MedicalResearch.com Interview with: W. Katherine Yih Ph.D., M.P.H
Department of Population Medicine
Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Yih: The main findings are that vaccination with the first dose of RotaTeq is associated with a small increase in the risk of intussusception, which is concentrated in the first week after vaccination. The estimated risk is about 1.5 excess cases per 100,000 first doses administered. This risk is fairly small, amounting to roughly 1/10 of the risk seen after the original rotavirus vaccine (called Rotashield) that was used in 1998-1999, before it was withdrawn from the market.
We also found evidence that Rotarix increases the risk of intussusception. However, the number of infants receiving Rotarix and the number getting intussusception after Rotarix were too small to allow us to estimate the risk after Rotarix with any precision. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Flavia Indrio, MD
Department of Pediatrics
Aldo Moro University of Bari
Bari, ItalyMedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer:The main finding is that for the first time the use in prevention instead of treatment with a probiotic for the colic regurgitation and constipation.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath, MSA
Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: This study examined 2007-2012 commercialism trends in schools attended by nationally representative samples of US elementary and secondary students.
While some measures showed significant decreases over time (especially
beverage vending measures), most students at both elementary and secondary
school levels continued to be exposed to school-based commercialism.
Commercialism increased significantly with grade level. The most frequent
type of commercialism varied by school level: food coupons used as
incentives was most common at the elementary school level, while exclusive
beverage contracts were the most prevalent type of commercialism for middle
and high school students.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Naama Barnea-Goraly M.D.
Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: Our main findings showed that compared with age and sex matched controls, children with type 1 diabetes have significant differences in white matter structure in widespread brain regions. Within the type 1 diabetes group, earlier onset of diabetes and longer duration were associated with greater alterations in white matter structure. In addition, measures of hyperglycemia and glucose variability, but not hypoglycemia were associated with white matter structure; however, hypoglycemia exposure and the number of severe hypoglycemia events in our sample were too small to identify statistically meaningful differences. Finally, we observed a significant association between white matter structure and cognitive ability in children with type 1 diabetes, but not in controls.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: William P. Meehan III, MD
Director, Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention
Director, Sports Concussion Clinic, Boston Children?s Hospital
Waltham, MA 02453
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study?Dr. Meehan: The study has 2 findings that I believe are the most worthy of attention. First, although cognitive rest has been recommended as a therapy for concussion for several years now, there has been little data showing its effect. This lack of data has led to variability in the recommendations for cognitive rest, with some experts not recommending it all, and others recommending athletes avoid all cognitive activity, lying alone in a dark room even, until they are completely recovered. As you can imaging, this has generated controversy. We believe this is the first study showing the independent, beneficial effect of limiting cognitive activity on recovery from concussion.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Stewart C. Alexander, PhD
Department of Medicine
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, North Carolina
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Alexander: Adolescents are reluctant to talk about sex with their doctors and won't raise the topic with their doctors. For physicians, there are common and valid barriers to talking about sexuality with adolescents, including time pressures and discomfort with the topic. Two-thirds of adolescents in our study had some sexuality talk during their annual visit, lasting 36 seconds long. Girls, African Americans, and older teens were more likely to receive sexuality talk. Additionally, longer visits and visits where the physician talked confidentially with their adolescent patient were more likely to have sexuality talk. Our study suggest that sexuality conversations in annual visits can be improved.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Scott W. Powers, PhD APBB
Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology and
Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Powers: Cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline resulted in greater reductions in days with headache and migraine-related disability compared with the use of headache education plus amitriptyline. Children and adolescents with chronic migraine began the study with an average of 21 days with headache per 28 days and disability measured in the severe range. After 20 weeks of treatment, 2 out of 3 participants in the CBT group had a 50% or greater reduction in headache days and 3 out of 4 had a reduction in disability to the mild to none range.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Ghassan Dbaibo, M.D., FAAP
Professor and Vice-Chair for Research and Faculty Development
Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Head, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Director, Center for Infectious Diseases Research
Professor, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics
American University of Beirut Beirut, Lebanon
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Dbaibo:
55% efficacy (95% CI 39–67%) for prevention of all influenza
These results are comparable with other estimates of efficacy and effectiveness for trivalent inactivated flu vaccines in this age group
73% efficacy (97.5% CI 47–86%) for prevention of moderate-to-severe influenza
By preventing moderate-to-severe influenza, vaccination prevented the most clinically consequential outcomes of infection, reducing hospitalisations by 75% and medical visits by 69%.
