Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 26.12.2014

Seetha Shankaran MD Director, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicne Children's Hospital of Michigan and Hutzel Women's Hospital Detroit, MIMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Seetha Shankaran MD Director, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicne Children's Hospital of Michigan and Hutzel Women's Hospital Detroit, MI Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Shankaran: The background for this study is that term newborn infants born following lack of blood flow and oxygen to the brain are at high risk for death or disability, including motor and developmental handicaps. Hypothermia (lowering the core body temperature to 33-34°C for 72 hours has been shown to decrease the rate of death or disability to 44 to 55%. Hypothermia is currently the only proven therapy to reduce these devastating outcomes. The hypothermia therapy provided to term newborns was based on laboratory experiments that demonstrated that in animal models subjected to hypoxia and ischemia, cooling reduced brain injury. In the NICHD Neonatal Research Network (a group of academic centers across the US), in 2005 we reported the first trial of whole-body cooling to 33.5°C for 72 hours and noted a reduction in death or disability in infancy.  When the infants in the study where followed to childhood, we noted that this reduction in death or disability continued to childhood. Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated that brain injury continues for days or weeks after the hypoxic-ischemic injury. Other laboratory experiments noted that cooling for a greater depth than 33-34°C (as long as the temperature does not decrease much lower) can reduce brain injury further. Based on this information, in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network we designed a study, among term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy to compare longer cooling and deeper cooling to see if death or disability can be reduced. Term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy were randomly assigned at <6 hours of age to 4 groups of therapy; 33.5°C for 72 hours, 32.0°C for 72 hours, 33.5°C for 120 hours and 32.0°C for 120 hours. The  goal was to compare death or disability rates between the 2 durations of cooling (72 hours vs. 120 hours) and 2 depths of cooling (33.5 C vs. 32.0°C) and was designed to recruit 726 infants. A independent data safety and monitoring committee was appointed by the director of NICHD to monitor safety events after the first 50 infants were enrolled and then following the enrollment of every 25 infants. The safety events monitored included mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), cardiac arrhythmia, persistent acidosis and major vessel bleeding or thrombosis. The study was started in October 2010. Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Shankaran: In November 2013 the study was closed by the data safety and monitoring committee after 8 reviews of study data, following recruitment of 364 neonates because of emerging safety concerns as well as futility analyses. The NICU death rates were 7% (7 of 95) for the 33.5°C for 72 hour group, 14% (13 of 90) for the 32.0°C for 72hr group, 16% (15 of 96) in the 33.5°C for 120 hour group and 17% for the 32.0°C for 120 hour group. The adjusted risk ratio (95% CI) for death for the 120 hour vs. the 72 hour was not significantly different 1.37 (0.92-2.04) nor was it significantly different for the 32.0°C group compared to the 33.5°C group 1.24 (0.69-2.25).  The safety outcomes were similar between the 120 vs. 72 hour groups and the 32.0°C vs. the 33.5°C groups, except that major bleeding occurred among 1% in the 120 group vs. 3% in the 72 hours group, RR 0.25 (0.07-0.91). Futility analyses noted that the probability of detecting benefit of longer cooling, deeper cooling or both for death in the NICU was <2%. The follow -up of infants enrolled into the study for 18 months is on-going. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Pediatrics, University Texas, UT Southwestern / 26.12.2014

Ron B. Mitchell, MD Professor of Otolaryngology and Pediatrics William Beckner Distinguished Chair in Otolaryngology Chief of Pediatric Otolaryngology UT Southwestern and Children's Medical Center Dallas ENT Clinic Dallas, TX 75207MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ron B. Mitchell, MD Professor of Otolaryngology and Pediatrics William Beckner Distinguished Chair in Otolaryngology Chief of Pediatric Otolaryngology UT Southwestern and Children's Medical Center Dallas ENT Clinic Dallas, TX 75207 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Mitchell: The “gold standard” for the diagnosis of and quantification of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is polysomnography (PSG or a ‘sleep study’). However, the majorities of T&A procedures are done without PSG and are based on a clinical diagnosis. This is because PSG is expensive, requires overnight observation and is often unavailable. It is important to diagnose and quantify OSA as it allows for surgical planning and predicts the need and type of treatment after surgery. We used data from the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy (CHAT) study; a large multicenter trial (RCT), to look at the ability of clinical parameters to predict the severity of obstructive sleep apnea in children scheduled for a T&A. The main findings of the study are that certain clinical parameters such as obesity and African American race as well as high scores on certain validated questionnaires (such as the pediatric sleep questionnaire- PSQ) are associated, but cannot predict OSA severity. PSG remains the only way to measure objectively the severity of OSA. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Pediatrics / 24.12.2014

