Addiction, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 29.07.2014

Sharon Levy, M.D., M.P.H. Director, Adolescent Substance Abuse Program Assistant Professor in Pediatrics Boston Children’s HospitaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sharon Levy, M.D., M.P.H. Director, Adolescent Substance Abuse Program Assistant Professor in Pediatrics Boston Children’s Hospital   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Levy: We found that questions that asked about the frequency of alcohol, tobacco and drug use accurately triaged adolescents into "risk categories".  In other words, kids who reported using alcohol or marijuana "once or twice" last year were unlikely to have a substance use disorder, those who reported "monthly" use were very likely to meet diagnostic criteria for a "mild" or "moderate" substance use disorder while those who reported use weekly or more were very likely to meet diagnostic criteria for a "severe" substance use disorder. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Lancet, Pediatrics / 10.07.2014

Pete Dodd (BA, BSc, MMath, PhD) Research associate in health economic modelling Health Economics and Decision Science ScHARR Regent Court SheffieldMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pete Dodd (BA, BSc, MMath, PhD) Research associate in health economic modelling Health Economics and Decision Science ScHARR Regent Court Sheffield Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dodd: We found that over 650,000 children under the age of 15 developed tuberculosis in the 22 highest burden countries in 2010, with around 7.6 million becoming infected with the bacillus and more than 50 million harboring latent infection. Our work points to a much larger gap between notifications and incidence in children compared to adults. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 08.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Olds, Ph.D. Professor of Pediatrics and Director Prevention Research Center for Family and Child Health University of Colorado Department of Pediatrics Aurora, Colorado   80045MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Olds, Ph.D. Professor of Pediatrics and Director Prevention Research Center for Family and Child Health University of Colorado Department of Pediatrics Aurora, Colorado   80045 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Olds: We’ve conducted a randomized controlled trial of a program of nurse home visiting for low-income women with no previous live firths during pregnancy and the first two years of the child’s life, with randomization of participants beginning in 1990. In our most recent follow-up of mothers and children in Memphis, those who received nurse-visitation were less likely to have died over a 2-decade period following the child’s birth than those in the control group.  Death among mothers and children in these age ranges in the US is rare and extraordinarily important for what it tells us about the health of the population studied in this trial. For children, the reduction in death was present for preventable causes, that is, sudden infant death syndrome, injuries, and homicide.  All of the child deaths for preventable causes were in the control group, for whom the rate was 1.6%.  None of the nurse-visited children died of preventable causes. The reductions in maternal mortality were found for two nurse-visited groups combined for this report: one received prenatal and newborn visitation and a second received visitation during pregnancy and through child age two.  Overall, mothers assigned to the control group were nearly 3 times more likely to die than those assigned to the two nurse-visited conditions.  The relative reduction in maternal mortality was particularly pronounced for deaths linked to maternal behaviors -- suicide, drug overdose, injuries, and homicide; for these external causes of death, 1.7% of the mothers in the control group had died, compared to 0.2% of those visited by nurses. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Genetic Research, NEJM, Pediatrics / 03.07.2014

Dr. Daniel AgardhMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Daniel Agardh M.D., Ph.D Department of Pediatrics Diabetes and Celiac Disease Unit Skåne University Hospital Malmo, Sweden, MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Agardh: In this study, we stratify the risk of celiac disease among children according to their HLA genotype and country of residence. We confirm that HLA-DQ2/2 genotype is the major risk factor for early celiac disease, but also show how the risk differs between the participating countries despite of sharing similar HLA risk. This points to the direction of an interaction between HLA and the environment that eventually lead to an autoimmune response in genetic susceptible children. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics / 29.06.2014

Johanna Petzoldt Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Chemnitzer Straße Dresden, GermanyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Johanna Petzoldt Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Chemnitzer Straße Dresden, Germany MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We investigated 286 mother-infant couples from the Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study from Dresden (Germany) via standardized interview and questionnaire. We found a robust relation from maternal lifetime anxiety disorders as early as prior to pregnancy to excessive crying in the offspring. Also, the association increased when considering incident anxiety disorders during pregnancy and after delivery. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Surgical Research / 26.06.2014

