Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Surgical Research / 18.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Thomas J. Sandora, M.D., M.P.H. Senior Associate Physician in Medicine; Hospital Epidemiologist; Medical Director, Infection Control Boston Children’s Hospital Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Sandora: Giving antibiotics before certain types of operations results in lower rates of surgical site infections. However, there are limited data about which pediatric operations require antibiotic prophylaxis. We examined national variability in antibiotic prophylaxis for the 45 most commonly performed pediatric operations at children's hospitals in the U.S. We found that antibiotic use was considered appropriate for only 64.6% of cases, with a high degree of variability within procedures and between hospitals. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 18.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Lara B. McKenzie PhD MA Principal Investigator Center for Injury Research and Policy The Research Institute Nationwide Children’s Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. McKenzie: Skateboarding is a popular recreational sport and participation has increased the last several decades, faster than any other sport or recreation activity between 1998 and 2007 (National Sporting Goods Association Sports Participation in 2007). With growing participation, has come an increasing rate of injuries from skateboarding. The study examined data for youth and adolescents 5-19 years of age who were treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs) for skateboarding-related injuries from 1990-2008. It found that nationally, over the 19-year period, there was an average of 64,572 children and adolescents treated each year for skateboarding-related injuries – about 176 a day. Most patients were male (89 percent), and were injured either at home (38 percent) or in the street and/or highway (30 percent). The most commonly injured body regions were the upper (45 percent) and lower (32 percent) extremities. The most common diagnoses were fractures or dislocations (33 percent), sprains and strains (25 percent) and bruises (20 percent). Children and adolescents 11-14 years of age were hospitalized more often than younger or older children/adolescents. Lower extremity injuries increased with age, while face and head or neck injuries decreased with age. (more…)
Author Interviews, Fertility, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 15.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Kieron Barclay PhD Department of Social Policy London School of Economics MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Barclay: Mean age at childbearing has been increasing in most countries in the OECD since the early 1970s. A wealth of research has shown that childbearing at advanced ages is associated with greater difficulty in terms of getting pregnant, higher rates of miscarriage, stillbirth, and increased risk of poor peri-natal outcomes such as pre-term birth and low birth weight. Studies also indicate that the offspring of older mothers have a greater risk of Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and mortality in adulthood. However, from the perspective of any individual woman, delaying childbearing to an older age necessarily also means that she will give birth in a later birth year. The last 40 to 50 years have seen substantial improvements in educational opportunities, and better public health conditions and medical knowledge. As a result, these positive secular trends may outweigh or counterbalance the negative effects of reproductive aging for the child. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 08.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Moshe Ben-Shoshan, MD, M.Sc. Assistant Professor Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology Department of Pediatrics McGill University Health Center Montreal, Quebec, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Ben-Shoshan: Given that up to 10% of children treated with amoxicillin are tagged as allergic usually with no confirmatory tests (given high waiting times to see an allergist and controversy regarding confirmatory tests) we aimed to assess the accuracy of the graded provocation challenge (PC) . Unlike previous studies we challenged ALL 818 children presenting with rashes on amoxicillin treatment . We were able to show that almost 95% tolerated the challenge while 17 had immediate reactions (within 1 hour ) and 31 had non immediate reactions . We found that although it is suggested to do skin tests ( with PrePen and pen G ) to diagnose immediate amoxicillin allergy only 1 of 17 had a positive skin test indicating poor sensitivity of this test. In addition among all those with negative challenge that we followed over 3 years 10% had mild skin reactions when they received subsequent full treatment . (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, CDC, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders / 07.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anne G. Wheaton, Ph.D. Epidemiologist Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Division of Population Health Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch Atlanta, GA  30341-3717  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Wheaton: Unintentional injury, mostly from motor vehicle crashes, is the leading cause of death for adolescents. Adolescents who do not get enough sleep are at an increased risk for motor vehicle crashes and other unintentional injury, such as sports injuries and occupational injuries. We evaluated the association between self-reported sleep duration on an average school night and several injury-related risk behaviors (infrequent bicycle helmet use, infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a driver who had been drinking, drinking and driving, and texting while driving) among more than 50 thousand US high school students. The likelihood of each of five injury-related risk behaviors (infrequent bicycle helmet use, infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a driver who had been