Dr. Ricardo Mosquera MD Assistant professor of Pediatrics at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School Clinic Director, UT Physicians, of the UTHealth Medical School.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ricardo Mosquera MD Assistant professor of Pediatrics at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School Clinic Director, UT Physicians, of the UTHealth Medical School. Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Mosquera: There is not strong scientific evidence to support the use of medical homes.  Medical homes have not been demonstrated to decrease adverse outcomes or costs in children. Such benefits are most likely for high-risk children with chronic illness.  We conducted a rigorous and well designed, randomized controlled trial to determine if an enhanced medical home providing comprehensive care decreases serious illness  (death, prolonged hospitalization>7 days, or intensive care unit admissions) and/or cost among high-risk chronically ill children. An enhanced medical home decreased both adverse outcomes (decreased serious illness, hospitalizations, PICU admissions, and serious illness by ~50%) and cost (~$10.000 less per child/year). (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Pediatrics / 23.12.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Femi Oshin Consultant in Communicable Disease Control Devon, Cornwall & Somerset PHE Centre and Dan Murphy Cornwall & Isles of Scilly Health Protection Team, Cornwall, UK Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Salmonella disease are significant infections, particularly so in children. Ownership of reptiles kept as pets has risen sharply in recent years, as has Salmonella infections in children. Our study found children living in homes with a reptile as a pet are more likely to require hospitalisation from Salmonella infection, and the risk appears to increase with decreasing age of the child. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Toxin Research, University Texas / 21.12.2014

Ying Xu Assistant Professor, Ph.D. Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering University of Texas, AustinMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ying Xu Assistant Professor, Ph.D. Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering University of Texas, Austin Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Phthalates have been widely used as plasticizers to enhance the flexibility of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products.  They are ubiquitous and persistent indoor pollutants and may result in profound and irreversible changes in the development of human reproductive tract. In this study, we found that the emissions of phthalates and phthalate alternatives increase significantly with increasing temperature.  We developed an emission model and validated the model via chamber experiments.  Further analysis showed that, in infant sleep microenvironments, an increase in the temperature of mattress can cause a significant increase in emission of phthalates from the mattress cover and make the concentration in breathing zone about four times higher than that in the room, resulting in potentially high exposure.  In residential homes, an increase in the temperature from 25 to 35 ºC can elevate the gas-phase concentration of phthalates by more than a factor of 10, but the total airborne concentration may not increase that much for less volatile compounds. (more…)
Author Interviews, Herpes Viruses, Pediatrics / 19.12.2014

Ann J. Melvin MD, MPH Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease Department of Pediatrics Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA 98105.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ann J. Melvin MD, MPH Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease Department of Pediatrics Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA 98105. Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Melvin: While relatively uncommon, neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus is a potentially devastating infection with significant morbidity and mortality.  We reviewed all of the neonatal HSV cases treated at our institution between 1993 and 2012 who had HSV DNA PCR results available from the plasma and/or CSF.  Most of the infants had quantitative PCR results available.  The objective of the study was to determine the clinical correlation of HSV PCR levels in the plasma and CSF.  We found a clear association between the plasma HSV level, clinical presentation and mortality.  All of the infants who died had HSV plasma DNA levels of greater than 7 log10 copies/ml.   However, neither plasma nor CSF HSV levels predicted neurologic outcome.   Clinical evidence of CNS disease was more predictive of neurologic outcome than was the CSF PCR level. We also showed the most sensitive test for diagnosis of neonatal HSV to be HSV PCR on the plasma.  However, no single test diagnostic test (plasma PCR, CSF PCR, surface cultures) was positive across all infants, so it is important to obtain samples from plasma, CSF and surface swabs in infants with symptoms consistent with HSV infection. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 12.12.2014

