Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 09.05.2014

Tessa Schurink-van 't Klooster Epidemioloog Rijksvaccinatieprogramma Epidemiologie en Surveillance RIVM - Centrum Infectieziektebestrijding 3720 BA BilthovenMedicalResearch.com Interview with Tessa Schurink-van 't Klooster Epidemioloog Rijksvaccinatieprogramma Epidemiologie en Surveillance RIVM - Centrum Infectieziektebestrijding 3720 BA Bilthoven MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding of this study was that we observed no differences in mortality rate ratios for females compared to males related to the type of last offered vaccination in DTP- and MMR-eligible age groups.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Pediatrics / 06.05.2014

Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD Professor and Associate Dean, Faculty Affairs Colorado School of Public Health University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO 80045MedicalResearch.com Interview with:  Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD Professor and Associate Dean, Faculty Affairs Colorado School of Public Health University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO 80045 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dabelea: We found that the proportion of US youth living with Type 1 Diabetes has increased by at least 21% over a period of only 8 years. This increase was seen in both boys and girls, most age-groups and race/ethnic groups.  While we do not completely understand the reasons for this increase, since the causes of Type 1 Diabetes are still unclear, it is likely that something has changed in our environment- both in the US and elsewhere in the world- causing more youth to develop the disease, maybe at increasingly younger ages.
Exercise - Fitness, Orthopedics, Pediatrics / 19.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Neeru Jayanthi, MD Associate Professor Medical Director, Primary Care Sports Medicine Loyola University Medical Center study MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jayanthi: We surveyed a cohort of 1,190 athletes ages 7 to 18, including 1,121 for whom insurance status could be determined. Our main findings were: 1. The rate of serious overuse injuries in athletes who come from families that can afford private insurance is 68 percent higher than the rate in lower-income athletes who are on public insurance (Medicaid). 2. Privately insured young athletes are twice as likely as publicly insured athletes to be highly specialized in one sport.  MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected? Dr. Jayanthi: The findings confirmed our hypothesis that higher-income students would be more likely to specialize in one sport, and also more likely to suffer serious overuse injuries. MedicalResearch.com: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report?   Dr. Jayanthi: Specializing in one sport at an early age increases the risk of serious overuse injuries. Here are evidence-based tips to reduce the risk of overuse injuries: •	Increase the amount of unstructured free play, while limiting the amount of time spent in organized sports and specialized training. Do not spend more than twice as much time playing organized sports as you spend in unstructured play. •	Do not spend more hours per week than your age playing sports. For example, a 10-year-old should not spend more than 10 hours per week playing sports. •	Do not specialize in one sport before late adolescence. •	Do not play sports competitively year round. Take a break from competition for one to three months each year (not necessarily consecutively). •	Take at least one day off per week from sports training. MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? Dr. Jayanthi: We are doing a pilot study this summer comparing parent/child dyads of high competitive young athletes and recreationally active children with parent dyad to see differences based on sports participation of child and adult, as well as based on socioeconomic status. This may lead to a much larger study.  Citation: Abstract presented at the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Neeru Jayanthi, MD Associate Professor Medical Director, Primary Care Sports Medicine Loyola University Medical Center study MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jayanthi: We surveyed a cohort of 1,190 athletes ages 7 to 18, including 1,121 for whom insurance status could be determined. Our main findings were: 1. The rate of serious overuse injuries in athletes who come from families that can afford private insurance is 68 percent higher than the rate in lower-income athletes who are on public insurance (Medicaid). 2. Privately insured young athletes are twice as likely as publicly insured athletes to be highly specialized in one sport.
Author Interviews, BMJ, McGill, Pediatrics / 16.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ethan K Gough, PhD candidate Department of Epidemiology Biostatistics and Occupational Health McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Antibiotic use produces significant gains toward expected growth in children, for their age and sex, from low- and middle-income countries. Children included in our study were generally smaller in height and weight than adequately nourished children of the same age, reflecting the spectrum of stunting and wasting malnutrition seen in low- and middle-income countries. Antibiotic use had a larger impact on weight than height, and the effect on weight was larger in populations who may be at greater risk of infections and early mortality, such as populations with a high prevalence of HIV infection or exposure, and a high prevalence of severe acute malnutrition.
Author Interviews, Infections, Kaiser Permanente, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 11.04.2014