drinking, drinking and driving, and texting while driving) was significantly higher for students sleeping ≤7 hours on an average school night compared with 9 hours. Infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a drinking driver, and drinking and driving were also more likely for students sleeping ≥10 hours compared to 9 hours on an average school night. Although short and long sleep may simply be associated with other adolescent risk behaviors, insufficient sleep may cause individuals to take more risks and disregard the possibility of negative consequences. However, the study was cross-sectional, meaning the students were asked questions at one time point, so it is not possible to determine if there is a cause and effect association between sleep and these risk behaviors. Insufficient sleep may contribute to injury risk directly by slowing reaction time, impairing ability to pay attention, or causing a driver to fall asleep, but these results provide evidence that some of the increased risk associated with insufficient sleep might be due to engaging in injury-related risk behaviors. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Cannabis, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 06.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cara Christ, M.D., M.S. Director of the Arizona Department of Health Services MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Christ: This study was a systematic review. The purpose of a systematic review is to critically assess and summarize the best available research evidence on a specific issue. This usually involves a critical synthesis of the results of several high quality studies on the issue under review. Overall, this review found that infants exposed to cannabis during pregnancy had a 77% higher likelihood of being underweight (<2500grams) at birth, compared to infants whose mothers did not use cannabis. Also, if the mother used cannabis during pregnancy, the likelihood of her infant needing to be placed in a neonatal intensive care unit was two times higher compared to those infants whose mothers did not use cannabis during pregnancy. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Fertility, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 06.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sheree L. Boulet, DrPH, MPH Division of Reproductive Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, Georgia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Boulet: Findings from some studies have suggested that children conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) have increased risks of birth defects compared with spontaneously conceived children. Many of these studies were limited by a small sample size and were unable to assess risks associated with specific ART procedures. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Dr. Boulet: We found that singleton infants conceived using assisted reproductive technology were 1.4 times more likely to have a non-chromosomal birth defect compared with other infants, and the risks were highest for gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal defects. However, when our study was restricted to only ART-conceived infants, no single procedure substantially increased the risk for birth defects. This suggests that the higher risk of birth defects may be due to underlying issues related to infertility, rather than to ART itself. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Social Issues / 05.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Paula Braitstein, PhD Division of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya Department of Epidemiology, Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis Regenstrief Institute Inc, Indianapolis, Indiana MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Braitstein: There are vast numbers of children and youth in the world who find themselves in street circumstances. Yet, there is an absence of consensus among academics, policymakers, stakeholders, and international organizations regarding the causes of child and youth street-involvement around the world. Without data concerning these reasons, policies are developed or implemented to mitigate street-involvement without taking these causes into account. Often, the prevailing paradigm assumes that children and youth on the street are juvenile delinquents and the government response is often characterized by social exclusion, criminalization, and oppression by police and civic authorities. Therefore we wanted to find out what reasons do children and youth self-report for their street-involvement globally. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?  Dr. Braitstein: We systematically reviewed the literature and compiled data from 49 studies representing 24 countries globally. Street-connected children and youth most frequently reported poverty, family conflict, and abuse as their reasons for street-involvement. They infrequently identified delinquent behaviours for their circumstances. There were no significant differences between males and females reported reasons, with the exception of females in developed regions who were more likely to report abuse. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Respiratory, Vaccine Studies / 28.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tasnee Chonmaitree, M.D. Professor, Pediatrics and Pathology Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Department of Pediatrics University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, TX 77555-0371 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Chonmaitree: Respiratory infections are common in infants and young children; they are caused by viruses and/or bacteria. Viral upper respiratory tract infection or the common cold is exceedingly common and leads to bacterial complications such as ear infection, which the leading cause of antibiotic prescription in the US and the most common reason children undergo surgery (ear tube placement). In the past few decades, some bacterial and viral vaccines have become available aiming to reduce respiratory infections in children. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Dr. Chonmaitree: Our study looked to update information on how often infants in the first year of life acquired the common cold, and ear infection in the new vaccine era. The study was performed between 2009 and 2014 and included 367 infants followed closely from near birth up to one year of age. We found that on average, an infant had about 3 colds in the first year of life, and almost half of infants had ear infection by age 1 year. This was less than what happened in the past few decades. The reduction of ear infection may have been the result of many factors from bacterial and viral vaccine use, to increased breastfeeding rate and reduction in household smoking. Risk factors for ear infection included carriage of bacteria in the nose, frequencies of common cold and lack of breastfeeding. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, Pediatrics / 25.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lee J. Helman, MD Senior Investigator Pediatric Oncology Branch Head, Molecular Oncology Section Acting Director, Center for Cancer Research and CCR Scientific Director for Clinical Research National Cancer Institute Bethesda, Maryland MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Helman: It was known that most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTS) that occur in children and young adults do not contain cKIT or PDGFRA mutations that drive more than 90% of adult GIST tumors.  Since GISTs are quite rare in the pediatric and young adult population, we decided to establish a clinic at NIH that would allow us to study the most patients to try to define these tumors both clinically and molecularly. We were able to bring both patients and physicians interested in pediatric GIST from around the country to the NIH to begin to collect and study these patients. Of the 95 patients in this cohort study that lacked cKIT or PDGFRAmutations, 84 were found to have succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficient (SDH-deficient) GIST (75% due to SDH A, B, C, or mutations, and 25% due to SDHC promoter hypermethylation. Since these tumors are driven by SDH loss and not due to KIT or PDGFR mutations, they do not generally respond to standard treatments for GIST that target these kinases. The mechanism of SDH-deficiency is important, since SDH mutations are commonly germ line and therefore require genetic counseling and family testing, while the SDHC promoter methylation is not a germ line alteration and therefore does not require genetic counseling.  Finally, any patient with SDH-deficient GIST is also at risk for development of paraganglioma and should be screened on a regular basis for these tumors.  (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, PLoS, Surgical Research / 16.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Mairead Black MBChB, MRCOG, MSc Clinical Lecturer, Obstetrics and Gynaecology School of Medicine and Dentistry, Division of Applied Health Sciences University of Aberdeen Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Cornhill Road Aberdeen MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Black: The commonest reason for performing a planned Cesarean Section (CS) in high-income countries is a history of a previous CS. However, there is very little information available on childhood health outcomes of birth after a previous . MedicalResearch.com: Why might vaginal birth be beneficial? Dr. Black: If a baby is born naturally, it is exposed to various processes of labour and birth which may help their immunity and ability to avoid or fight future illness. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, NYU, Pediatrics, PNAS, Weight Research / 15.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michele Leardo Assistant Director Institute for Education & Social Policy New York University New York, NY 10012 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: US school districts increasingly distribute annual fitness and body mass index (BMI) “report cards” to students and parents. Such personalized informational interventions have appeal in economics because they can inform parents about their children's obesity status at relatively low costs. Awareness of the weight status can lead to behavioral responses that can improve health. New York City public schools adopted Fitnessgram in 2007-2008, reporting each student’s BMI alongside categorical BMI designations. We examined how being classified as “overweight” for the previous academic year affected the students’ subsequent BMI and weight. Specifically, we compared female students whose BMI was close to their age-specific cutoff for being considered overweight with those whose BMI narrowly put them in the “healthy” category. We find that being labeled overweight had no beneficial effects on students’ subsequent BMI and weight. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Pediatrics / 14.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ashley Bryce, NIHR PhD student Centre for Academic Primary Care, University of Bristol (first author) Dr Céire Costelloe NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare associated infections and AMR, Imperial College London (senior author)  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Antimicrobial resistance is an internationally recognised threat to health. Previous antibiotic use has been shown to be a risk factor for antimicrobial resistance in adults. The contribution of primary healthcare is particularly important as this is where almost 80% of all antibiotics used within the health service are prescribed. Children receive a lot of primary healthcare services and, as such, receive a disproportionately high number of antibiotics compared with middle aged populations. Despite this, little research has been published describing the prevalence of bacterial resistance in children or the risk factors of importance in this group. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: Prevalence of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics in primary care in children with urinary tract infections caused by E coli is high, particularly in countries outside the OECD, where one possible explanation is the availability of antibiotics over the counter. This could render some antibiotics ineffective as first line treatments for urinary tract infection. Routine use of antibiotics in primary care contributes to antimicrobial resistance in children, which can persist for up to six months after treatment. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 14.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elaine Tuomanen, MD Chair and Full Member Dept of Infectious Diseases St Jude Children’s Research Hospital 262 Danny Thomas Place Memphis, TN 38105 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Tuomanen: While investigating mechanisms of brain repair during infection in a mouse model system, we found that components from the surfaces of bacteria could traffic from the mother to the fetus. The bacterial components moved across the placenta and into the fetal brain. To our surprise, the fetal brain did not respond with neuronal death like we see in children with meningitis. Rather, fetal neurons proliferated. This response involved the innate immune system (TLR2) inducing the neuronal transcription factor, FoxG1, which is known to drive proliferation. The newly born neurons migrated appropriately to the cortical plate, the area on the surface of the fetal brain that forms the cortex, a major part of the adult brain. Although the neurons moved to the right place in the brain, there were too many and they crowded together in the cortex, changing the architecture of the brain. At birth, affected mice seemed to have no abnormalities. However, when we tested if this change in architecture would affect brain function after birth, mice were shown to progressively develop defects in learning, memory and other cognitive functions. This indicates there is a window during pregnancy where components of bacteria from the mother can change fetal brain architecture and subsequent postnatal behavior (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 11.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yanning Wang, MS Statistical Research Coordinator Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine Department of Health Outcomes and Policy University of Florida College of Medicine  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: A number of new stimulant medications have been approved for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment in the past decade. The expansion of this market, along with the increase in ADHD diagnosis, provides greater availability of these drugs. This has raised public health concerns about potential non-medical use of prescription stimulants. Our study analyzed data from the National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study, which recruited and surveyed youth aged 10 to 18 years from entertainment venues in 10 US cities. We found that 6.8% of youth (750 out of 11,048) used prescription stimulants in the past 30 days. Among those 750 youth, more than half reported some type of non-medical use, and using someone else’s medication was the most common form (88.4 %). We investigated the difference between two subgroups of non-medical users: youth who only used stimulants non-medically, and those who had a prescription and reported non-medical use in the past 30 days. We found youth who only used stimulants non-medically at higher rate of using other substances and more likely to have close friends who have tried other drugs. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Pediatrics / 10.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Roger Zemek, MD, FRCPC Associate Professor, Dept of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Clinical Research Chair in Pediatric Concussion, University of Ottawa Director, Clinical Research Unit, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Ottawa, ON MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Zemek: The number of concussions have dramatically increased over the past decade.  Not only are children and adolescents are at highest risk for getting concussions, they also take longer to recover.  As part of our background work, our team performed a systematic review (published in JAMA Pediatrics) confirming that validated, easy-to-use prognosticators did not exist for clinicians to identify children with concussion who are at the highest risk for persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) and sequelae. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Dr. Zemek: In this, the largest concussion study in the world to-date, we derived and validated in a large, diverse cohort of children a clinical risk score that is significantly superior to clinicians’ ability to predict future PPCS at the time of ED presentation. Multivariate analysis revealed that age group, female sex, past history of migraine, prior concussion with symptom duration of >1 week, ED presentation with “answering questions slowly”, 4 or more errors on BESS Tandem stance, and the initial symptoms of headache, noise sensitivity and fatigue were all clinically significant and strongly associated with PCS at 1-month. We assigned points based on the adjusted multivariate odds ratio, and the rule incorporating patient demographic factors, past history, early cognitive deficits, balance (an physical exam finding), and early symptoms.  The rule has a maximum of 12 points.  We selected two cut-off points in order to yield three clinically relevant (low, intermediate and high risk) categories for the development of PPCS at one month. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Lancet, Microbiome, Pediatrics / 09.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Phillip I. Tarr, MD Melvin E. Carnahan MD Professor of Pediatrics Director, Pediatric Division of Gastroenterolgy and Nutrition Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine St Louis, MO 63110, USA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Tarr: There is a longstanding belief that gut bacteria are relevant to the developing necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). We have established dysbiosis in the gut before NEC occurs, suggesting this ecological perturbation might be causal.