 Dr. Gary A. Smith Center for Injury Research and Policy Nationwide Children’s HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Gary A. Smith Center for Injury Research and Policy Nationwide Children’s Hospital   Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Smith: The study found that from 1990 through 2011, an estimated 3,278,073 children younger than 18 years of age were treated in United States emergency departments for toy related injuries. The annual injury rate per 10,000 children increased by nearly 40% during that time period. The increase was largely associated with ride-on toys, particularly foot-powered scooters. Ride-on toys accounted for 34.9% of all injuries and 42.5% of hospital admissions. The study is the first to comprehensively investigate toy-related injuries among children using a nationally representative data set, the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Cost of Health Care, Pediatrics / 05.12.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Rosemary Dodds Senior Policy Adviser NCT (formerly National Childbirth Trust), London, UK Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The study, which was commissioned by UNICEF UK, was designed to take an in-depth look at how raising breastfeeding rates might save money for the health service through reducing illness. It found that low breastfeeding rates in the UK are costing the health service millions of pounds.  We calculated that from reducing rates of illnesses, where the evidence is strongest, moderate increases in breastfeeding could see potential annual savings to the health service of around £40m per year. It should be noted however, that this figure is likely to be only the tip of the iceberg when the full range of conditions affected by breastfeeding are taken into account. Economic models around five illnesses (breast cancer in the mother, and gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, middle ear infections and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in the baby), show that moderate increases in breastfeeding would translate into the following cost savings for the NHS:
  •  If half those mothers who currently do not breastfeed were to do so for up to 18 months over their life, there would be:
-      865 fewer cases of breast cancer -      With cost savings to the NHS of over £21million -      Improved quality of life equating to more than £10million[1] Over the lifetime of each annual cohort of first-time mothers.
  • If 45% of babies were exclusively breastfed for four months, and if 75% of babies in neonatal units were breastfeeding at discharge, each year there would be:
-      3,285 fewer babies hospitalised with gastroenteritis and 10,637 fewer GP consultations, saving more than £3.6million -      5,916 fewer babies hospitalised with respiratory illness, and 22,248 fewer GP consultations, saving around £6.7million -      21,045 fewer GP visits for ear infection, saving £750,000 -      361 fewer cases of the potentially fatal disease necrotising enterocolitis, saving more than £6million (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 02.12.2014