Seroprotection rates of more than 95% for each of the four influenza strains in the vaccine
An acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Sylvie Mrug, PhD
Departments of Psychology and Health Behavior
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama;
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Mrug: Experiencing early puberty and having a best friend who misbehaves at age 11 both contribute to more aggressive and delinquent behavior in adolescent girls. Although most of these effects are transient and disappear by age 16, early maturing girls are at risk for continually higher delinquent behavior. Early puberty also seems to make girls more vulnerable to negative peer influences.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Rachel Patzer, PhD, MPH
Emory University School of Medicine
Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Patzer: We found significant racial/ethnic differences in important health outcomes among pediatric and adolescent patients who received a liver transplantation at a large transplant center in the Southeastern U.S., where rates of mortality and graft failure were higher among minorities compared to white patients.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Meghan Azad, PhD
Banting Postdoctoral Fellow
Department of Pediatrics
University of Alberta
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Azad: In this study, our goal was to evaluate the clinical evidence for using probiotics (live "healthy bacteria") to prevent childhood asthma. We reviewed the results of 20 clinical trials involving over 4000 infants, where probiotics were administered during pregnancy or the first year of life, and found no evidence to support the use of probiotics for asthma prevention. Children receiving probiotics were just as likely to develop asthma as children receiving placebo. Similarly, there was no effect of probiotic supplementation on the development of wheezing.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Richard Schwartz, Ph.D.
Professor, Associate Dean for Graduate Academic and Student Affairs College of Natural Science Michigan State University
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-4320
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Schwartz: The main finding is that exposure to a high fat diet from the age of puberty onwards hastened the development of chemical carcinogen-induced breast cancer in absence of weight gain. We also found that prior to the appearance of any tumors, we could detect changes in the mammary gland that included increased cellular proliferation, increased vascularity, and changes in immune function.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with Marzia Lazzerini, PhD
Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo,”
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: In children and adolescent with Crohn’s disease refractory to first and second line treatment, thalidomide was effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission. About 60% of children achieved clinical remission, and clinical remission was maintained for a mean time of 180 weeks. The main reason to stop thalidomide was peripheral neuropathy.
MedicalResearch.com InterviewDr. Michael Shevell
Chair of the Pediatrics Department at the McGill Faculty of Medicine and Pediatrician-in-Chief at the Montreal Children’s Hospital and the McGill University Health Centre
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Shevell: At risk term infants who have spent some time in a Level III NICU after birth are at substantially increased later risk for an autistic spectrum disorder. Frequently this disorder occurs in conjunction with substantial co-morbidity.
MedicalResearch.comMelissa K. Holt, PhD
School of Education, Boston University
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?Dr. Holt: Results from this study indicated that among the sample of adolescents surveyed, bullies and bully-victims (i.e., youth who are both perpetrators and targets of bullying) engaged in more sexual risk taking behaviors than their peers. Specifically, they were more likely to report casual sex and sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs. For instance, 33.8% of bullies and 23% of bully-victims reported sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs in contrast to 14% of youth not involved in bullying. Notably, findings suggested that bullying involvement might be a more salient predictor of sexual risk taking for heterosexual than GLBTQ adolescents.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Kathryn Orzech PhD
Postdoctoral fellow,Charting the Digital Lifespan
University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
MedicalResesarch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Orzech: We found that acute illnesses, such as colds, flu, and gastroenteritis were more common among healthy adolescents with shorter sleep. Specifically, our main analysis found that reported bouts of illness (analyzed on a bouts-of-illness-per-interview basis) declined with longer sleep for both male and female high school students. Longer sleep was also generally protective against school absences that students attributed to illness. There were sex differences, with males reporting fewer illness bouts than females, even with similar sleep durations. This is consistent with another recent study that showed a lower impact of shorter sleep on male adolescents (in that case the outcome was male adiposity), but more research is needed.
We also conducted a secondary analysis to examine total sleep time in matched 6-day windows before illness and before wellness in the same adolescents. Although the number of participants who met our strict criteria for a healthy 6-day window before illness or wellness was only 18 (I was amazed at how difficult it was to find adolescents who reported being completely well for 6 consecutive days), we were able to see a trend in the data toward shorter sleep before illness vs. wellness. Because of the difficulty in comparing sleep before illness vs. wellness, we conducted a qualitative analysis as well, choosing two 17 year old males who were both shorter sleepers, but who reported very different illness profiles - 0 days of illness vs. 35 days of illness across the school term. An in-depth look at notes made by interviewers allowed us to create brief case studies to illustrate that not all shorter sleepers are alike. More irregular sleep timing across weeknights and weekends (much shorter sleep during the week and longer sleep times on the weekend), and a preference for scheduling work and social time later in the evening hours may both contribute to differences in illness outcomes.
