MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Jonathan Silverman, MD
Department of Pediatrics
University of Washington in Seattle, Washington
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
Dr. Silverman: We looked at the incidence of magnet foreign body injuries in children between 2002-2011, using a Consumer Products Safety Division surveillance database. We found an estimated 22, 581 cases over that period. Most strikingly, we found a rise in the incidence of magnet ingestions (in cases per 100,000 children/yr) from 0.57 (95% CI 0.22-0.92) in 2002-2003 to 3.06 (95% CI 2.16-3.96) in 2010-2011. The mean age for ingested magnets was 5, but for nasal magnets was 10. Multiple magnet ingestions and magnet injuries requiring hospital admission were much more common in the second half of the study period, corresponding with the rising popularity of small, high-powered, desktop magnet sets. However, due to limited detail from the database, we were unable to say with any certainty whether injuries were specifically due to these magnet sets.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bjarke Feenstra, Ph.D.
Senior Research Scientist
Statens Serum Institut
Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Feenstra: We discovered a new genome-wide significant locus for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) in a region on chromosome 11 harboring the apolipoprotein (APOA1/C3/A4/A5) gene cluster and also confirmed three previously reported loci. Characteristics of the new locus led us to propose the hypothesis that low levels of circulating lipids in infants are associated with increased risk of IHPS. We addressed this hypothesis by measuring plasma lipid levels in prospectively collected umbilical cord blood from a set of 46 IHPS cases and 189 matched controls. We found that levels were on average somewhat lower in the children who went on to develop the condition.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Kirsten Ness, PT, PhD
Epidemiology and Cancer Control
MS 735, Room S-6013
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
262 Danny Thomas Place
Memphis, TN 38105-3678
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Even though they report similar levels of physical activity, children who were treated for cancer and who survive at least five years, on average, do not perform as well as their siblings on tests of physical performance. They have muscle weakness and decreased cardiopulmonary fitness.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark D. DeBoer, MD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology
University of Virginia Health System
P.O. Box 800386
Charlottesville, VA 22908
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. DeBoer: Preschool and kindergarten children drinking SSB (compared to infrequent/non-drinkers) were more likely to be obese and among 2 year-olds had more unhealthy weight gain over the next 2 years. SSB consumption is thus linked to higher weight status in children age 2-5 years.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gary A. Smith, MD, DrPHCenter for Injury Research and Policy, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio;
The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio; and
Child Injury Prevention Alliance, Columbus, OhioMedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Smith: During the nine-year study period, more than 12,000 children were treated each year in U.S. emergency departments for injuries from choking on food, which equals 34 children each day. Hard candy caused the most choking episodes (15 percent), followed by other candy (13 percent), meat, other than hot dogs (12 percent), and bones (12 percent). These four food types alone accounted for more than half of all the choking episodes in the study.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Bernard Rosner
Harvard School of Public Health
Professor in the Department of Biostatistics
Department of Biostatistics
Channing Laboratory 180 Longwood Avenue
Boston, Massachusetts 02115
MedicalResearch.com: What are the Main Findings of this study?Dr. Rosner: The risk of elevated blood pressure (BP) among children has increased 27% over a 13-year period based on a study among 11,636 children ages 8-17 seen in the NHANES study from 1988-2008. In NHANES III (1988-1994) the risk was 15.8% among boys and 8.2% among girls. In NHANES 1999-2008 (1999-2008) the risk was 19.2% among boys and 12.6% among girls.
Important risk factors for elevated BP were BMI, waist-circumference and sodium intake.
Risk approximately doubled for children in the highest age-sex-specific quartile of BMI vs. children in the lowest quartile
Risk approximately doubled for children in the highest age-sex-specific quartile of waist circumference vs. children in the lowest quartile
Risk increased 36% among children with dietary Na intake > 3450 mg/day vs. children with intake <2300 mg/day. Na intake was normalized per 2000 calories.
There were large increases in both mean BMI and mean waist circumference over the 13-year period, especially for girls.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with Jill M. Norris, MPH, PhDColorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, Aurora
MedicalResearch.com: What were the most significant findings? How do they relate to what was already known about this subject?Dr. Norris: One of the most intriguing findings is that if mothers are still breast-feeding when they introduce gluten-containing foods to their baby, they may reduce the risk for T1D. This is similar to a finding from a Swedish study that found that breast-feeding while introducing gluten-containing foods may reduce the risk for celiac disease, an autoimmune condition that has several similarities with T1D.
In children at increased genetic risk for T1D, our data suggest that parents should wait to introduce any solid foods until after the 4 month birthday. And when the baby is ready, solid foods should be introduced by the 6 months birthday or soon thereafter, preferably while the mother is still breast-feeding the baby, which may reduce the risk of T1D.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Virender K. Rehan, MD
Los Angeles Biomedical Research
Institute (LA BioMed).