Prof. Denise Kendrick Professor of Primary Care Research Division of Primary Care, University Park Nottingham UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Denise Kendrick Professor of Primary Care Research Division of Primary Care, University Park Nottingham UK Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Prof. Kendrick: More than 1 million US children aged 0-4 years attend emergency departments because of  a fall each year. Approximately half of all ED attendances in this age group are for falls, and most of these are falls from furniture, most commonly from beds, chairs , baby walkers, bouncers, changing tables and high chairs. In the US around 18,000 0-4 year olds are admitted to hospital following a fall each year  and in 2012 there were 31 deaths in the US in 0-4 year olds from falls. Healthcare costs for falls in the US  were estimated at $439 million for hospitalised children and $643 million for  ED attendances in 2005. We found that children were more likely to attend hospital because of a fall from furniture in families that did not use safety gates across doorways or on stairs. For infants (aged 0-12 months) we found they were more likely to attend hospital because of a fall from furniture if they had been left on a raised surface (e.g. beds, sofas, work tops etc), had diapers changed on a raised surface or been put in a car seat or bouncing cradle on a raised surface. We also found that children aged over 3 years who had climbed or played on furniture were more likely to have a fall requiring a hospital visit than children who had not. Finally we found that children whose parents had not taught their children rules about climbing on objects in the kitchen were more likely to have a fall needing a hospital visit than children whose parents had taught these rules. (more…)
NYU, Pain Research, Pediatrics / 21.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Regina Marie Sullivan PhD Professor Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Nathan Kline Institute The Child Study Center at NYU Langone Medical Center Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry One Park Ave 8th Floor, New York, NY 10016 Medical Research: What is the background for this study?  Dr. Sullivan: Managing pain during medical procedures in a critically important issue in medicine today. Our study was designed to better understand one method of reducing pain in young infants - having the caregiver be in contact with the baby during the painful procedure, which reduces the infant's behavioral response to the medical procedure. This study explored the neural basis of the ability of the caregiver to reduce the pain response. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Pediatrics, Pulmonary Disease / 21.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Wanjun Cui, MS PhD Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Authors’ response: Asthma is a leading chronic disease among adolescents that adversely affects their health. However, it is unclear how asthma influences their perceived health or health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Because their perceptions of their health may differ from those of their caregivers (such as parents or health professionals), knowing how adolescents with asthma would rate their own health is very important. Our study compares the responses of adolescents with and without asthma about different aspects of HRQOL including their overall health, their recent physical health, their recent mental health, and their recent activity limitations due to health. Unlike previous U.S. studies based on small clinical samples, our study used a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents that can be generalized to the whole U.S. adolescent population. We found that asthma is adversely associated with almost all these aspects of HRQOL but only among those with asthma and current symptoms such as wheezing and dry cough. Adolescents with asthma without current symptoms did not report significantly worse HRQOL than those without asthma. For example, compared with those who never had asthma, adolescents with asthma and symptoms of dry cough or wheezing reported significantly more fair or poor self-rated health (14% vs. 8%), 34% more recent physically unhealthy days , and 26% more recent mentally unhealthy days. More importantly, adolescents with asthma who currently smoked cigarettes or reported limited physical functioning reported even worse physical and mental HRQOL. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 20.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maria Pesonen MD, PhD Specialist in Dermatology Assistant Chief Medical Officer Finnish Institute of Occupational Health Occupational Medicine Helsinki, Finland Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Pesonen: Skin prick test is a widely used, established methods in assessing immediate (i.e. immunoglobulin E-mediated) sensitization. However, the knowledge on long-term reproducibility and predictive value of skin prick testing in children has been limited. We assessed the predictive value of skin prick testing in the setting of a follow-up study on healthy, unselected newborns, who were followed up to age 20 years with skin prick testing with 11 common allergens, structured interview and clinical examination at ages 5, 11 and 20 years. The reproducibility of skin prick test positivity at age 5 years was 100% at ages 11 and 20 years, i.e. none of the skin prick positive subjects turned negative during the follow-up. Gaining of new sensitizations to aeroallergens was common. Skin prick test positivity at age 5 years predicted allergic symptoms at ages 11 (sensitivity 28%, specificity 94%) and 20 years (sensitivity 23%, specificity 91%), but not atopic dermatitis. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 19.11.2014

Dr. Abhay Lodha, MBBS, MD, DM, MSC Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Staff Neonatologist and Clinical Epidemiologist, Section of Neonatology, Alberta Health Services, Chairman, CME Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Abhay Lodha, MBBS, MD, DM, MSC Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Staff Neonatologist and Clinical Epidemiologist, Section of Neonatology, Alberta Health Services, Chairman, CME Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Lodha: Apneic episodes (cessation of breathing) occur in the premature infants. Caffeine is the most commonly used medication for apnea of prematurity. Normally caffeine started on day 3 of life for apnea. However, there is no strong evidence that starting caffeine on day 1 or 2 life has some extra advantages in premature infants. Our study has a large number of premature infants. Our study determined the association of early initiation of caffeine therapy in very preterm neonates and neonatal outcomes. The main finding of our study was that early use of caffeine was associated with a reduction in the rate of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus. We did not find any adverse impact on any other outcomes. (more…)
OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 16.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ian R. Macumber MD Pediatric Nephrology, Seattle Children's Hospital Seattle, Washington Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Macumber: The main finding is that there is a strong association between maternal obesity and odds of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) in offspring.  This relationship remains strong when looking at offspring with renal malformation (excluding non-renal congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract), or in offspring with isolated congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (no congenital anomalies elsewhere in the body).  There is a dose-response relationship to this association, with the offspring of extremely obese mothers have even higher odds of having congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 15.11.2014