Frank H. Morriss, Jr., MD, MPH Professor of Pediatrics  - Neonatology University of Iowa Carver College of MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Frank H. Morriss, Jr., MD, MPH Professor of Pediatrics  - Neonatology University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Morriss: Our aim was to assess the association between surgery performed during the initial hospitalization of very low- birth-weight infants and subsequent death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-22 months’ corrected age. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of patients who were prospectively enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Generic Database from 1998 to 2009. Surgery was classified by the expected anesthesia type as either major surgery that likely would have been performed under general anesthesia; or minor surgery, that is, procedures that could have been performed under non-general anesthesia and in general were shorter in duration. There were 2,186 major surgery patients and 784 minor surgery patients and more than 9,000 patients who did not undergo surgery. We found that any surgical procedure  increased the adjusted risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment in low birth weight infants by about 30%. Not all surgical procedures were associated with increased risk, however. Compared with those who did not undergo surgery, patients  who were classified as having major surgery had a risk-adjusted odds ratio of death or neurodevelopmental impairment of 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.24-1.87). However, those who were classified as having minor surgery had no increased adjusted risk. Among survivors who had major surgery compared with those who did not undergo surgery the risk-adjusted odds ratio for neurodevelopmental impairment was 1.56 (95% confidence interval 1.26-1.93), and the risk-adjusted mean Bayley II Mental Developmental Index and mean Psychomotor Developmental Index values were significantly lower. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Infections, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 25.06.2014

Kay Wang Academic Clinical Lecturer Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences University of Oxford, Oxford, UKMedicalResearch.com: Interview with Kay Wang Academic Clinical Lecturer Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences University of Oxford, Oxford, UK MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wang: We have found evidence of recent whooping cough infection in 1 in 5 school age children who see their doctor with a persistent cough and in 1 in 6 children who have been fully vaccinated against whooping cough.  We have also shown that whooping cough can still cause clinically significant cough in fully vaccinated children. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Stanford, Surgical Research / 24.06.2014

Kay W. Chang, MD Associate Professor of Otolaryngology and Pediatrics Stanford University Department of Otolaryngology Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford Division of Pediatric OtolaryngologyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kay W. Chang, MD Associate Professor of Otolaryngology and Pediatrics Stanford University Department of Otolaryngology Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chang: At 18 months after surgery, weight percentiles in the study group increased by a mean of 6.3 percentile points, and body mass index percentiles increased by a mean of 8.0 percentile points. The greatest increases in weight percentiles were observed in children who were between the 1st and 60th percentiles for weight and younger than 4 years at the time of surgery. An increase in weight percentile was not observed in children who preoperatively were already above the 80th percentile in weight. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 17.06.2014

Michelle A. Mendez, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Nutrition University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Public Health Chapel Hill, NMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michelle A. Mendez, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Nutrition University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Public Health Chapel Hill, NC MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mendez: Using national surveillance data to examine trends in energy intake among children, we found that there was an initial decline in intakes from 2003-4 through 2007-08, which mirrored evidence that child obesity in the US may have begun to decline in that period. Subsequently, however, in 2009-10, energy intake increased in older children aged 12-19y, and reached a plateau in children aged <11y. This shift is consistent with reports that, particularly in older children, the downward trend in obesity levels may have been reversed in recent years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Pediatrics / 13.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Marcus de Goffau and Dr. Hermie Harmsen Department of Medical Microbiology University Medical Center Groningen MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Marcus de Goffau: In this study we aimed at analysing the gut microbiota composition of children aged 1–5 years with new-onset type 1 diabetes with the microbiota of age-matched healthy controls with a 16S rRNA based method (HITChip). The reason for this selection is that the increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes worldwide is particularly sharp under the age of 5 years; recent studies indicate that adverse changes in gut microbiota are associated with the development of type 1 diabetes, but little is known about the microbiota in children who have diabetes at an early age. In this study we found that the differences between healthy controls and diabetics change over time, highlighting the importance of a normal gut microbial development. Diabetic children younger than 3 years old often had lower numbers of the Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV, which contain many of the beneficial butyrate producers, than their healthy age-matched controls. The diabetic children older than 3 years have normal numbers of Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV yet not the right species composition; the ones which produce butyrate were underrepresented. The development of the microbiota of diabetic children appears to be one step behind that of healthy controls and/or appears to be going into an aberrant direction. The abundances of other bacteria such as Bacteroides and streptococci were also found to be aberrant in diabetic children. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, JAMA, Pediatrics, Yale / 03.06.2014