(more…)
Author Interviews, Lifestyle & Health, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 08.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Chance York PhD School of Journalism and Mass Communication Kent State University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Dr. York: A number of studies have examined the effects of heavy television viewing during childhood on childhood levels of Body Mass Index (BMI), but my study added a new element to this literature: it explores the long-term effects of TV viewing on adult-era BMI. The major takeaway is that heavy television viewing during childhood results in an individual propensity to watch TV much later in life, and this propensity to watch television results in increased BMI. In other words, kids who watch a lot of television tend to remain heavy TV users as adults, and the fact that they're heavy TV viewers as adults has a separate, unique effect on their adult BMI. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 08.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alison Culyba, MD MPH Adolescent Medicine Advanced Research Fellow Craig-Dalsimer Division of Adolescent Medicine Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia PhD Candidate, Epidemiology Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Culyba: Youth violence is a major public health problem. Homicide is the second leading cause of death among all adolescents in the U.S., and the number one cause of death among African American adolescents. Prom prior research, we know that where you live and where you spend time has a major impact on health, and that making changes to environments, such as greening vacant lots and remediating abandoned buildings, can significantly reduce crime. However, much less is known about the relationship between adolescent’s immediate surroundings and the risk of homicide. The goal of this study was to examine associations between neighborhood environmental features, such as streets, buildings, and natural surroundings and adolescent homicide. We conducted a population-based case control study of 143 adolescents, ages 13 to 20, who were victims of homicides in Philadelphia and 155 matched controls in the same range, who were outdoors in Philadelphia at the same time that the homicides occurred. To assess features in the immediate environments of homicide victims and control individuals, trained field staff stood on the street corner of each homicide and control location and took a series of photographs that we stitched together into 360-degree high resolution panoramas, which we assessed for environmental features. After accounting for many individual and neighborhood contextual factors, we found that the odds of homicide was significantly lower in locations with street lighting, pedestrian infrastructure, public transportation, parks, and maintained vacant lots. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Lancet, Leukemia, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 04.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Erin Marcotte, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Research Department of Pediatrics University of Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Marcotte: Recently there have been several studies that indicate a higher risk of immune-related disorders, such as type-I diabetes, asthma, and allergies, among children born by cesarean delivery. Our analysis used pooled data from 13 independent studies of childhood leukemia that were conducted in 9 different countries. We used data on over 33,000 children to investigate the relationship between birth by cesarean delivery and risk of childhood leukemia. We did not find an association between cesarean delivery overall and childhood leukemia. However, when we looked at emergency cesarean deliveries and pre-labor (planned) cesarean deliveries separately, we found a 23% increase in risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia among children born by pre-labor cesarean delivery. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, BMJ, Brain Injury, CDC, Pediatrics / 29.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Joanne Klevens, MD, PhD, MPH Division of Violence Prevention US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, Georgia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Klevens: Pediatric abusive head trauma is a leading cause of fatal child maltreatment among young children and current prevention efforts have not been proven to be consistently effective. In this study, compared to seven states with no paid family leave policies, California’s policy showed significant decreases of hospital admissions for abusive head trauma in young children. This impact was observed despite low uptake of policy benefits by Californians, particularly among populations at highest risk of abusive head trauma. (more…)
Author Interviews, Emergency Care, Infections, JAMA, Pediatrics, Pulmonary Disease, Respiratory / 29.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Suzanne Schuh, MD, FRCP(C), ABPEM The Hospital for Sick Children affiliated with the University of Toronto Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Schuh: Routine measurement of oxygen saturation in bronchiolitis is sometimes used as a proxy for illness severity, despite poor correlation between these parameters. This focus on oximetry may in part relate to lack of evidence on the natural history of desaturations in bronchiolitis which are often transient, and frequently not accompanied by increased respiratory distress. Desaturations occurring in infants with mild bronchiolitis in an ED often result in hospitalizations or prolonged hospital stay. They occur in healthy infants and may also occur in infants with mild bronchiolitis at home. The main objective of this study of infants with acute bronchiolitis was to determine if there is a difference in the proportion of unscheduled medical visits within 72 hours of ED discharge in infants who desaturate during home oximetry monitoring versus those without desaturations. Our study shows that the majority of infants with mild bronchiolitis experience desaturations after discharge home. (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, Education, Pediatrics / 25.