Elyse O. Kharbanda MD MPH HealthPartners Medical and Dental GroupMedicalResearch.com Interview Elyse O. Kharbanda MD MPH HealthPartners Medical and Dental Group Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Kharbanda: In 2010, due to a pertussis outbreak and neonatal deaths, the California Department of Public Health recommended that the Tdap vaccine be administered during pregnancy.  Tdap is now recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for all pregnant women during each pregnancy.  We wanted to assess the impact of this recommendation. The main findings were that Tdap vaccination during pregnancy was not associated with increased risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm birth, or having a baby who is small for his or her gestational age. The study found a small increased risk for being diagnosed with chorioamnionitis, an inflammation of the fetal membranes caused by bacterial infection.  These findings should be interpreted with caution as the magnitude of the risk was small.  In addition, there was no associated risk for preterm birth, which often occurs as a result of chorioamnionitis.  Furthermore, among the subset of women with a chorioamnionitis diagnosis whose charts were reviewed, many did not have a clinical picture that was clearly consistent with chorioamnionitis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Toxin Research / 11.11.2014

Marcel J Casavant MD FACEP FACMT Chief of Toxicology, Nationwide Children's Hospita Medical Director, Central Ohio Poison Center Clinical Professor, The Ohio State University Colleges of Medicine & Pharmacy Columbus OH USA 43205-2696MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marcel J Casavant MD FACEP FACMT Chief of Toxicology, Nationwide Children's Hospita Medical Director, Central Ohio Poison Center Clinical Professor, The Ohio State University Colleges of Medicine & Pharmacy Columbus OH USA 43205-2696 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Dr. Casavant: Laundry detergent pods reached the US market shelves in early 2012; almost immediately parents started calling poison control centers about their children’s exposures to these products. Since then the CDC, the CPSC, the American Association of Poison Centers, and others have issued warnings about these products. Several papers and numerous abstracts have described injuries to various groups of children; we therefore chose to analyze and describe what happened to all US children with exposure to one of these products reported to a poison control center in 2012 and 2013. The main finding: these products are dangerous to children! Over those two years we found more than 17,000 young children exposed to pods, more than 6,000 seen in an emergency department, more than 700 admitted to a hospital, and among these, more than half required intensive care. Two young children died, both in 2013. Our study was published online on November 10, 2014 (http://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/Pages/Laundry-Detergent-Pods-Can-Be-a-Serious-Poisoning-Risk-in-Children.aspx) and will appear in the December 2014 print edition of Pediatrics (volume 134 number 6). (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Infections, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies, Vanderbilt / 07.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marie R Griffin MD MPH Director, Vanderbilt MPH Program Department of Health Policy Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville TN 37212 Marie R Griffin MD MPH Director, Vanderbilt MPH Program Department of Health Policy Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville TN 37212 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Griffin: In Tennessee, the introduction in 2010 of a new pneumococcal vaccine for infants and young children was associated with a 27 percent decline in pneumonia hospital admissions across the state among children under age 2. The recent decline in Tennessee comes on top of an earlier 43 percent decline across the United States associated with the introduction in 2000 of the first pneumococcal vaccine for children under 2 years of age. (more…)
Author Interviews, Orthopedics, Pediatrics, Rheumatology / 06.11.2014