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Rehan: This is the first study to show that the active ingredient in Indian spice
turmeric provides long term protection against neonatal lung damage that
leads to chronic lung disease of prematurity.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with Batool Haider, MD, MS, DSc candidate
Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition
School of Public Health
Anaemia, prenatal iron use, and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysisMedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Haider: The main findings of the study are that iron use in the prenatal period increased maternal mean haemoglobin concentration by 4.59 (95% confidence interval 3.72 to 5.46) g/L compared with controls and significantly reduced the risk of anaemia (relative risk 0.50, 0.42 to 0.59), iron deficiency (0.59, 0.46 to 0.79), iron deficiency anaemia (0.40, 0.26 to 0.60), and low birth weight (0.81, 0.71 to 0.93). The effect of iron on preterm birth was not significant (relative risk 0.84, 0.68 to 1.03). Analysis of cohort studies showed a significantly higher risk of low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio 1.29, 1.09 to 1.53) and preterm birth (1.21, 1.13 to 1.30) with anaemia in the first or second trimester.
Exposure-response analysis indicated that for every 10 mg increase in iron dose/day, up to 66 mg/day, the relative risk of maternal anaemia was 0.88 (0.84 to 0.92) (P for linear trend<0.001). Birth weight increased by 15.1 (6.0 to 24.2) g (P for linear trend=0.005) and risk of low birth weight decreased by 3% (relative risk 0.97, 0.95 to 0.98) for every 10 mg increase in dose/day (P for linear trend<0.001). Duration of use was not significantly associated with the outcomes after adjustment for dose. Furthermore, for each 1 g/L increase in mean haemoglobin, birth weight increased by 14.0 (6.8 to 21.8) g (P for linear trend=0.002); however, mean haemoglobin was not associated with the risk of low birth weight and preterm birth. No evidence of a significant effect on duration of gestation, small for gestational age births, and birth length was noted.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ezio Bonifacio, Ph.D.
Professor, Preclinical Stem Cells/Diabetes
Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden
Technische Universität Dresden
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Bonifacio: Children who develop multiple islet autoantibodies are destined to develop diabetes. Only a minority will be diabetes-free 15 years after developing islet autoantibodies. This is regardless of whether they have a family history of type 1 diabetes. Progression to diabetes after seroconversion varied from weeks to decades, and 20% of children had diabetes within 2 years from seroconverting. Progression was fastest in children who developed their islet autoantibodies before age 3 years.
MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected?Dr. Bonifacio: Unexpected is probably not the right word. The Eisenbarth model of chronic disease proposes that diabetes will happen some time after autoimmunity and the findings show the reality of it. Perhaps the unexpected finding is that it is not always chronic and that for a number of children, intervention would need to be applied quickly.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Marloes Heijstek MD
University Medical Center, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital
Department of Pediatric Immunology and Rheumatology
Room number KC 03.063.0
P.O. Box 85090 Lundlaan 6
3508 AB Utrecht
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Heijstek: The main findings of our study are that MMR booster vaccination does not affect JIA disease, does not cause flares of arthritis and induces high rates of protective immunity.
MedicalResearch.com eInterview with Kathryn L. Humphreys, M.A., Ed.M.
Clinical Psychology Doctoral Student
UCLA Department of Psychology
1285 Franz Hall, Box 951563
Los Angeles, CA 90095
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Response: Our primary question was to answer whether the use of stimulant medication in the treatment of ADHD was associated with increased or decreased risk for a variety of substance use (ever tried) and substance use disorder (abuse or dependence) outcomes (alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, nicotine, and non-specific drug use).
Prior research from individual studies of children have provided mixed evidence (i.e., some found medication increased later risk, some found medication decreased risk, and still others found no difference in risk). We examined available longitudinal studies (i.e., medication treatment preceded measurement of substance outcome) together using meta-analysis, a technique that aggregates findings from a number of studies, in order to examine this question in a much larger sample of individuals.
Our main finding was that children with ADHD who received medication treatment did not differ in risk for lifetime substance use or abuse or dependence compared to those children with ADHD who did not receive medication treatment.
MedicalResearch.com eInterview with:Dr. Jane L Lynch MD
School of Medicine
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Lynch: American youth with type 2 diabetes who received the best currently available treatment and close monitoring of their diabetes experienced a more rapid progression of co-morbidities far more aggressive than what is typically seen in adults with type 2 diabetes.
MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected?Dr. Lynch: Youth with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the TODAY study developed early and rapidly progressing signs of heart and kidney disease, poor glycemic control and diabetes-related eye disease; even in the group receiving more intensive two-drug therapy, shown in previously released results to be the most effective treatment for maintenance of glycemic control.
MedicalResearch.com eInterview with Dr Emma Boyland
Biopsychology Research Group.
Liverpool Obesity Research Network. University ofLiverpool.MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Boyland: Children who were exposed to a TV commercial for Walker’s potato chips featuring a celebrity endorser showed a greater brand preference for Walker’s and consumed more Walker’s chips than a purported ‘supermarket brand’. Exposure to the celebrity endorser in a different, non-promotional context (presenting a soccer highlights TV program) also had a similar impact on brand choice and intake. This effect was not seen in response to another snack food commercial or a non-food commercial. Importantly, children did not reduce their consumption of the perceived ‘supermarket brand’ to compensate, they simply consumed more Walker’s crisps so this effect could contribute to overconsumption.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with : Verena Sengpiel, researcher
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy
University of Gothenburg
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Response:
1. Coffee, but not caffeine, consumption was associated with marginally increased gestational length but not with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.
2. Caffeine intake was consistently associated with decreased birth weight and increased odds of SGA (small for gestational age). This might have clinical implications as even caffeine consumption below the recommended maximum (200 mg/d in the Nordic countries and USA, 300 mg/d according to WHO) was associated with increased risk for SGA.
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