Author Interviews, Flu - Influenza, NEJM, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 15.12.2013

Ghassan Dbaibo, M.D., FAAP Professor and Vice-Chair for Research and Faculty Development Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine Head, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Director, Center for Infectious Diseases Research Professor, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics American University of Beirut Beirut, LebanonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ghassan Dbaibo, M.D., FAAP Professor and Vice-Chair for Research and Faculty Development Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine Head, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Director, Center for Infectious Diseases Research Professor, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics American University of Beirut Beirut, Lebanon MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dbaibo:
  • 55% efficacy (95% CI 39–67%) for prevention of all influenza
  • These results are comparable with other estimates of efficacy and effectiveness for trivalent inactivated flu vaccines in this age group
  •  73% efficacy (97.5% CI 47–86%) for prevention of moderate-to-severe influenza
  • By preventing moderate-to-severe influenza, vaccination prevented the most clinically consequential outcomes of infection, reducing hospitalisations by 75% and medical visits by 69%.
  • Seroprotection rates of more than 95% for each of the four influenza strains in the vaccine
  • An acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 14.12.2013

Sylvie Mrug, PhD Departments of Psychology and Health Behavior University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama;MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sylvie Mrug, PhD Departments of Psychology and Health Behavior University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama;   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mrug: Experiencing early puberty and having a best friend who misbehaves at age 11 both contribute to more aggressive and delinquent behavior in adolescent girls. Although most of these effects are transient and disappear by age 16, early maturing girls are at risk for continually higher delinquent behavior. Early puberty also seems to make girls more vulnerable to negative peer influences. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Transplantation / 10.12.2013

Rachel Patzer, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Emory University School of Medicine Department of Surgery, Division of TransplantationMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rachel Patzer, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Emory University School of Medicine Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Patzer: We found significant racial/ethnic differences in important health outcomes among pediatric and adolescent patients who received a liver transplantation at a large transplant center in the Southeastern U.S., where rates of mortality and graft failure were higher among minorities compared to white patients. (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, BMJ, Pediatrics / 06.12.2013

Dr. Meghan Azad, PhD Banting Postdoctoral Fellow Department of Pediatrics University of AlbertaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Meghan Azad, PhD Banting Postdoctoral Fellow Department of Pediatrics University of Alberta MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Azad: In this study, our goal was to evaluate the clinical evidence for using probiotics (live "healthy bacteria") to prevent childhood asthma.  We reviewed the results of 20 clinical trials involving over 4000 infants, where probiotics were administered during pregnancy or the first year of life, and found no evidence to support the use of probiotics for asthma prevention.  Children receiving probiotics were just as likely to develop asthma as children receiving placebo.  Similarly, there was no effect of probiotic supplementation on the development of wheezing. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Nutrition, Pediatrics, University of Michigan / 01.12.2013

Richard Schwartz, Ph.D. Professor, Associate Dean for Graduate Academic and Student Affairs College of Natural Science Michigan State University Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-4320MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Richard Schwartz, Ph.D. Professor, Associate Dean for Graduate Academic and Student Affairs College of Natural Science Michigan State University Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-4320 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schwartz: The main finding is that exposure to a high fat diet from the age of puberty onwards hastened the development of chemical carcinogen-induced breast cancer in absence of weight gain. We also found that prior to the appearance of any tumors, we could detect changes in the mammary gland that included increased cellular proliferation, increased vascularity, and changes in immune function. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Pediatrics / 28.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Marzia Lazzerini, PhD Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS “Burlo Garofolo,” Trieste, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In children and adolescent with Crohn’s disease refractory to first and second line treatment, thalidomide was effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission. About 60% of children achieved clinical remission, and clinical remission was  maintained for a mean time of 180 weeks. The main reason to stop thalidomide was peripheral neuropathy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, McGill, Pediatrics / 25.11.2013

Dr. Michael Shevell Chair of the Pediatrics Department at the McGill Faculty of Medicine and Pediatrician-in-Chief at the Montreal Children’s Hospital and the McGill University Health CentreMedicalResearch.com Interview Dr. Michael Shevell Chair of the Pediatrics Department at the McGill Faculty of Medicine and Pediatrician-in-Chief at the Montreal Children’s Hospital and the McGill University Health Centre MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Shevell: At risk term infants who have spent some time in a Level III NICU after birth are at substantially increased later risk for an autistic spectrum disorder. Frequently this disorder occurs in conjunction with substantial co-morbidity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 22.11.2013