Professor Flavia Cicuttin School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine Monash University and Alfred Hospital Melbourne, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Flavia Cicuttin School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine Monash University and Alfred Hospital Melbourne, Australia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Prof. Cicuttin: Previous research found that low birth weight and preterm birth have been linked to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and reduced bone mass in adulthood.  Given these adverse outcomes related to birth weight and preterm birth we set out to investigate if low birth weight and preterm birth also played a role in increase risk of joint replacement surgery as adults. We found that  low birth weight and preterm birth were associated with a 2-fold increased risk of hip but not knee replacement surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, Erasmus, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics / 05.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anne Tharner, PhD and Jessica C. Kiefte-de Jong, PhD Department of Epidemiology Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam The Netherlands Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Constipation is one of the most common health problems in children, and occurs in most cases without organic reason. In our study, we examined if fussy eating behavior might be related to constipation in children. “Fussy eaters” are children who reject specific foods – often (green and bitter) vegetables – and often compensate this with the intake of less healthy but highly palatable foods (such as fast food or sweets). This kind of diet might be one of the reasons for constipation in children, but at the same time, children might develop difficult eating patterns due to digestive problems such as constipation. Therefore, we examined whether fussy eating and functional constipation mutually affect each other, which might point to the development of a vicious cycle. We examined this in a large study including almost 5000 children aged 2-6 years who participated in a longitudinal study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Families were regularly followed up starting in pregnancy. Our main finding was that fussy eating co-exists with functional constipation and also predicts subsequent development of functional constipation. In addition, we also found evidence for the reverse, as functional constipation predicted subsequent fussy eating behavior. Together with previous studies, our findings suggest that indeed a vicious cycle may develop throughout childhood in which children’s constipation problems and problematic eating behavior mutually affect each other. On the one hand, fussy eating might affect the development of functional constipation via poor dietary quality which is a characteristic for the diet of fussy eaters. On the other hand, our findings show that functional constipation in also predicts future fussy eating. This pathway is less well studied, but it is conceivable that children with constipation and the accompanying abdominal pain and painful defecation may develop problematic eating behavior. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 05.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Angela Alberga, PhD Eyes High Postdoctoral Fellow Werklund School of Education University of Calgary Ronald J. Sigal, MD, MPH, FRCPC Professor of Medicine, Kinesiology, Cardiac Sciences and Community Health Sciences Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary Health Senior Scholar, Alberta Innovates-Health Solutions Member, O'Brien Institute of Public Health, Libin Cardiovascular Institute and Julia McFarlane Diabetes Research Centre Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: The Healthy Eating, Aerobic and Resistance Training in Youth study examined the effects of exercise on body composition and cardiometabolic risk markers in adolescents with obesity. A total of 304 overweight or obese adolescents were randomized to four groups. The first group performed resistance training involving weight machines and some free weights; the second performed only aerobic exercise on treadmills, elliptical machines and stationary bikes; the third underwent combined aerobic and resistance training; and the last group did no exercise training. All four groups received nutritional counseling. In analyses involving all participants regardless of adherence, each exercise program reduced percent body fat, waist circumference and body mass index to a similar extent, while the diet-only control group had no changes in these variables. In participants who exercised at least 2.8 times per week, we found that combined aerobic and resistance training produced greater decreases in percentage body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index than aerobic training alone. Waist circumference decreased close to seven centimeters in adherent participants randomized to combined aerobic plus resistance exercise, versus about four centimeters in those randomized to do just one type of exercise, with no change in those randomized to diet alone. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 27.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ian M. Paul, M.D., M.Sc. Professor of Pediatrics and Public Health Sciences Chief, Division of Academic General Pediatrics Associate Vice Chair for Research, Department of Pediatrics Penn State College of Medicine Hershey, PA 17033-0850 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Paul: This study highlights that a significant placebo effect exists in the treatment of young children with cough due to colds because agave nectar and placebo both resulted in improvement of child symptoms by parents compared with no treatment. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 24.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Louise-Anne McNutt, PhD Associate Director, Institute for Health and the Environment University at Albany, State University of New YorkLouise-Anne McNutt, PhD Associate Director, Institute for Health and the Environment University at Albany, State University of New York Jessica Nadeau, PhD Epidemiologist, University at Albany, State University of New YorkJessica Nadeau, PhD Epidemiologist, University at Albany, State University of New York Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: The study found that about 25% of infants consistently deviated from the routine vaccine schedule recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).  Alterations included either consistently refusing a recommended vaccine or reducing the number of vaccines given at each visit. These deviations are generally associated with intent to use an alternative vaccination schedule. Infants who did not follow the AAP recommended schedule were more likely to be unprotected against vaccine preventable diseases for a longer period of time. Only 1 in10 infants vaccinated on an alternative schedule were up-to-date at 9 months of age. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 23.10.2014

