Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 02.10.2013

 Shaon Sengupta, MD MBBS MPH Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shaon Sengupta, MD MBBS MPH Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sengupta: In this study we looked at all full-term neonates, which are defined as those born between 37 weeks 0 days to 41 weeks 6 days. Early term deliveries (37–38 weeks) are a significant part of all full-term deliveries, but are not the norm. In our study, 27% of neonates were born early term (37-38 weeks) while almost 62% were born at or after 39 weeks (term neonates). Similar data has been reported by other established sources of vital statistics. While traditionally, full term neonates are perceived to be a homogenous low-risk group, the findings from our study urge the pediatrics/neonatal provider to recognize early term (37-38 weeks) neonates as a higher risk group. They have significantly higher risk of NICU admission, respiratory morbidity, hypoglycemia, need for IV fluids and antibiotics.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 25.09.2013

Spencer P. Bass, MD Twenty-First Century Professor of Family Medicine Director, International Family Medicine Clinic Department of Family Medicine University of Virginia, PO Box 800729 Charlottesville, VA  22908-072MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Fern R. Hauck, MD, MS Spencer P. Bass, MD Twenty-First Century Professor of Family Medicine Director, International Family Medicine Clinic Department of Family Medicine University of Virginia, PO Box 800729 Charlottesville, VA  22908-072 Co-author of "14 Ways to Protect Your Baby from SIDS" (www.parentingpress.com/sids.html) MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hauck: We looked at data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, which followed mother from pregnancy through the first year of infant life. Mothers received several surveys that asked about infant feeding and bedsharing (sleeping with their infant in the same bed or other sleep surface). We found that mothers who bedshared for the longest time had the longest duration of breastfeeding compared with mothers who did not bedshare or bedshared for shorter times. Breastfeeding duration was also longer among mothers who were better educated, were white, had previously breastfed another child, had planned to breastfeed this baby, and had not returned to work in the first year after the baby was born.
Author Interviews, MRSA, Pediatrics / 23.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Martha Iwamoto, MD, MPH Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Iwamoto: We have been successful in decreasing invasive MRSA infections among infants younger than 3 months, mostly due to declines in hospital –onset infections in NICUs. However, more needs to be done among pediatric patients older than 3 months, especially those in the community settings and without recent healthcare exposures.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 23.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Selma Salihovic, Doctoral student Center for Developmental Research Örebro University MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Salihovic: Although previous research has examined the stability of psychopathic traits, our study offer a more nuanced perspective on development. Rather than asking whether psychopathic traits simply increase or decrease in adolescence, we asked about patterns of change for youths with different initial level of psychopathic traits. In this way, we could tease apart those youths with extreme levels from those with low and more transient levels, and follow their unique trajectories over four years. We could see that even among the youths with the highest levels there was a decreasing trend in two out of three core aspects of psychopathy. Although the degree of change was small, it was still a naturally occurring pattern for these youths, which raises the question whether an intervention designed to reduce these levels would have provided even a steeper decrease.
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 18.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gianluca Gini, PhD and Tiziana Pozzoli, PhD Department of Developmental and Social Psychology University of Padua, Padua, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Results of this meta-analysis show that bullied children are twice as likely as non-bullied children to experience psychosomatic symptoms (e.g., headache, stomachache, backache, abdominal pain, dizziness,  sleeping problems, poor appetite, bedwetting, skin problems, vomiting), especially in samples that included an higher proportion of boys.  Importantly, the same result was found not only with cross-sectional studies but also in a meta-analysis of six studies that employed a longitudinal design.
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Exercise - Fitness, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 18.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ronald J. Iannotti, PhD Prevention Research Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland Trends in Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Diet, and BMI Among US Adolescents, 2001–2009 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Iannotti: Although average BMI percentile increased from 2001 to 2005 it did not increase from 2005 to 2009. This is consistent with some recent studies that suggest the increase in overweight and obesity may be leveling off. We suggest that we may be 'bending the curve'. During the same period, physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables increased while television watching and consumption of sweets and sweetened beverages decreased. We cannot say whether television watching was replaced with more time spent on computers but we did not find an increase in computer use from 2005 to 2009.
Alcohol, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 13.09.2013