Dr. Christopher Wildeman PhD Associate Professor of Sociology Faculty fellow at the Center for Research on Inequalities and the Life Course (CIQLE), and at the Institution for Social and Policy Studies (ISPS) at Yale University.MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Christopher Wildeman PhD Associate Professor of Sociology Faculty fellow at the Center for Research on Inequalities and the Life Course (CIQLE), and at the Institution for Social and Policy Studies (ISPS) at Yale University. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wildeman: There are four key findings in the study. First, the cumulative risk of having a confirmed maltreatment report any time between birth and age 18 is much higher than most people would have thought. Fully 1 in 8 American children will experience this event at some point. Second, the risk of experiencing this event is highly unequally distributed, with Black and Hispanic experiencing it much more than Hispanic, White, and (especially) Asian children. Between 1 in 4 and 1 in 5 Black children will have a confirmed maltreatment report at any time in their childhood. For Native American, the risk is about 1 in 7. Third, the risk of maltreatment is quite similar for boys and girls. Finally, the highest risks of child maltreatment are in the first few years of life, suggesting that interventions aiming to diminish maltreatment should focus on parents with very young children. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Pulmonary Disease / 29.05.2014

Susan Wu MD Division of Hospital Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles Assistant Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern CaliforniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Susan Wu MD Division of Hospital Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles Assistant Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wu: We performed a randomized trial at 2 urban free-standing children's hospitals, comparing inhaled 3% hypertonic saline to 0.9% normal saline in patients under 24 months with bronchiolitis. Patients with prematurity less than 34 weeks, cyanotic heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, and previous episodes of wheezing or bronchodilator use were excluded. Patients were 4 mL of study medication nebulized up to 3 times in the emergency department; if admitted, patients continued to receive the assigned study medication three times a day until discharge. A total of 408 patients were analyzed. We found that 28.9% of patients treated with hypertonic saline required hospital admission, compared with 42.6% of patients in the normal saline group. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Neurological Disorders, Pediatrics / 29.05.2014

Kimford J. Meador, MD Professor Department of Neurology & Neurological Sciences Stanford Comprehensive Epilepsy Center Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford, CA 94305-5235.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kimford J. Meador, MD Professor Department of Neurology & Neurological Sciences Stanford Comprehensive Epilepsy Center Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford, CA 94305-5235. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Meador: Breastfeeding while taking antiepileptic drugs does not appear to pose a risk to the child's development, and in fact the cognitive outcomes were better for those children who were breastfed vs. those were not. (more…)
Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 29.05.2014

Dr Gianluca Tognon University of Gothenburg Gothenburg, SwedenMedicalResearch Interview with: Dr Gianluca Tognon University of Gothenburg Gothenburg, Sweden MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tognon: We found that eating a pattern rich in vegetables, fruit, nuts, cereal grains and fish, that we call a Mediterranean-like diet was not only inversely associated to being overweight or obese, but also protective against an increase in body mass index and waist circumference at a 2-year follow up. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Hearing Loss, JAMA, Pediatrics / 28.05.2014

William Kronenberger, Ph.D., HSPP Professor and Director, Section of Psychology Acting Vice Chair of Administration Department of Psychiatry Indiana University School of Medicine Riley Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ClinicMedicalResearch.com Interview with: William Kronenberger, Ph.D., HSPP Professor and Director, Section of Psychology Acting Vice Chair of Administration Department of Psychiatry Indiana University School of Medicine Riley Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kronenberger: The main findings of the study are that children with cochlear implants had two to five times the risk of delays in executive functioning compared to children with normal hearing.  Executive functioning is the ability to regulate and control thinking and behavior in order to focus and achieve goals; it is important for everything from learning to social skills.  The areas of executive functioning that were most affected in children with cochlear implants were working memory, controlled attention, planning, and concept formation.  Approximately one-third to one-half of the sample of children with cochlear implants had at least mild delays in these areas, compared to one-sixth or fewer of the normal-hearing sample.  We think that reduced hearing experience and language delays cause delays in executive functioning to occur at higher rates in children with cochlear implants. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Neurological Disorders, Pediatrics / 21.05.2014