Dr Ken Ong, Programme Leader & Paediatric Endocrinologist MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge Box 285 Institute of Metabolic Science Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge  MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Dr Ken Ong, Programme Leader & Paediatric Endocrinologist MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge Box 285 Institute of Metabolic Science Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge Medical Research: What are the main findings of this report? Dr. Ong: We found that genetic factors that predict adult obesity were associated with faster weight gain and growth during infancy – the findings indicate that the biological mechanisms that predispose to later obesity are already active from birth. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, Infections, Nutrition, Pediatrics / 22.10.2014

Georg Loss, PhD Dr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich Munich, GermanyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Georg Loss, PhD Dr. von Hauner Children’s Hospital Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich Munich, Germany Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Loss: In this large population based cohort study we observed that consumption of fresh unprocessed cow’s milk protected from respiratory infections, febrile illness and inflammation of the middle ear during the first year of life. The risk of developing these conditions was reduced by up to 30%, and the effect was diminished if the milk was heated at home before consumption. Conventionally pasteurized milk retained the ability to reduce the risk of febrile illness, while exposure to the higher temperatures used in UHT (Ultra-heat-treatment) processing eliminated the effect altogether. Importantly, the positive impact of fresh milk could be clearly separated from the confounding effects of other elements of the children’s nutrition. Furthermore, infants fed on unprocessed milk were found to have lower levels of the C-reactive protein, which is a measure of inflammation status. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Pediatrics, Vitamin D / 22.10.2014

Jonathon Maguire MD MSc FRCPC Pediatrician and Scientist  Department of Pediatrics Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute St. Michael’s Hospital University of TorontoMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Jonathon Maguire MD MSc FRCPC Pediatrician and Scientist  Department of Pediatrics Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute St. Michael’s Hospital University of Toronto   Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Maguire: One of the main health benefits of cow’s milk is vitamin D.  We were interested to know if non-cow’s milk supports children’s vitamin D blood levels as well as cow’s milk. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 20.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr.  Huiyun Xiang, MD, MPH, PhD Center for Injury Research and Policy The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OhioDr.  Huiyun Xiang, MD, MPH, PhD Center for Injury Research and Policy The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio Jeb Phillips, BA Project Specialist, Injury Research and Policy Staff Nationwide Children’s Hospital,  Columbus, OhioJeb Phillips, BA Project Specialist, Injury Research and Policy Staff Nationwide Children’s Hospital,  Columbus, Ohio   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: From 2002-2012, a child younger than 6 years old experienced an out-of-hospital medication error every 8 minutes. That’s a total of 696,937 during the study period, or 63,358 per year. Almost all happened at the child’s residence. The rate and number of errors decreased with increasing age. Analgesics were the mostly commonly involved medications (25.2%), followed by cough and cold medications (24.6%). More than 1 in 4 (27%) of the errors happened when a child inadvertently took or was given medication twice. Errors also happened when children took or were given an incorrect dose, when medication measurements were confused, and when the wrong medication was taken or given. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Pediatrics, Sexual Health / 07.10.2014

Jeff R. Temple, PhD Associate Professor and Psychologist Director, Behavioral Health and Research Department of Ob/Gyn UTMB Health Galveston, TX 77555-0587MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jeff R. Temple, PhD Associate Professor and Psychologist Director, Behavioral Health and Research Department of Ob/Gyn UTMB Health Galveston, TX 77555-0587 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Temple: Through previous research, we know that teen sexting is related to actual sexual behaviors, but we did not have any information on the temporal link between these two behaviors. In short, we found that teens who sexted had 32% higher odds of being sexually active over the next year relative to youth who did not sext – this was even after controlling for history of prior sexual behavior, ethnicity, gender, and age. We also found that active sexting (actually sending a naked picture to another teen) mediated the relationship between passive sexting (asking for or being asked for a sext) and sexual behaviors. In other words, while sending a sext was predictive of subsequent sexual behavior, asking for/being asked for a sext was only associated with sexual behavior through its relationship with active sexting. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 03.10.2014