Dr.. Melissa HoltMedicalResearch.com Melissa K. Holt, PhD School of Education, Boston University Boston, Massachusetts   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Dr. Holt: Results from this study indicated that among the sample of adolescents surveyed, bullies and bully-victims (i.e., youth who are both perpetrators and targets of bullying) engaged in more sexual risk taking behaviors than their peers.  Specifically, they were more likely to report casual sex and sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs. For instance, 33.8% of bullies and 23% of bully-victims reported sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs in contrast to 14% of youth not involved in bullying.  Notably, findings suggested that bullying involvement might be a more salient predictor of sexual risk taking for heterosexual than GLBTQ adolescents. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders / 19.11.2013

Dr. Kathryn Orzech  PhD Postdoctoral fellow,Charting the Digital Lifespan University of Dundee, Scotland, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Kathryn Orzech  PhD Postdoctoral fellow,Charting the Digital Lifespan University of Dundee, Scotland, UK   MedicalResesarch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Orzech: We found that acute illnesses, such as colds, flu, and gastroenteritis were more common among healthy adolescents with shorter sleep.  Specifically, our main analysis found that reported bouts of illness (analyzed on a bouts-of-illness-per-interview basis) declined with longer sleep for both male and female high school students.  Longer sleep was also generally protective against school absences that students attributed to illness. There were sex differences, with males reporting fewer illness bouts than females, even with similar sleep durations.  This is consistent with another recent study that showed a lower impact of shorter sleep on male adolescents (in that case the outcome was male adiposity), but more research is needed. We also conducted a secondary analysis to examine total sleep time in matched 6-day windows before illness and before wellness in the same adolescents. Although the number of participants who met our strict criteria for a healthy 6-day window before illness or wellness was only 18 (I was amazed at how difficult it was to find adolescents who reported being completely well for 6 consecutive days), we were able to see a trend in the data toward shorter sleep before illness vs. wellness. Because of the difficulty in comparing sleep before illness vs. wellness, we conducted a qualitative analysis as well, choosing two 17 year old males who were both shorter sleepers, but who reported very different illness profiles - 0 days of illness vs. 35 days of illness across the school term. An in-depth look at notes made by interviewers allowed us to create brief case studies to illustrate that not all shorter sleepers are alike.  More irregular sleep timing across weeknights and weekends (much shorter sleep during the week and longer sleep times on the weekend), and a preference for scheduling work and social time later in the evening hours may both contribute to differences in illness outcomes. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 18.11.2013

Brad J. Bushman, PhD Professor of Communication and Psychology, Margaret Hall and Robert Randal Rinehart Chair of Mass Communication School of Communication, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, NetherlandsGun Violence Trends in Movies Brad J. Bushman, PhD Professor of Communication and Psychology, Margaret Hall and Robert Randal Rinehart Chair of Mass Communication The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bushman: Gun violence in PG-13 movies has tripled since 1985, the year the PG-13 rating was introduced. When the PG-13 rating was introduced, PG-13 films had about as much gun violence as G and PG films. Now PG-13 films have significantly more gun violence than R-rated films. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Metabolic Syndrome, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders, Surgical Research / 16.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nina Berentzen Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services National Institute for Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven The Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This study in 11-12 year old children shows that self-reported characteristics of sleep quality were not associated with blood pressure and HbA1c; and that in girls, but not in boys, some sleep characteristics were associated with anthropometric outcomes (BMI, waist circumference) and cholesterol levels. More specifically, in girls, longer time in bed was associated with lower BMI and waist circumference; having night-time awakenings with higher total cholesterol, going late to bed while rising early with higher total and HDL cholesterol; and feeling sleepy/tired during daytime with lower HDL cholesterol and with higher total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio. We report new findings for daytime outcomes of sleep quality that were not studied before in relation to cardiometabolic risk; e.g. difficulty with getting up in the morning, feeling rested after waking, and feeling sleepy or tired during the day. Our study therefore offers insight not only in characteristics of sleep at night, but also in consequences of sleep during the day. (more…)
Author Interviews, Chocolate, Nature, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 12.11.2013

Magdalena Cuenca García, PhD University of Granada Department of Physiology, School of Medicine Avd. Madrid 12; 18012 Granada (Spain)MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Magdalena Cuenca García, PhD University of Granada Department of Physiology, School of Medicine Avd. Madrid 12; 18012 Granada (Spain) MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that a higher chocolate consumption was associated with lower levels of central and total fatness in European adolescents. Of note is that the observed association was independent of total energy intake and saturated fat intake as well as objectively measured physical activity. In addition, results remained unchanged after adjusting for foods with high catechins concentration as fruit, vegetables and tea; as well as other products such as coffee that could influence the observed association between chocolate consumption and markers of total and central body fat. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Toxin Research / 11.11.2013