Svetlana Popova, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D. Senior Scientist, Social and Epidemiological Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Assistant Professor, Epidemiology Division Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Assistant Professor, Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto Graduate Faculty Associate Member, Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto CAMH, 33 Russell Street, Room # T507 Toronto Ontario, Canada M5S 2S1MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Svetlana Popova, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D. Senior Scientist, Social and Epidemiological Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Assistant Professor, Epidemiology Division Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Assistant Professor, Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto Graduate Faculty Associate Member, Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto CAMH, 33 Russell Street, Room # T507 Toronto Ontario, Canada M5S 2S1 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Popova: We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of internationally published and unpublished studies that reported the prevalence of FAS and/or FASD in all types of child care systems (e.g., orphanage, foster care, boarding school, adoption centre, or child welfare system). The primary objective was to estimate a pooled (combined) prevalence for FAS and FASD in various child care systems using data from existing studies that used an Active Case Ascertainment method (when researchers/clinicians actively seek and diagnose FASD cases). The available data was analyzed by using a standard statistical technique (called meta-analysis). This study revealed that the vast majority of existing studies report that the prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the various child-care settings in the different countries is extremely high. Our analysis of these studies demonstrated that the pooled prevalence of FAS in child care settings (6%) was found to be approximately 9-30 times higher than the prevalence of FAS in the general population of North America, which is reported to range from 2 to 7 cases per 1,000 individuals in the USA and 1 per 1,000 in Canada. Thus, children in care represent a high-risk population for FASD.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 11.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Elsie Taveras Massachusetts General Hospital for Children Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics 100 Cambridge St, 15th Floor Boston, MA 02114Dr. Elsie Taveras Massachusetts General Hospital for Children Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics 100 Cambridge St, 15th Floor Boston, MA 02114   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Taveras: The main findings of the study were that, overall, the body mass index of children in the intervention group dropped an average of 0.18, while it rose 0.21 in the control group. Children in the intervention group were sleeping about 45 minutes longer than children in the control group. Time spent watching television on weekends dropped about an hour per day in the intervention group, leading to a significant difference from the control group, which increased weekend TV viewing. Both groups had a small reduction in weekday TV viewing, with a greater decrease in the intervention group, as well.
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Pediatrics / 11.09.2013

David R. Fulton, M.D. Associate Cardiologist-in-Chief for Administration Tommy Kaplan Chair in Cardiovascular Studies Chief, Cardiology Outpatient Services Department of Cardiology Children's Hospital Boston Boston, MA 02115David R. Fulton, M.D. Associate Cardiologist-in-Chief for Administration Tommy Kaplan Chair in Cardiovascular Studies Chief, Cardiology Outpatient Services Department of Cardiology Children's Hospital Boston Boston, MA 02115 MedicalResearch.com:   What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Fulton: The main findings of this study demonstrated that using a quality improvement methodology (SCAMPs), a diverse population of children and adolescents with chest pain could be managed  with relative uniformity and cost effectiveness in a multi-center collaborative.  Only 2 patients of the 1016 children who formed the basis for this review were shown to have a cardiac etiology.   The clinicians were able to screen and reach a diagnostic conclusion in a  large segment of this population using history, physical examination and ECG.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 03.09.2013

Professor Sheena Reilly PhD FASSA Associate Director, Clinical and Public Health Research Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Professor of Speech Pathology Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne Royal Children’s Hospital Flemington Road Parkville Victoria 3052 AustraliaProfessor Sheena Reilly PhD FASSA Associate Director, Clinical and Public Health Research Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Professor of Speech Pathology Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne Royal Children’s Hospital Flemington Road Parkville Victoria 3052 Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Reilly: Stuttering was more common than previously thought. The cumulative incidence of stuttering by four years old was 11%, which is more than twice what has previously been reported. Developmental stuttering was associated with better language development, non-verbal skills with no identifiable effect on the child’s mental health or temperament by four years of age.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 26.08.2013