Sara Sammallahti, MA Institute of Behavioral Sciences University of Helsinki, Finland. MedicalResearch.com Interview, Sara Sammallahti, MA Institute of Behavioral Sciences University of Helsinki, Finland.   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Not only did we find that faster growth right after preterm birth is associated with better neurocognitive abilities - we also showed that these effects persist into adulthood, that they are seen across a wide spectrum of abilities, and that head growth very early on seems especially relevant in predicting long-term outcomes. These associations were found when we examined 103 young adults who were born prematurely and with very low birth weight (under 1500 grams). (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Pediatrics / 24.09.2014

Dr. Lorraine Yeung Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDCMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Lorraine Yeung Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Yeung: In this report, we looked at the percentages of children who received various recommended clinical preventive services. We found that millions of infants, children, and adolescents in the U.S. did not receive key clinical preventive services. This report provides a baseline snapshot of the use of 11 key clinical preventive services before or shortly after the Affordable Care Act went into effect. A focus of the Affordable Care Act is on improving prevention of illness and disability and it does so by requiring new health insurance plans to provide certain clinical preventive services at no additional cost — with no copays or deductibles. This is important because we know increasing the use of these services can improve children’s health and promote healthy lifestyles that will enable them to reach their full potential. Some of the important findings in this report were:          In 2007, parents of almost eight in 10 (79 percent) children aged 10-47 months reported that they were not asked by healthcare providers to complete a formal screen for developmental delays in the past year.          In 2009, more than half (56 percent) of children and adolescents did not visit the dentist in the past year and nearly nine of 10 (86 percent) children and adolescents did not receive a dental sealant or a topical fluoride application in the past year.          Nearly half (47 percent) of females aged 13-17 years had not received their recommended first dose of HPV vaccine in 2011.          Approximately one in three (31 percent) outpatient clinic visits made by 11-21 year-olds during 2004–2010 had no documentation of tobacco use status; eight of 10 (80 percent) of those who screened positive for tobacco use did not receive any cessation assistance.          Approximately one in four (24 percent) outpatient clinic visits for preventive care made by 3-17 year olds during 2009-2010 had no documentation of blood pressure measurement. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, JAMA, Pediatrics / 17.09.2014

Lex W Doyle MD BS MSc FRACP Professor of Neonatal Paediatrics Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology The Royal Women’s Hospital Parkville, Victoria, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lex W Doyle MD BS MSc FRACP Professor of Neonatal Paediatrics Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology The Royal Women’s Hospital Parkville, Victoria, Australia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Doyle: From collectively pooling data from five large trials carried out around the world over the past 20 years, we know that magnesium sulfate given under strict medical protocols in hospital to women threatening to deliver preterm reduces the risk of cerebral  palsy in their children in early childhood.  Following  from this knowledge, magnesium sulfate is now given routinely to women, under strict medical conditions, who are threatening to deliver very early in Australia, and in other parts of the world, to try to prevent cerebral palsy in their child.  What we do not know is if magnesium sulfate used this way has any longer-term effects on the brain or on other important outcomes. One of the initial studies that contributed to the overall evidence about cerebral palsy was carried out in Australia and New Zealand and completed more than 10 years ago.  Over 1000 women and their babies were enrolled in that study and although the rate of cerebral palsy was not substantially reduced by magnesium sulfate in our study, we showed that there were fewer children at 2 years of age who were not walking in the group whose mothers were given magnesium compared with those whose mothers were given placebo.  With this knowledge, and given the unknown longer-term benefits or risks, we re-evaluated the children from our study at school-age, between 6-11 years of age.  We thoroughly evaluated their brain function, including movement and co-ordination, thinking ability, behaviour, and school progress, as well as general health and well-being.  The basic message from our longer-term study is that magnesium sulfate, as used in our trial, does not have any substantial benefits or harms on brain or cognitive function, or any other outcome at school age. (more…)