Mark A D’Andrea, MD, FACRO University Cancer and Diagnostic Centers Houston, TexasMedicalResearch.com interview with: Mark A D’Andrea, MD, FACRO University Cancer and Diagnostic Centers Houston, Texas MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? D’Andrea: Human exposure to benzene is associated with multiple adverse health effects leading to hematological malignancies including leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia and chromosomal aberrations. In addition, benzene exposure can affect a variety of organs such as the liver, kidney, and brain. Compared to adults, children have a higher susceptibility to environmental chemical exposures including benzene. In this study, we assessed the adverse health effects of the benzene exposure in children (< 17 years) following a flaring incident at the British petroleum refinery in the Texas City, Texas. The findings were compared with those children not exposed to the benzene. We found that white blood cell counts were significantly decreased in benzene exposed children compared with the unexposed children. Conversely, platelet counts were increased significantly in the benzene exposed group compared with the unexposed group. Similarly, benzene exposed children had significantly higher levels of serum creatinine levels than those unexposed to benzene. Furthermore, considered indicators of hepatic damage, the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase, and alanine amino transferase were elevated in the benzene exposed children compared with the unexposed children. Moreover, children exposed to benzene experienced somatic symptoms, with headache, unsteady gait, and memory loss being reported the most frequently occurring events, followed by upper respiratory symptoms cough, nausea/vomiting, skin rash, shortness of breath, wheezing, dizziness, chest pain, painful joints, and weight loss. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Pediatrics / 10.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com interview with: Martha Mullett, MD MPH Neonatology West Virginia Universty Ped&Neo 1 Medical Center Dr Morgantown, WV 26506Martha Mullett, MD MPH Neonatology West Virginia Universty Ped&Neo 1 Medical Center Dr Morgantown, WV 26506   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mullett: The unique findings in this study relate to differences in triglycerides (TG) in premature infants and small for gestational age (SGA) infants when in 5th grade, at which time the children are approximately 11 years old.  Premature infants have higher triglyceride levels in 5th grade than term infants.(p<.05)  This difference appears in those premature infants who become overweight/obese by this age, but this reaches only a trend level. (p=.058) SGA infants who become overweight/obese by 5th grade (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) have TG that are significantly higher than all other 5th grade groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 09.11.2013

Alastair Sutcliffe M.D., Ph.D. From the Institute of Child Health University College LondonMedicalResearch.com  Interview with: Alastair Sutcliffe M.D., Ph.D. From the Institute of Child Health University College London   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?   Dr. Sutcliffe: Good NEWS for couples who need assisted conception. All the births (106,000) from Great Britain over 18 years were linked to the National Childhood Cancer Registry from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (which has recorded all births sine 1991 by law.)Those children who showed up on both registries, had IVF conception and childhood cancer. We predicted the number we would expect from the known national childhood cancer rates. We found ALMOST IDENTICAL rates 108 in our group and 109 predicted. NO INCREASED RISK OF CANCER AFTER IVF CONCEPTION IN OFFSPRING. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Pediatrics / 07.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chris Fritz BSs PEZZ Center for Pediatric Endocrinology Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous physical activity (PA) behaviour in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase. 102 healthy school children were randomly placed in two groups. The control group continued three PE classes per week, whereas the intervention group had two out of three PE classes replaced by an individualised strength training program. At baseline there was no difference in anthropometry, body composition and PAEE between the groups. At the end of the training intervention, we found a significant increase of upper and lower body strength in the intervention group in boys and in girls. Boys significantly increased their PA by 10%. Without taking into account the energy expenditure during the strength training, the 10% PAEE increase corresponds to a weekly bike ride of 28 miles for a child of 40 kg body weight. Or in other words, an individualised school based strength training program increases energy expenditure outside the intervention by an equivalent of about 7kg of body fat corresponding to 10kg of chocolate per year. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 07.11.2013

Thomas H. Inge, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics Director of the Surgical Weight Loss Program for Teens Director for the Center for Bariatric Research and Innovation Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Thomas H. Inge, MD, PhD, FACS, FAAP Surgical Director, Surgical Weight Loss Program for Teens Director, Center for Bariatric Research and Innovation Attending Surgeon, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Professor, UC Department of Surgery Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Inge: The mean age of the 242 participants of this observational study was 17.1±1.6 years and the median BMI was 50.5 kg/m2.  Fifty-one percent demonstrated four or more major co-morbid conditions.  Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and adjustable gastric banding were performed in 66%, 28%, and 6% of subjects, respectively.  There were no deaths during the initial hospitalization or within 30 days of surgery; major complications were seen in 19 subjects (8%). Minor complications were noted in 36 subjects (15%).  All re-operations and 85% of re-admissions were related to WLS. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders, Weight Research / 05.11.2013