Dr. Jonathan Silverman, MD Department of Pediatrics University of Washington in Seattle, WashingtonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jonathan Silverman, MD Department of Pediatrics University of Washington in Seattle, Washington MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Silverman: We looked at the incidence of magnet foreign body injuries in children between 2002-2011, using a Consumer Products Safety Division surveillance database. We found an estimated 22, 581 cases over that period. Most strikingly, we found a rise in the incidence of magnet ingestions (in cases per 100,000 children/yr) from 0.57 (95% CI 0.22-0.92) in 2002-2003 to 3.06 (95% CI 2.16-3.96) in 2010-2011. The mean age for ingested magnets was 5, but for nasal magnets was 10. Multiple magnet ingestions and magnet injuries requiring hospital admission were much more common in the second half of the study period, corresponding with the rising popularity of small, high-powered, desktop magnet sets. However, due to limited detail from the database, we were unable to say with any certainty whether injuries were specifically due to these magnet sets.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 23.08.2013

Bjarke Feenstra, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist Statens Serum Institut Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S DenmarkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bjarke Feenstra, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist Statens Serum Institut Artillerivej 5, 2300 Copenhagen S Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Feenstra: We discovered a new genome-wide significant locus for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) in a region on chromosome 11 harboring the apolipoprotein (APOA1/C3/A4/A5) gene cluster and also confirmed three previously reported loci. Characteristics of the new locus led us to propose the hypothesis that low levels of circulating lipids in infants are associated with increased risk of IHPS. We addressed this hypothesis by measuring plasma lipid levels in prospectively collected umbilical cord blood from a set of 46 IHPS cases and 189 matched controls. We found that levels were on average somewhat lower in the children who went on to develop the condition.
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Pediatrics / 07.08.2013

Kirsten Ness, PT, PhD 
 Epidemiology and Cancer Control MS 735, Room S-6013 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital 262 Danny Thomas Place Memphis, TN 38105-3678MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kirsten Ness, PT, PhD Epidemiology and Cancer Control MS 735, Room S-6013 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital 262 Danny Thomas Place Memphis, TN 38105-3678 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?  Answer: Even though they report similar levels of physical activity, children who were treated for cancer and who survive at least five years, on average, do not perform as well as their siblings on tests of physical performance.  They have muscle weakness and decreased cardiopulmonary fitness.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 06.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark D. DeBoer, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics Division of Pediatric Endocrinology University of Virginia Health System P.O. Box 800386 Charlottesville, VA 22908 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. DeBoer: Preschool and kindergarten children drinking SSB (compared to infrequent/non-drinkers)  were more likely to be obese and among 2 year-olds had more unhealthy weight gain over the next 2 years.  SSB consumption is thus linked to higher weight status in children age 2-5 years.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 30.07.2013

Gary A. Smith, MD, DrPH Center for Injury Research and Policy, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio; and Child Injury Prevention Alliance, Columbus, OhioMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gary A. Smith, MD, DrPH
Center for Injury Research and Policy, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio; and Child Injury Prevention Alliance, Columbus, Ohio
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Smith: During the nine-year study period, more than 12,000 children were treated each year in U.S. emergency departments for injuries from choking on food, which equals 34 children each day.  Hard candy caused the most choking episodes (15 percent), followed by other candy (13 percent), meat, other than hot dogs (12 percent), and bones (12 percent). These four food types alone accounted for more than half of all the choking episodes in the study.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Pediatrics / 17.07.2013