Gun Violence Trends in MoviesBrad J. Bushman, PhD
Professor of Communication and Psychology, Margaret Hall and Robert Randal Rinehart Chair of Mass Communication
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio;
VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Bushman: Gun violence in PG-13 movies has tripled since 1985, the year the PG-13 rating was introduced. When the PG-13 rating was introduced, PG-13 films had about as much gun violence as G and PG films. Now PG-13 films have significantly more gun violence than R-rated films.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Nina Berentzen
Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: This study in 11-12 year old children shows that self-reported characteristics of sleep quality were not associated with blood pressure and HbA1c; and that in girls, but not in boys, some sleep characteristics were associated with anthropometric outcomes (BMI, waist circumference) and cholesterol levels. More specifically, in girls, longer time in bed was associated with lower BMI and waist circumference; having night-time awakenings with higher total cholesterol, going late to bed while rising early with higher total and HDL cholesterol; and feeling sleepy/tired during daytime with lower HDL cholesterol and with higher total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio. We report new findings for daytime outcomes of sleep quality that were not studied before in relation to cardiometabolic risk; e.g. difficulty with getting up in the morning, feeling rested after waking, and feeling sleepy or tired during the day. Our study therefore offers insight not only in characteristics of sleep at night, but also in consequences of sleep during the day.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Magdalena Cuenca García, PhD
University of Granada
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine
Avd. Madrid 12; 18012 Granada (Spain)
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that a higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower levels of central and total fatness in European adolescents. Of note is that the observed association was independent of total energy intake and saturated fat intake as well as objectively measured physical activity. In addition, results remained unchanged after adjusting for foods with high catechins concentration as fruit, vegetables and tea; as well as other products such as coffee that could influence the observed association between chocolate consumption and markers of total and central body fat.
MedicalResearch.com interview with: Mark A D’Andrea, MD, FACRO
University Cancer and Diagnostic Centers
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?D’Andrea: Human exposure to benzene is associated with multiple adverse health effects leading to hematological malignancies including leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia and chromosomal aberrations. In addition, benzene exposure can affect a variety of organs such as the liver, kidney, and brain. Compared to adults, children have a higher susceptibility to environmental chemical exposures including benzene. In this study, we assessed the adverse health effects of the benzene exposure in children (< 17 years) following a flaring incident at the British petroleum refinery in the Texas City, Texas. The findings were compared with those children not exposed to the benzene. We found that white blood cell counts were significantly decreased in benzene exposed children compared with the unexposed children. Conversely, platelet counts were increased significantly in the benzene exposed group compared with the unexposed group. Similarly, benzene exposed children had significantly higher levels of serum creatinine levels than those unexposed to benzene. Furthermore, considered indicators of hepatic damage, the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase, and alanine amino transferase were elevated in the benzene exposed children compared with the unexposed children. Moreover, children exposed to benzene experienced somatic symptoms, with headache, unsteady gait, and memory loss being reported the most frequently occurring events, followed by upper respiratory symptoms cough, nausea/vomiting, skin rash, shortness of breath, wheezing, dizziness, chest pain, painful joints, and weight loss.
MedicalResearch.com interview with:Martha Mullett, MD MPH
West Virginia Universty Ped&Neo 1 Medical Center Dr
Morgantown, WV 26506
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Mullett:The unique findings in this study relate to differences in triglycerides (TG) in premature infants and small for gestational age (SGA) infants when in 5th grade, at which time the children are approximately 11 years old. Premature infants have higher triglyceride levels in 5th grade than term infants.(p<.05) This difference appears in those premature infants who become overweight/obese by this age, but this reaches only a trend level. (p=.058) SGA infants who become overweight/obese by 5th grade (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) have TG that are significantly higher than all other 5th grade groups.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Alastair Sutcliffe M.D., Ph.D.
From the Institute of Child Health
University College London
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sutcliffe:Good NEWS for couples who need assisted conception. All the births (106,000) from Great Britain over 18 years were linked to the National Childhood Cancer Registry from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (which has recorded all births sine 1991 by law.)Those children who showed up on both registries, had IVF conception and childhood cancer.
We predicted the number we would expect from the known national childhood cancer rates. We found ALMOST IDENTICAL rates 108 in our group and 109 predicted. NO INCREASED RISK OF CANCER AFTER IVF CONCEPTION IN OFFSPRING.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Chris Fritz BSs
PEZZ Center for Pediatric Endocrinology Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous physical activity (PA) behaviour in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase.