James Chamberlain, MD Division Chief, Emergency Medicine Children’s National Health System Washington, DCMedicalResearch.com Interview with: James Chamberlain, MD Division Chief, Emergency Medicine Children’s National Health System Washington, DC MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chamberlain: Contrary to our hypothesis, lorazepam was not superior to diazepam for treating pediatric seizures. Both medications had similar effectiveness (72-73%) and safety (15-16% incidence of assisted ventilation). Lorazepam caused a longer period of sedation prior to waking up. The difference was approximately 15 minutes. (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, Lancet, Pediatrics / 20.05.2014

Adnan Custovic DM MD PhD FRCP Professor of Allergy Institute of Inflammation and Repair University of Manchester University Hospital of South Manchester Manchester M23 9LT, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adnan Custovic DM MD PhD FRCP Professor of Allergy Institute of Inflammation and Repair University of Manchester University Hospital of South Manchester Manchester M23 9LT, UK MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Custovic: In a longitudinal analysis of the data from our birth cohort study collected from birth to age eleven years, we demonstrated an association between early-life antibiotic prescription and development of wheezing, but not atopy. Furthermore, amongst children with wheezing, antibiotic prescription in infancy increases the risk of subsequent severe wheeze/asthma exacerbations and hospital admissions. This is the first demonstration that children who receive antibiotics in infancy have impaired antiviral immunity later in life, and that early-life antibiotic prescription is associated with variants on chromosome 17q21 locus (which is an asthma susceptibility locus). Our findings suggest that the association between antibiotics and childhood asthma reported in previous studies arises through a complex confounding by indication, in which hidden factors which increase the likelihood of both antibiotic prescription in early life and subsequent asthma development are increased susceptibility to virus infections consequent to impaired antiviral immunity, and genetic variants on 17q21. Our results raises an important issue that effects which are often attributed to environmental exposures may be a reflection of genetic predisposition. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 13.05.2014

Charbel El Bcheraoui, PhD, MSc Acting Assistant Professor, Global Health Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation University of Washington Seattle, WA 98121MedicalResearch Interview with: Charbel El Bcheraoui, PhD, MSc Acting Assistant Professor, Global Health Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation University of Washington Seattle, WA 98121 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. El Bcheraoui: We found a low rate of adverse events associated with male circumcision from U.S. hospital settings, especially if the procedure is performed within the first year of life. The rate of adverse events increased about 10 - 20 times if the procedure was performed later in life. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 12.05.2014

dr_julie_wangMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Julie Wang, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics Division of Allergy and Immunology Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY 10029   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wang: The results of this study demonstrate that differences in prevalence of reported food allergies exist in elementary schools representing diverse socioeconomic and racial/ethnic characteristic.  In this study, we conducted a survey at 4 elementary schools in New York City, 2 private schools that had a predominantly White student body with over 80% of families having paid a full tuition of over $35,000 per year and 2 public charter schools that had a primarily Black and Hispanic student body where over 90% of students qualified for free or reduced price school lunch.  The results show a high rate of reported food allergy, with rates significantly higher in the private school population as compared to the public charter school population. (more…)
Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 09.05.2014

Tessa Schurink-van 't Klooster Epidemioloog Rijksvaccinatieprogramma Epidemiologie en Surveillance RIVM - Centrum Infectieziektebestrijding 3720 BA BilthovenMedicalResearch.com Interview with Tessa Schurink-van 't Klooster Epidemioloog Rijksvaccinatieprogramma Epidemiologie en Surveillance RIVM - Centrum Infectieziektebestrijding 3720 BA Bilthoven MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding of this study was that we observed no differences in mortality rate ratios for females compared to males related to the type of last offered vaccination in DTP- and MMR-eligible age groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Pediatrics / 06.05.2014

Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD Professor and Associate Dean, Faculty Affairs Colorado School of Public Health University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO 80045MedicalResearch.com Interview with:  Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD Professor and Associate Dean, Faculty Affairs Colorado School of Public Health University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO 80045 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dabelea: We found that the proportion of US youth living with Type 1 Diabetes has increased by at least 21% over a period of only 8 years. This increase was seen in both boys and girls, most age-groups and race/ethnic groups.  While we do not completely understand the reasons for this increase, since the causes of Type 1 Diabetes are still unclear, it is likely that something has changed in our environment- both in the US and elsewhere in the world- causing more youth to develop the disease, maybe at increasingly younger ages. (more…)
Exercise - Fitness, Orthopedics, Pediatrics / 19.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Neeru Jayanthi, MD Associate Professor Medical Director, Primary Care Sports Medicine Loyola University Medical Center study MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jayanthi: We surveyed a cohort of 1,190 athletes ages 7 to 18, including 1,121 for whom insurance status could be determined. Our main findings were: 1. The rate of serious overuse injuries in athletes who come from families that can afford private insurance is 68 percent higher than the rate in lower-income athletes who are on public insurance (Medicaid). 2. Privately insured young athletes are twice as likely as publicly insured athletes to be highly specialized in one sport.  MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected? Dr. Jayanthi: The findings confirmed our hypothesis that higher-income students would be more likely to specialize in one sport, and also more likely to suffer serious overuse injuries. MedicalResearch.com: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report?   Dr. Jayanthi: Specializing in one sport at an early age increases the risk of serious overuse injuries. Here are evidence-based tips to reduce the risk of overuse injuries: •	Increase the amount of unstructured free play, while limiting the amount of time spent in organized sports and specialized training. Do not spend more than twice as much time playing organized sports as you spend in unstructured play. •	Do not spend more hours per week than your age playing sports. For example, a 10-year-old should not spend more than 10 hours per week playing sports. •	Do not specialize in one sport before late adolescence. •	Do not play sports competitively year round. Take a break from competition for one to three months each year (not necessarily consecutively). •	Take at least one day off per week from sports training. MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? Dr. Jayanthi: We are doing a pilot study this summer comparing parent/child dyads of high competitive young athletes and recreationally active children with parent dyad to see differences based on sports participation of child and adult, as well as based on socioeconomic status. This may lead to a much larger study.  Citation: Abstract presented at the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Neeru Jayanthi, MD Associate Professor Medical Director, Primary Care Sports Medicine Loyola University Medical Center study MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jayanthi: We surveyed a cohort of 1,190 athletes ages 7 to 18, including 1,121 for whom insurance status could be determined. Our main findings were: 1. The rate of serious overuse injuries in athletes who come from families that can afford private insurance is 68 percent higher than the rate in lower-income athletes who are on public insurance (Medicaid). 2. Privately insured young athletes are twice as likely as publicly insured athletes to be highly specialized in one sport. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, McGill, Pediatrics / 16.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ethan K Gough, PhD candidate Department of Epidemiology Biostatistics and Occupational Health McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Antibiotic use produces significant gains toward expected growth in children, for their age and sex, from low- and middle-income countries. Children included in our study were generally smaller in height and weight than adequately nourished children of the same age, reflecting the spectrum of stunting and wasting malnutrition seen in low- and middle-income countries. Antibiotic use had a larger impact on weight than height, and the effect on weight was larger in populations who may be at greater risk of infections and early mortality, such as populations with a high prevalence of HIV infection or exposure, and a high prevalence of severe acute malnutrition. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Kaiser Permanente, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 11.04.2014

Roger Paul Baxter, MD Co-Director Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Oakland, CA 94612.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Roger Paul Baxter, MD Co-Director Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Oakland, CA 94612. MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Baxter:  Menveo, the currently licensed CRM-conjugate meningococcal vaccine, showed an excellent booster response in adolescents, regardless of which conjugate vaccine they had received previously.  Also, although titers from the priming dose waned, at 3 years there were still protective antibodies in the majority of immunized individuals.  The other US-licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Menactra, uses a different protein conjugate. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 07.04.2014

Dr. Marie Claude Ouimet, Ph.D. Assistant Professor/ Professeure adjointe University of Sherbrooke/ Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences/ Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santé Longueuil, QC, Canada, J4K 0A8MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Marie Claude Ouimet, Ph.D. Assistant Professor/ Professeure adjointe University of Sherbrooke/ Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences/ Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santé Longueuil, QC, Canada, J4K 0A8 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ouimet :The goal of our study was to examine if teenagers’ driving risk was associated with a neurobiological factor. Driving was continuously observed with cameras and sensors installed in the vehicles of teenagers during their first 18 months of licensure. Cortisol response was measured within the first weeks of licensing. Our study showed two main findings: 1) Higher cortisol response to a stressful event was associated with lower crash and near crash rates over the study period; 2) Higher cortisol response was also linked to a sharper decrease in crash and near crash rates over time.   (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics, Probiotics / 02.04.2014