Roger Paul Baxter, MD Co-Director Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Oakland, CA 94612.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Roger Paul Baxter, MD Co-Director Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Oakland, CA 94612. MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Baxter:  Menveo, the currently licensed CRM-conjugate meningococcal vaccine, showed an excellent booster response in adolescents, regardless of which conjugate vaccine they had received previously.  Also, although titers from the priming dose waned, at 3 years there were still protective antibodies in the majority of immunized individuals.  The other US-licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Menactra, uses a different protein conjugate.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 07.04.2014

Dr. Marie Claude Ouimet, Ph.D. Assistant Professor/ Professeure adjointe University of Sherbrooke/ Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences/ Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santé Longueuil, QC, Canada, J4K 0A8MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Marie Claude Ouimet, Ph.D. Assistant Professor/ Professeure adjointe University of Sherbrooke/ Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences/ Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santé Longueuil, QC, Canada, J4K 0A8 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ouimet :The goal of our study was to examine if teenagers’ driving risk was associated with a neurobiological factor. Driving was continuously observed with cameras and sensors installed in the vehicles of teenagers during their first 18 months of licensure. Cortisol response was measured within the first weeks of licensing. Our study showed two main findings: 1) Higher cortisol response to a stressful event was associated with lower crash and near crash rates over the study period; 2) Higher cortisol response was also linked to a sharper decrease in crash and near crash rates over time.  
Author Interviews, BMJ, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics, Probiotics / 02.04.2014

Dr Valerie Sung MBBS(Hons) FRACP MPH NHMRC PhD Candidate, Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, and Community Health Services Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Paediatrician, Centre for Community Child Health, The Royal Children’s HospitalMedicalResearch.com Invitation with: Dr Valerie Sung MBBS(Hons) FRACP MPH NHMRC PhD Candidate, Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, and Community Health Services Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Paediatrician, Centre for Community Child Health The Royal Children’s Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sung: Lactobacillus reuteri was NOT effective in reducing crying or fussing in infants with colic, whether they are breast or formula fed. This is the largest and most rigorous trial to date to show this.
Author Interviews, Depression, Pediatrics, PLoS, Psychological Science / 29.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Prof. Natalia N. Kudryavtseva Head of Neurogenetics of Social Behavior Sector, Institute of Cytology and Genetics SD RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Hostile environment and social instability stress can have a significant impact on adolescents, causing the development of anxiety and depression.
Author Interviews, BMJ, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics / 26.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marie Lund MD, PhD student Department of Epidemiology Research København S | Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lund: We found macrolide use in infants to be associated with a 30-fold increased risk of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) with use during the first two weeks after birth and a lower, but significantly increased threefold risk with use during days 14 to 120. Similarly, there was a more than three-fold increased risk of IHPS associated with maternal macrolide use during the first two weeks after birth, but no increased risk with use thereafter. Finally, we found a possible modest association between maternal macrolide use during weeks 28 to birth and infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 24.03.2014

Craig A. Anderson, Distinguished Professor Director, Center for the Study of Violence Department of Psychology Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-3180MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Craig A. Anderson, Distinguished Professor Director, Center for the Study of Violence Department of Psychology Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-3180 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Anderson: There are three main findings from this long-term study of violent video game effects. 1. Over time, repeated play and practice of violent video games led to an relative increase in aggressive thought patterns and in physical aggression. 2. As predicted by social-cognitive theoretical models, the violent video game effect on physical aggression was directly linked to the increase in aggressive thought patterns. That is, one key reason why repeated exposure to violent video games increases aggression is because such exposure changes the way children and adolescents think about people and events that occur in their lives. In a sense, their personality changes, so that they perceive more hostility around them and come to view physically aggressive behavior as a proper solution to even minor conflicts and provocations. 3. These effects of repeated exposure to violent video games were quite general across types of people. Boys and girls, younger children and older adolescents, high aggressive and low aggressive children, all showed pretty much the same effects. In other words, no subgroup was immune to the harmful effects of violent video games.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 23.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christos S. Mantzoros, MD, DSc, PhD Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the VA Boston HealthcareChristos S. Mantzoros, MD, DSc, PhD Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the VA Boston Healthcare Cynthia R. Davis PhD Judge Baker Children’s Center in Boston, MA.Cynthia R. Davis PhD Judge Baker Children’s Center in Boston, MA.     MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Answer: These results highlight that chronic stressors in childhood, like child abuse and family violence, parental substance abuse, divorce and separation from a parental figure, can potentially have a long standing impact on brain structures and functioning, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.  Our work supports the notion of allostatic load, and is the first of its kind to demonstrate links between childhood adversity and central obesity later in life which leads to increased cardio metabolic risk. This study describes the role of these novel molecules in mediating metabolic dysregulation highlighting them as a novel mechanism linking childhood adversity to obesity. We have also used more sensitive assessments of childhood adversity, not typically employed in biomedical research, that incorporate the severity of adversities and their chronicity across childhood.  Assessments of this nature are better able to detect severe and chronic adversity, and are critical in the measurement of stress, its role in allostatic load and its impact on the brain.  Furthermore, the current study and others from our lab show that severe and chronic adversity in childhood is associated with metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adulthood, regardless of lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise and psychosocial factors like depression and social support. Clinicians and patients need to be aware of the fact that subjects exposed to early life adversity are at increase risk for central obesity and cardio metabolic risk.
Author Interviews, Cancer, Endocrinology, Pediatrics, Thyroid / 20.03.2014