Dr. Bernard Rosner  Harvard School of Public Health Professor in the Department of Biostatistics Department of Biostatistics Channing Laboratory 180 Longwood Avenue Boston, Massachusetts 02115MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Bernard Rosner Harvard School of Public Health Professor in the Department of Biostatistics Department of Biostatistics Channing Laboratory 180 Longwood Avenue Boston, Massachusetts 02115 MedicalResearch.com: What are the Main Findings of this study? Dr. Rosner: The risk of elevated blood pressure (BP) among children has increased 27% over a 13-year period based on a study among 11,636 children ages 8-17 seen in the NHANES study from 1988-2008. In NHANES III (1988-1994) the risk was 15.8% among boys and 8.2% among girls. In NHANES 1999-2008 (1999-2008) the risk was 19.2% among boys and 12.6% among girls. Important risk factors for elevated BP were BMI, waist-circumference and sodium intake. Risk approximately doubled for children in the highest age-sex-specific quartile of BMI vs. children in the lowest quartile Risk approximately doubled for children in the highest age-sex-specific quartile of waist circumference vs. children in the lowest quartile Risk increased 36% among children with dietary Na intake > 3450 mg/day vs. children with intake <2300 mg/day. Na intake was normalized per 2000 calories. There were large increases in both mean BMI and mean waist circumference over the 13-year period, especially for girls.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Nutrition, Pediatrics / 11.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Jill M. Norris, MPH, PhD Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, Aurora MedicalResearch.com: What were the most significant findings? How do they relate to what was already known about this subject? Dr. Norris: One of the most intriguing findings is that if mothers are still breast-feeding when they introduce gluten-containing foods to their baby, they may reduce the risk for T1D.  This is similar to a finding from a Swedish study that found that breast-feeding while introducing gluten-containing foods may reduce the risk for celiac disease, an autoimmune condition that has several similarities with T1D. In children at increased genetic risk for T1D, our data suggest that parents should wait to introduce any solid foods until after the 4 month birthday.  And when the baby is ready, solid foods should be introduced by the 6 months birthday or soon thereafter, preferably while the mother is still breast-feeding the baby, which may reduce the risk of T1D.
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Pulmonary Disease / 04.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Virender K. Rehan, MD Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (LA BioMed). MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rehan: This is the first study to show that the active ingredient in Indian spice turmeric provides long term protection against neonatal lung damage that leads to chronic lung disease of prematurity.
Anemia, Author Interviews, BMJ, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 04.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Batool Haider, MD, MS, DSc candidate Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition School of Public Health Harvard University Anaemia, prenatal iron use, and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Haider: The main findings of the study are that iron use in the prenatal period increased maternal mean haemoglobin concentration by 4.59 (95% confidence interval 3.72 to 5.46) g/L compared with controls and significantly reduced the risk of anaemia (relative risk 0.50, 0.42 to 0.59), iron deficiency (0.59, 0.46 to 0.79), iron deficiency anaemia (0.40, 0.26 to 0.60), and low birth weight (0.81, 0.71 to 0.93). The effect of iron on preterm birth was not significant (relative risk 0.84, 0.68 to 1.03). Analysis of cohort studies showed a significantly higher risk of low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio 1.29, 1.09 to 1.53) and preterm birth (1.21, 1.13 to 1.30) with anaemia in the first or second trimester. Exposure-response analysis indicated that for every 10 mg increase in iron dose/day, up to 66 mg/day, the relative risk of maternal anaemia was 0.88 (0.84 to 0.92) (P for linear trend<0.001). Birth weight increased by 15.1 (6.0 to 24.2) g (P for linear trend=0.005) and risk of low birth weight decreased by 3% (relative risk 0.97, 0.95 to 0.98) for every 10 mg increase in dose/day (P for linear trend<0.001). Duration of use was not significantly associated with the outcomes after adjustment for dose. Furthermore, for each 1 g/L increase in mean haemoglobin, birth weight increased by 14.0 (6.8 to 21.8) g (P for linear trend=0.002); however, mean haemoglobin was not associated with the risk of low birth weight and preterm birth. No evidence of a significant effect on duration of gestation, small for gestational age births, and birth length was noted.
Diabetes, JAMA, Pediatrics / 20.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:  Dr. Ezio Bonifacio, Ph.D. Professor, Preclinical Stem Cells/Diabetes Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden Technische Universität Dresden MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bonifacio: Children who develop multiple islet autoantibodies are destined to develop diabetes. Only a minority will be diabetes-free 15 years after developing islet autoantibodies. This is regardless of whether they have a family history of type 1 diabetes. Progression to diabetes after seroconversion varied from weeks to decades, and 20% of children had diabetes within 2 years from seroconverting. Progression was fastest in children who developed their islet autoantibodies before age 3 years. MedicalResearch.com:  Were any of the findings unexpected? Dr. Bonifacio: Unexpected is probably not the right word. The Eisenbarth model of chronic disease proposes that diabetes will happen some time after autoimmunity and the findings show the reality of it. Perhaps the unexpected finding is that it is not always chronic and that for a number of children, intervention would need to be applied quickly.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Rheumatology, Vaccine Studies / 19.06.2013