Dr Valerie Sung MBBS(Hons) FRACP MPH NHMRC PhD Candidate, Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, and Community Health Services Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Paediatrician, Centre for Community Child Health, The Royal Children’s HospitalMedicalResearch.com Invitation with: Dr Valerie Sung MBBS(Hons) FRACP MPH NHMRC PhD Candidate, Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, and Community Health Services Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Paediatrician, Centre for Community Child Health The Royal Children’s Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sung: Lactobacillus reuteri was NOT effective in reducing crying or fussing in infants with colic, whether they are breast or formula fed. This is the largest and most rigorous trial to date to show this. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Pediatrics, PLoS, Psychological Science / 29.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Prof. Natalia N. Kudryavtseva Head of Neurogenetics of Social Behavior Sector, Institute of Cytology and Genetics SD RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Hostile environment and social instability stress can have a significant impact on adolescents, causing the development of anxiety and depression. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics / 26.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marie Lund MD, PhD student Department of Epidemiology Research København S | Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lund: We found macrolide use in infants to be associated with a 30-fold increased risk of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) with use during the first two weeks after birth and a lower, but significantly increased threefold risk with use during days 14 to 120. Similarly, there was a more than three-fold increased risk of IHPS associated with maternal macrolide use during the first two weeks after birth, but no increased risk with use thereafter. Finally, we found a possible modest association between maternal macrolide use during weeks 28 to birth and infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 24.03.2014

Craig A. Anderson, Distinguished Professor Director, Center for the Study of Violence Department of Psychology Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-3180MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Craig A. Anderson, Distinguished Professor Director, Center for the Study of Violence Department of Psychology Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-3180 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Anderson: There are three main findings from this long-term study of violent video game effects. 1. Over time, repeated play and practice of violent video games led to an relative increase in aggressive thought patterns and in physical aggression. 2. As predicted by social-cognitive theoretical models, the violent video game effect on physical aggression was directly linked to the increase in aggressive thought patterns. That is, one key reason why repeated exposure to violent video games increases aggression is because such exposure changes the way children and adolescents think about people and events that occur in their lives. In a sense, their personality changes, so that they perceive more hostility around them and come to view physically aggressive behavior as a proper solution to even minor conflicts and provocations. 3. These effects of repeated exposure to violent video games were quite general across types of people. Boys and girls, younger children and older adolescents, high aggressive and low aggressive children, all showed pretty much the same effects. In other words, no subgroup was immune to the harmful effects of violent video games. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 23.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christos S. Mantzoros, MD, DSc, PhD Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the VA Boston HealthcareChristos S. Mantzoros, MD, DSc, PhD Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the VA Boston Healthcare Cynthia R. Davis PhD Judge Baker Children’s Center in Boston, MA.Cynthia R. Davis PhD Judge Baker Children’s Center in Boston, MA.     MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Answer: These results highlight that chronic stressors in childhood, like child abuse and family violence, parental substance abuse, divorce and separation from a parental figure, can potentially have a long standing impact on brain structures and functioning, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.  Our work supports the notion of allostatic load, and is the first of its kind to demonstrate links between childhood adversity and central obesity later in life which leads to increased cardio metabolic risk. This study describes the role of these novel molecules in mediating metabolic dysregulation highlighting them as a novel mechanism linking childhood adversity to obesity. We have also used more sensitive assessments of childhood adversity, not typically employed in biomedical research, that incorporate the severity of adversities and their chronicity across childhood.  Assessments of this nature are better able to detect severe and chronic adversity, and are critical in the measurement of stress, its role in allostatic load and its impact on the brain.  Furthermore, the current study and others from our lab show that severe and chronic adversity in childhood is associated with metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adulthood, regardless of lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise and psychosocial factors like depression and social support. Clinicians and patients need to be aware of the fact that subjects exposed to early life adversity are at increase risk for central obesity and cardio metabolic risk. (more…)