Chantelle Hart, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Public Health Center for Obesity Research & Education Department of Public Health 3223 N. Broad Street Philadelphia, PA 19140MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chantelle Hart, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Public Health Center for Obesity Research & Education Department of Public Health Philadelphia, PA 19140   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hart: Following one week of sleeping their typical amount, children 8-11 years old were asked to decrease and increase their time in bed by 1.5 hours/night for one week each in random order.  Compared to when children decreased their sleep, when they increased their sleep, they reported consuming 134 kcal/day fewer, had lower fasting levels of leptin, a hunger-regulating hormone that is also highly correlated with the amount of adipose tissue, and weighed approximately 0.5 lbs less.  Reported decreases in food intake were most pronounced later in the day. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 30.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview Jennifer M. Poti PhD Candidate, Nutritional Epidemiology University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Consumption of solid fat and added sugar (SoFAS) by children exceeds recommendations, but it was not known where kids obtain these “empty calories.” Analyzing data from over 22,000 US children, we found that children consumed about 1/3 of their calories as solid fat and added sugar for foods consumed from retail food stores (including grocery stores and supermarkets), schools, or fast food restaurants in 2009-2010, despite significant decreases from 1977 to 2010 at each location. These mean levels of empty calorie intake greatly exceeded recommended amounts not just for fast foods, but also for foods consumed from schools and from stores. For all survey years, foods consumed by children from schools were higher in solid fat content than foods obtained and consumed from retail food stores. (more…)
Author Interviews, Flu - Influenza, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 29.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Karen K. Wong, MD MPH Community Interventions for Infection Control Unit Division of Global Migration & Quarantine Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wong: There were 830 pediatric influenza-associated deaths reported to CDC during the 2004–2005 through 2011–2012 seasons; deaths occurred in children of all ages, and 43% had no high-risk medical conditions. Of children 6 months of age or older whose vaccination status was known, only 16% had been fully vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccine. (more…)
Author Interviews, Johns Hopkins, Pediatrics, Vitamin D / 24.10.2013

Meredith Atkinson, MD, MHS Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Division of Pediatric Nephrology Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD 21287 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Meredith Atkinson, MD, MHS Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Division of Pediatric Nephrology Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD 21287   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Atkinson: First, among a healthy cross-section of U.S. children, vitamin D deficiency defined as levels below 30 ng/mL (the currently accepted threshold for adequate vs. inadequate vitamin D) were associated with nearly twice the risk for anemia compared to those with sufficient vitamin D levels.  Secondly, when we looked specifically at Caucasian and African-American children, we found that children with the lowest vitamin D levels were at increased risk for anemia in both groups, but that the specific vitamin D level below which the anemia risk started to increase was much lower in the African-American children (12 ng/mL) than in the Caucasian children (20 mg/mL). (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 22.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Katherine Auger, MD, MSc Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Division of Hospital Medicine Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Auger: We examined hospitalization rates in infants for pertussis before versus after the recommendation to universally vaccinate all adolescents with Tdap.  We used mathematical modeling to predict the number of infant hospitalizations that would be expected without the Tdap vaccine policy.  We then compared these predicted numbers to the actual observed numbers of infant hospitalizations.  In 3 of the 4 years after Tdap vaccine policy, there were significantly fewer infant hospitalizations for pertussis than expected base on the predictions. (more…)
Cost of Health Care, Emergency Care, Pediatrics, University of Michigan / 20.10.2013

Adrianne Haggins, MD, MS University of Michigan Health System Department of Emergency Medicine Ann Arbor, MI  48109-5303MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adrianne Haggins, MD, MS University of Michigan Health System Department of Emergency Medicine Ann Arbor, MI  48109-5303 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Haggins: Since the implementation of the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) in 1997, the last national health care reform that broadly expanded insurance coverage, adolescent use of primary care and specialty care has increased substantially in comparison to no change seen among the comparison group (young adults, who were not covered).  Broadening insurance coverage for adolescents did not result in a decrease in emergency department use, while ED use in the comparison group increased over time.   (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 16.10.2013