Melanie Goldfarb MD Assistant Professor of Surgery, Endocrine Surgery University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CaliforniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with Melanie Goldfarb MD Assistant Professor of Surgery, Endocrine Surgery University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Goldfarb: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who develop thyroid cancer as a secondary cancer are six times more likely to die than AYAs with primary thyroid cancer, though survival with treatment is excellent for both primary and secondary cancers at greater than 95 percent. Additionally, Hispanics, Males, and those of lower socioeconomic status have worse overall survival.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 19.03.2014

Dr Joe Brierley Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Joe Brierley Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH, UK   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Brierley: In the UK babies under 2-months of age cannot be verified as having died using ‘neurological criteria,’ due to national guidelines; whereas in North America, Australasia and other European countries his is possible. Because of this no organ donation from those under 2-months occurs in the UK contributing to the lack organs for small children who could benefit from such lifesaving interventions. Our study finds that if the rules were changed to be compatible with other countries their would be a significant yield of organs from one specialist children’s hospital, and likely to be many more nationally.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Tobacco, UCSF / 12.03.2014

Lauren Dutra, ScD Postdoctoral Scholar, UCSF School of Medicine Cardiovascular Research Institute San Francisco, CA 94143MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lauren Dutra, ScD Postdoctoral Scholar, UCSF School of Medicine Cardiovascular Research Institute San Francisco, CA 94143 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Middle and high school students who used e-cigarettes were more likely to smoke tobacco cigarettes. They were also more likely to progress from experimenting with tobacco cigarettes to becoming regular smokers. Teen smokers who used e-cigarettes were more likely to be planning to quit in the next year and less likely to have abstained from smoking recently, compared to smokers who had never used e-cigarettes. They were also more likely to be heavier smokers (smoke more cigarettes per day) than those who had never tried e-cigarettes, that being said there are eliquids available that have no nicotine content whatsoever and these are therefore a much healthier option, you can see a wide variety of these at Gourmet E-Liquid.
Author Interviews, BMJ, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 11.03.2014

Mitch van Geel, PhD Institute of Education and Child Studies, Leiden University Leiden, the NetherlandsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mitch van Geel, PhD Institute of Education and Child Studies, Leiden University Leiden, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr.van Geel: We performed a meta-analysis, which is a way to statistically summarize effect sizes from earlier studies. Individual studies often provide varying effect sizes, which makes it difficult to judge whether and how strong variables are related. Furthermore, study characteristics (sampling methods, response rates, controlling for certain confounders) might influence study results. By using a meta-analysis it can be analyzed to what extent study characteristics are related to results; if a particular result only tends to be established in studies with certain designs (for example a convenience sample), we might wonder whether such an effect really exists; but if we find that a particular outcome is unrelated to study characteristics or found in studies with relatively stronger designs, we might feel more certain in concluding that a relation between variables (bullying-suicide thoughts or attempts) exists. By using a meta-analysis we established a significant relation between bullying and thoughts about suicide, and bullying and suicide attempts, and we found that these results were unrelated to study characteristics.
Author Interviews, CT Scanning, Lancet, Medical Imaging, MRI, Pediatrics, Stanford / 20.02.2014

