years. We could see that even among the youths with the highest levels there was a decreasing trend in two out of three core aspects of psychopathy. Although the degree of change was small, it was still a naturally occurring pattern for these youths, which raises the question whether an intervention designed to reduce these levels would have provided even a steeper decrease. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 18.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gianluca Gini, PhD and Tiziana Pozzoli, PhD Department of Developmental and Social Psychology University of Padua, Padua, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Results of this meta-analysis show that bullied children are twice as likely as non-bullied children to experience psychosomatic symptoms (e.g., headache, stomachache, backache, abdominal pain, dizziness,  sleeping problems, poor appetite, bedwetting, skin problems, vomiting), especially in samples that included an higher proportion of boys.  Importantly, the same result was found not only with cross-sectional studies but also in a meta-analysis of six studies that employed a longitudinal design. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Exercise - Fitness, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 18.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ronald J. Iannotti, PhD Prevention Research Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland Trends in Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Diet, and BMI Among US Adolescents, 2001–2009 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Iannotti: Although average BMI percentile increased from 2001 to 2005 it did not increase from 2005 to 2009. This is consistent with some recent studies that suggest the increase in overweight and obesity may be leveling off. We suggest that we may be 'bending the curve'. During the same period, physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables increased while television watching and consumption of sweets and sweetened beverages decreased. We cannot say whether television watching was replaced with more time spent on computers but we did not find an increase in computer use from 2005 to 2009. (more…)
Alcohol, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 13.09.2013

Svetlana Popova, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D. Senior Scientist, Social and Epidemiological Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Assistant Professor, Epidemiology Division Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Assistant Professor, Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto Graduate Faculty Associate Member, Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto CAMH, 33 Russell Street, Room # T507 Toronto Ontario, Canada M5S 2S1MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Svetlana Popova, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D. Senior Scientist, Social and Epidemiological Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Assistant Professor, Epidemiology Division Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Assistant Professor, Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto Graduate Faculty Associate Member, Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto CAMH, 33 Russell Street, Room # T507 Toronto Ontario, Canada M5S 2S1 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Popova: We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of internationally published and unpublished studies that reported the prevalence of FAS and/or FASD in all types of child care systems (e.g., orphanage, foster care, boarding school, adoption centre, or child welfare system). The primary objective was to estimate a pooled (combined) prevalence for FAS and FASD in various child care systems using data from existing studies that used an Active Case Ascertainment method (when researchers/clinicians actively seek and diagnose FASD cases). The available data was analyzed by using a standard statistical technique (called meta-analysis). This study revealed that the vast majority of existing studies report that the prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the various child-care settings in the different countries is extremely high. Our analysis of these studies demonstrated that the pooled prevalence of FAS in child care settings (6%) was found to be approximately 9-30 times higher than the prevalence of FAS in the general population of North America, which is reported to range from 2 to 7 cases per 1,000 individuals in the USA and 1 per 1,000 in Canada. Thus, children in care represent a high-risk population for FASD. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 11.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Elsie Taveras Massachusetts General Hospital for Children Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics 100 Cambridge St, 15th Floor Boston, MA 02114Dr. Elsie Taveras Massachusetts General Hospital for Children Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics 100 Cambridge St, 15th Floor Boston, MA 02114   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Taveras: The main findings of the study were that, overall, the body mass index of children in the intervention group dropped an average of 0.18, while it rose 0.21 in the control group. Children in the intervention group were sleeping about 45 minutes longer than children in the control group. Time spent watching television on weekends dropped about an hour per day in the intervention group, leading to a significant difference from the control group, which increased weekend TV viewing. Both groups had a small reduction in weekday TV viewing, with a greater decrease in the intervention group, as well. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Pediatrics / 11.09.2013

David R. Fulton, M.D. Associate Cardiologist-in-Chief for Administration Tommy Kaplan Chair in Cardiovascular Studies Chief, Cardiology Outpatient Services Department of Cardiology Children's Hospital Boston Boston, MA 02115David R. Fulton, M.D. Associate Cardiologist-in-Chief for Administration Tommy Kaplan Chair in Cardiovascular Studies Chief, Cardiology Outpatient Services Department of Cardiology Children's Hospital Boston Boston, MA 02115 MedicalResearch.com:   What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Fulton: The main findings of this study demonstrated that using a quality improvement methodology (SCAMPs), a diverse population of children and adolescents with chest pain could be managed  with relative uniformity and cost effectiveness in a multi-center collaborative.  Only 2 patients of the 1016 children who formed the basis for this review were shown to have a cardiac etiology.   The clinicians were able to screen and reach a diagnostic conclusion in a  large segment of this population using history, physical examination and ECG. (more…)