Marloes Heijstek MD  University Medical Center, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital Department of Pediatric Immunology and Rheumatology Room number KC 03.063.0 P.O. Box 85090 Lundlaan 6 3508 AB UtrechtMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marloes Heijstek MD University Medical Center, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital Department of Pediatric Immunology and Rheumatology Room number KC 03.063.0 P.O. Box 85090 Lundlaan 6 3508 AB Utrecht MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Heijstek: The main findings of our study are that MMR booster vaccination does not affect JIA disease, does not cause flares of arthritis and induces high rates of protective immunity.
ADHD, Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics / 30.05.2013

Kathryn L. Humphreys, M.A., Ed.M.  Clinical Psychology Doctoral Student UCLA Department of Psychology 1285 Franz Hall, Box 951563 Los Angeles, CA 90095MedicalResearch.com eInterview with Kathryn L. Humphreys, M.A., Ed.M. Clinical Psychology Doctoral Student UCLA Department of Psychology 1285 Franz Hall, Box 951563 Los Angeles, CA 90095 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Response: Our primary question was to answer whether the use of stimulant medication in the treatment of ADHD was associated with increased or decreased risk for a variety of substance use (ever tried) and substance use disorder (abuse or dependence) outcomes (alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, nicotine, and non-specific drug use). Prior research from individual studies of children have provided mixed evidence (i.e., some found medication increased later risk, some found medication decreased risk, and still others found no difference in risk). We examined available longitudinal studies (i.e., medication treatment preceded measurement of substance outcome) together using meta-analysis, a technique that aggregates findings from a number of studies, in order to examine this question in a much larger sample of individuals. Our main finding was that children with ADHD who received medication treatment did not differ in risk for lifetime substance use or abuse or dependence compared to those children with ADHD who did not receive medication treatment.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Diabetes, Kidney Disease, Pediatrics / 28.05.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with: Dr. Jane L Lynch MD School of Medicine Pediatrics University of Texas Health Science Center at San AntonioDr. Jane L Lynch MD School of Medicine Pediatrics University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lynch: American youth with type 2 diabetes who received the best currently available treatment and close monitoring of their diabetes experienced a more rapid progression of co-morbidities far more aggressive than what is typically seen in adults with type 2 diabetes. MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected? Dr. Lynch: Youth with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the TODAY study developed early and rapidly progressing signs of heart and kidney disease, poor glycemic control and diabetes-related eye disease; even in the group receiving more intensive two-drug therapy, shown in previously released results to be the most effective treatment for maintenance of glycemic control.
Author Interviews, Nature, Nutrition, Pediatrics / 12.04.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with Dr Emma Boyland Biopsychology Research Group. Liverpool Obesity Research Network. University of Liverpool. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Boyland: Children who were exposed to a TV commercial for Walker’s potato chips featuring a celebrity endorser showed a greater brand preference for Walker’s and consumed more Walker’s chips than a purported ‘supermarket brand’. Exposure to the celebrity endorser in a different, non-promotional context (presenting a soccer highlights TV program) also had a similar impact on brand choice and intake. This effect was not seen in response to another snack food commercial or a non-food commercial. Importantly, children did not reduce their consumption of the perceived ‘supermarket brand’ to compensate, they simply consumed more Walker’s crisps so this effect could contribute to overconsumption.
Author Interviews, Nutrition, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 17.03.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with : Verena Sengpiel, researcher Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy University of Gothenburg MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Response: 1. Coffee, but not caffeine, consumption was associated with marginally increased gestational length but not with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. 2. Caffeine intake was consistently associated with decreased birth weight and increased odds of SGA (small for gestational age). This might have clinical implications as even caffeine consumption below the recommended maximum (200 mg/d in the Nordic countries and USA, 300 mg/d according to WHO) was associated with increased risk for SGA.