Dr Heike Daldrup-Link Associate Professor of Radiology Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo AltoMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr Heike Daldrup-Link Associate Professor of Radiology Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We use magnetic resonance imaging, a technology based on magnetic fields rather than radiotracers or x-rays. The underlying technology is not new – it has been used for tumor staging for many years. This is an advantage as MR scanners are available in nearly every major Children’s Hospital where children with cancer are treated. What is new about our approach is that we combined anatomical and functional images, similar to current approaches that use radiotracers and CT (PET/CT):  We first acquired scans that showed the anatomy of the patient very well and we then acquired scans that depict tumors as bright spots with little or no background information. We did that by using an iron supplement as a contrast agent: The iron supplement can be detected by the MRI magnet and improved tumor detection and vessel delineation MR scans. We then fused the anatomical scans with the tumor scans.
Author Interviews, Flu - Influenza, Pediatrics / 14.02.2014

Philip M. Polgreen, MD, MPH. Associate Professor of Internal Medicine - Infectious Diseases University of Iowa Carver College of MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Philip M. Polgreen, MD, MPH. Associate Professor of Internal Medicine - Infectious Diseases University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Polgreen: In this paper, to determine if well-child visits are associated with increased risk for subsequent influenza-like-illness visits, we used a large database that tracks healthcare expenditures of families over time. Controlling for other factors such as the presence of other children, insurance and demographics, we found that well-child visits were a risk factor for subsequent influenza-like-illness within the next two weeks for a patient or for a family member. The estimated probability of a subsequent influenza-like illness visit was increased by 3.2 percentage points for those with well-child visit. We estimated that this additional risk translates to over 700,000 cases of influenza-like-illness per year in the United States. Total costs (lost wages, medical costs, etc.) for these infections could amount to $500 million annually.
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics / 11.02.2014

Jim Tsung, MD, MPH Department of Emergency Medicine Mount Sinai School of Medicine Guggenheim Pavilion 1 Gustave Levy Place Box 1149 New York, NY 10029MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jim Tsung, MD, MPH Department of Emergency Medicine Mount Sinai School of Medicine Guggenheim Pavilion New York, NY 10029 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tsung: 1.  Point-of-care ultrasound performed by clinicians was as accurate as ultrasound performed in the radiology department for evaluating appendicitis in children. 2.  This led to significant reductions in emergency department stays when point-of-care ultrasound was able to contribute to the decision to send the patient to the operating room or to discharge home without further imaging studies. On average, a 2 hour (46%) reduction in ED LOS for patients only requiring radiology ultrasound and a 6 hour (68%) reduction in ED LOS for patients that needed CT scan. 3.  Point-of-care ultrasound can also reduce the rate of CT scans obtained when used as a front-line test, 44% to 27%.
Author Interviews, CHEST, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders / 10.02.2014