102 healthy school children were randomly placed in two groups. The control group continued three PE classes per week, whereas the intervention group had two out of three PE classes replaced by an individualised strength training program. At baseline there was no difference in anthropometry, body composition and PAEE between the groups. At the end of the training intervention, we found a significant increase of upper and lower body strength in the intervention group in boys and in girls. Boys significantly increased their PA by 10%. Without taking into account the energy expenditure during the strength training, the 10% PAEE increase corresponds to a weekly bike ride of 28 miles for a child of 40 kg body weight. Or in other words, an individualised school based strength training program increases energy expenditure outside the intervention by an equivalent of about 7kg of body fat corresponding to 10kg of chocolate per year.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Thomas H. Inge, MD, PhD, FACS, FAAP
Surgical Director, Surgical Weight Loss Program for Teens
Director, Center for Bariatric Research and Innovation
Attending Surgeon, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center
Professor, UC Department of Surgery
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Inge: The mean age of the 242 participants of this observational study was 17.1±1.6 years and the median BMI was 50.5 kg/m2. Fifty-one percent demonstrated four or more major co-morbid conditions. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and adjustable gastric banding were performed in 66%, 28%, and 6% of subjects, respectively. There were no deaths during the initial hospitalization or within 30 days of surgery; major complications were seen in 19 subjects (8%). Minor complications were noted in 36 subjects (15%). All re-operations and 85% of re-admissions were related to WLS. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Chantelle Hart, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Public Health
Center for Obesity Research & Education
Department of Public Health
Philadelphia, PA 19140
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Hart: Following one week of sleeping their typical amount, children 8-11 years old were asked to decrease and increase their time in bed by 1.5 hours/night for one week each in random order. Compared to when children decreased their sleep, when they increased their sleep, they reported consuming 134 kcal/day fewer, had lower fasting levels of leptin, a hunger-regulating hormone that is also highly correlated with the amount of adipose tissue, and weighed approximately 0.5 lbs less. Reported decreases in food intake were most pronounced later in the day.
MedicalResearch.com InterviewJennifer M. Poti
PhD Candidate, Nutritional Epidemiology
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: Consumption of solid fat and added sugar (SoFAS) by children exceeds recommendations, but it was not known where kids obtain these “empty calories.” Analyzing data from over 22,000 US children, we found that children consumed about 1/3 of their calories as solid fat and added sugar for foods consumed from retail food stores (including grocery stores and supermarkets), schools, or fast food restaurants in 2009-2010, despite significant decreases from 1977 to 2010 at each location. These mean levels of empty calorie intake greatly exceeded recommended amounts not just for fast foods, but also for foods consumed from schools and from stores. For all survey years, foods consumed by children from schools were higher in solid fat content than foods obtained and consumed from retail food stores.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Karen K. Wong, MD MPH
Community Interventions for Infection Control Unit
Division of Global Migration & Quarantine
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Wong: There were 830 pediatric influenza-associated deaths reported to CDC during the 2004–2005 through 2011–2012 seasons; deaths occurred in children of all ages, and 43% had no high-risk medical conditions. Of children 6 months of age or older whose vaccination status was known, only 16% had been fully vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccine.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Meredith Atkinson, MD, MHS
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
Division of Pediatric Nephrology
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Baltimore, MD 21287
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Atkinson: First, among a healthy cross-section of U.S. children, vitamin D deficiency defined as levels below 30 ng/mL (the currently accepted threshold for adequate vs. inadequate vitamin D) were associated with nearly twice the risk for anemia compared to those with sufficient vitamin D levels. Secondly, when we looked specifically at Caucasian and African-American children, we found that children with the lowest vitamin D levels were at increased risk for anemia in both groups, but that the specific vitamin D level below which the anemia risk started to increase was much lower in the African-American children (12 ng/mL) than in the Caucasian children (20 mg/mL).
MedicalResearch.com Interview withKatherine Auger, MD, MSc
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
Division of Hospital Medicine
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Auger: We examined hospitalization rates in infants for pertussis before versus after the recommendation to universally vaccinate all adolescents with Tdap. We used mathematical modeling to predict the number of infant hospitalizations that would be expected without the Tdap vaccine policy. We then compared these predicted numbers to the actual observed numbers of infant hospitalizations. In 3 of the 4 years after Tdap vaccine policy, there were significantly fewer infant hospitalizations for pertussis than expected base on the predictions.
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