Dr. Elizabeth V. Asztalos, MD, M.Sc., FRCPC Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre 2075 Bayview Ave., Room M4 230 Toronto, ON M4N 3M5MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Elizabeth V. Asztalos, MD, M.Sc., FRCPC Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre 2075 Bayview Ave., Room M4 230 Toronto, ON M4N 3M5   MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This study was focused to see if there were differences in the main neurodevelopmental outcomes of children whose mothers had participated in the original MACS trial. We found that there were no differences in the main outcomes of the trial as it related to the aspects of death and/or developmental. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 15.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ali Rowhani-Rahbar PhD, MD, MPH Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, California University of Washington Department of Epidemiology Health Sciences Seattle, WA 98195Dr. Ali Rowhani-Rahbar PhD, MD, MPH Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, California University of Washington Department of Epidemiology Health Sciences Seattle, WA 98195   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study? Answer: We found that the magnitude of increased risk of fever and seizures following immunization with the first dose of measles-containing vaccines during the second year of life depends on age.  Specifically, the risk of seizures attributable to the vaccine during the 7 to 10 days following vaccination was significantly greater among children 16-23 months of age (9.5 excess cases per 10,000 doses) than among children 12-15 months of age (4.0 excess cases per 10,000 doses). (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Pediatrics, Probiotics / 10.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Valerie Sung MBBS(Hons) FRACP MPH
NHMRC PhD Candidate Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, and Community Health Services Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Paediatrician, Centre for Community Child Health The Royal Children’s Hospital Parkville | 3052 | Victoria
 Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sung: The systematic review identified 12 studies (1825 infants)  that investigated the use of probiotics to treat or prevent infant colic (excessive crying of unknown cause in babies less than 3 months old). Three of the 5 treatment trials concluded probiotics effectively treat colic in breastfed babies; one suggested possible effectiveness in formula-fed babies with colic, and one suggested ineffectiveness in breastfed babies with colic. The three effective trials used the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in breastfed babies only; in two of these trials, the mothers were on a dairy-free diet. Five of the 7 prevention trials suggested probiotics to be ineffective in preventing colic. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics, Social Issues / 09.10.2013

Dr. Elisabeth Jeppesen MPH, PhD-fellow National Resource Center for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology, Oslo University, Hospital, The Norwegian Radiumhospitalet, OslMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Elisabeth Jeppesen MPH, PhD-fellow National Resource Center for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology, Oslo University, Hospital, The Norwegian Radiumhospitalet, Oslo, Norway mobil +47 951 05271 
Wisit: Ullernchaussen 70 (Radiumhospitalet) www.oslo-universitetssykehus.no MedicalResearch.com: What is the background of this study? Answer: Each year a considerable number of parents with children younger than 18 years of age are affected by cancer in a parent. Cancer in one of the parents might represent a potentially traumatic event and thereby may be a risk factor for psychosocial problems in the offspring. So far, teenagers’ psychosocial responses to parental cancer have only been studied to a limited extent in controlled trials. Using a trauma theory perspective many studies have shown significant direct associations between parental cancer and psychosocial problems in teenagers. However, the literature also indicates that most children and teenagers have normal stress reactions to such events. In order to identify the need for eventual prevention and intervention among teenagers exposed to such a stressor, we need more empirical knowledge of their psychosocial situation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Gluten, Nutrition, Pediatrics / 08.10.2013

Ketil Stordal Researcher/consultant paediatrician National Institute of Public Health NorwayMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ketil Stordal Researcher/consultant paediatrician National Institute of Public Health Norway MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study identified 324 children with celiac disease from a cohort of 82 000. Start of gluten in the diet later than 6 months was associated with a 27% increased risk of celiac disease compared to those starting during the 5th or 6th month of life. Breastfeeding was not protective; the duration of breastfeeding was slightly longer among children with celiac disease (10.4 vs 9.9 months) and breastfeeding at the time of gluten introduction was not associated with the later risk of celiac disease. The participating mothers had submitted detailed data since pregnancy including infant feeding practices, and these were collected before onset of the disease. (more…)
Hospital Acquired, Infections, Outcomes & Safety, Pediatrics / 07.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elias Iosifidis, MD, PhD Pediatric Infectious Disease Fellow Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Hippokration Hospital Thessaloniki, Greece MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Iosifidis: A large outbreak of VRE colonization was found in neonates hospitalized in an intensive care unit (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, NICU) after the implementation of an active surveillance program. Both high incidence of VRE colonization (or “colonization pressure”) and antibiotic use promoted VRE spread according to the results of the case control study. No proven sources of VRE were found (in local hospital or even in local livestock). A multifaceted management was implemented and included enhanced infection control measures, active surveillance cultures, cohorting of colonized patients, daily audits and optimization of antibiotic therapy. Although the outbreak had a biphasic pattern (monoclonal first wave followed by a polyclonal second wave) strict adherence to the aforementioned bundle of actions was proved essential for reducing VRE colonized cases. During the study period no new VRE infection occurred in neonates. (more…)