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joy Hsu, MD, MS Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Branch Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects National Center for Environmental Health CDC Atlanta GA 30341 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Hsu: Asthma is a leading cause of missed school days related to chronic illness. This study is based on survey data from 2006 to 2010 on children aged 17 years and younger with asthma from 35 states and the District of Columbia.  (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Pulmonary Disease, Tobacco Research / 24.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. med. Julia Dratva, MD MPH          Medical Specialist Prevention and Public Health FMH  Scientific project leader MAS Versicherungsmedizin/Studienkoordinationleitung Dept. Epidemiology and Public Health Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute Socinstrasse 57, P.O. Box, 4002 Basel, Switzerland Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Dratva: Early childhood is a critical time window for subsequent health. Early life environment is known to be important for lung development and respiratory health. Little is known on the potential impact on lung ageing and the potential mechanisms responsible for the long-term impact. We investigated early childhood factors and their association with lung function decline, a common marker of lung aging, in two long-standing adult cohorts, SAPALDIA and ECRHS. As recently published in scientific journal PlosONE, maternal smoking, early respiratory infections or season of birth are associated with a faster decline in lung function decline, while less rapid decline was found in persons who had attended daycare. The early exposures may not only have an independent adverse effect on lung aging but also increase the respiratory vulnerability to other adult risk factors. Stronger effects were observed in in smokers exposed to the aforementioned adverse factors. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Eating Disorders, Mental Health Research, Nutrition, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 23.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lisanne de Barse PhD Department of Epidemiology Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Dr. de Barse: Fussy (or “picky”) eating behaviour, which is characterised by consistent rejection of particular foods, is common in childhood and a source of concern for parents. It is not well understood what affects fussy eating. It is, however, well known that internalizing psychiatric problems of parents (i.e. anxiety and depression) have an impact on children’s health and development. Studies have also shown that mothers’ internalizing problems during the child’s preschool period was linked to child fussy eating. It was not clear whether the child’s eating problems causes stress and psychiatric symptoms in mothers or whether mothers’ symptoms predict child eating behaviour. Nor was it known what potential impact the dads’ state of mind have. The purpose of this study was to examine whether mothers’ and fathers’ internalizing problems during pregnancy and during the child’s life predicts child fussy eating. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings? Dr. de Barse: Our main findings indicate that mothers’ anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy could have an influence on children’s fussy eating. This was irrespective of mothers’ internalizing symptoms at the child’s preschool period. We also found indications that fathers’ anxiety and depressive symptoms might influence children’s fussy eating behaviour. This was studied in Generation R, a study that has been tracking the health and wellbeing of children from conception onwards, conducted by the Erasmus Medical Centre, in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Pediatrics / 22.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joanna Thomson MD MPH Assistant Professor Division of Hospital Medicine Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Children with medical complexity have lifelong and complex illnesses. These children account for a disproportionate amount of pediatric health care use.  The lives of families are affected – both financially and socially.  We sought to characterize the challenges these families face through examination of financial and social hardships. In a cohort of families with children who receive care at Cincinnati Children’s Complex Care Center, four out of five families reported experiencing at least one hardship. The striking frequencies observed, despite relatively high measures of household socioeconomic status, suggest that these families face great challenges.  For example, families frequently experienced the need to borrow money and expected little to no help from family or friends. In order to benchmark the hardships experienced by families of children with medical complexity, we compared the hardships they experienced to those faced by the families of children with asthma in the Greater Cincinnati Asthma Risks Study. After accounting for key demographic and socio-economic differences between the two groups, families of children with medical complexity experienced similar to higher levels of financial and social hardship.  For instance, families of children with medical complexity were over two times as likely to report the inability to pay their rent or mortgage than families of children with asthma. (more…)