David Gozal, MD The Herbert T. Abelson Professor and Chair Department of Pediatrics Physician-in-Chief, Comer Children's Hospital The University of Chicago Chicago, IL 60637MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Gozal, MD The Herbert T. Abelson Professor and Chair Department of Pediatrics Physician-in-Chief, Comer Children's Hospital The University of Chicago  Chicago, IL 60637 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gozal: Our study shows that in children with mild obstructive apnea, treatment with an anti-inflammatory combination of 2 medications, namely nasal corticosteroid and oral montelukast is associated with favorable outcomes in the vast majority of the children. Thus, rather than pursue treatment with adenotonsillectomy as is currently the case in most places, this study paves the way for non-surgical alternative therapies in pediatric OSA.
Author Interviews, Johns Hopkins, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 31.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Golda Ginsburg, Ph.D Professor Director, Research, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MarylandGolda Ginsburg, Ph.D Professor Director, Research, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, Maryland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr Ginsburg: This study examined the long-term outcomes of youth treated for an anxiety disorders. Findings revealed that almost half of anxious youth treated for an anxiety disorder were in remission (i.e., did not meet diagnostic criteria for any of the three study entry anxiety disorders) at an average of six years since starting treatment. Youth showing clinically meaningful improvement after 12 weeks of treatment, were more likely to be in remission, had lower anxiety severity, and had better functioning compared to youth who showed minimal or no initial clinical improvement. Treatment type did not affect long-term outcomes.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 31.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Sanjay Mahant, MD, FRCPC Division of Pediatric Medicine, Pediatric Outcomes Research Team (PORT), Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Health Policy, Evaluation and Management, University of Toronto, Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, CanadaDr. Sanjay Mahant, MD, FRCPC Division of Pediatric Medicine, Pediatric Outcomes Research Team (PORT), Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Health Policy, Evaluation and Management, University of Toronto, Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mahant: In a large cohort of children undergoing same-day tonsillectomy at 36 children's hospitals in the U.S., we observed substantial variability in several areas. These include: processes of care, the use of steroids and antibiotics - for which there are national guidelines that outline the recommended use of these medications - and outcomes of usage, as well as revisits to hospital after surgery for complications within 30 days following surgery.
Author Interviews, BMJ, General Medicine, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics / 22.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Kathryn M Abel Professor of Psychiatry & Honorary Consultant Psychiatrist University of Manchester and Honorary Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main study findings were that exposure of a mother to a severe psychological stress of losing a close family member up to either 6 months before conception or at any time during pregnancy did not increase risk of subsequent psychotic illness in the offspring. Secondly, we found during childhood, if a close family member died then, especially a sibling of the child or one of their parents, these children were at slightly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness later in life. This was most likely to happen following a sudden death especially suicide and in particular following suicide a psychotic mood disorder was more likely than other kinds of psychosis such as schizophrenia (although the risk of schizophrenia was also increased following suicide). This effect was not accounted for by having  a family history of a psychotic illness or suicide.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 17.01.2014

Dr. Daniel S.  Budnitz MD MPH CAPT, USPHS Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Medication Safety Program Atlanta, GeorgiaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Daniel S.  Budnitz MD MPH CAPT, USPHS Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Medication Safety Program Atlanta, Georgia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Budnitz: To reduce dosing errors when administering orally ingested over-the-counter (OTC) liquid medications, especially among children, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released and the Consumer Healthcare Products Association (CHPA) released recommendations for how to display dosing directions and markings on dosing devices. This study assessed recommendation adherence for national brand name orally ingested OTC liquid pediatric analgesics/antipyretics and cough, cold, and allergy products available after the FDA guidance was finalized in 2011.  To identify and prioritize specific areas for improvement, recommendations were categorized as ‘top tier’ (potential to address ≥3-fold errors) or ‘low tier’ (intended to improve clarity and consistency). Of 68 products, 91% of dosing directions and 62% of dosing devices adhered to all top tier recommendations; 57% of products adhered to every top tier recommendation, and 93% adhered to all or all but one. A dosing device was included with all products (e.g., oral syringe, dosing cup). No dosing directions used atypical volumetric units (e.g., drams), and no devices used volumetric units that did not appear in dosing directions. Six products used trailing zeros or failed to use leading zeros with decimal doses; eight did not use small font for fractions.  Appropriate use of zeros and decimals is important to avoid 10-fold overdoses; using small font for fractions (½ vs. 1/2) helps avoid potential  4-fold errors if 1/2 interpreted as 1 or 2.  Product adherence to low tier recommendations ranged from 26% to 91%.
Author Interviews, BMJ, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 16.01.2014

Sophie Grigoriadis, MD, MA, PhD, FRCPC Head, Women's Mood and Anxiety Clinic:  Reproductive Transitions, Fellowship Director, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Scientist, Sunnybrook Research Institute Adjunct Scientist, Women's College Research Institute, Associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine, University of TorontoMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sophie Grigoriadis, MD, MA, PhD, FRCPC Head, Women's Mood and Anxiety Clinic:  Reproductive Transitions, Fellowship Director, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Scientist, Sunnybrook Research Institute Adjunct Scientist, Women's College Research Institute, Associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Grigoriadis: Infants of women exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during late pregnancy (but not early) are at risk for developing persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). PPHN is a condition in which blood pressure remains high in the lungs following birth and which results in breathing difficulties.  The symptoms can range from mild to severe, but the condition can be managed successfully typically after SSRI exposure. It is important to note that the baseline risk for PPHN in the general population is low (about 2 per 1,000 live births), and so the increase in risk with SSRIs still represents a low overall risk for developing PPHN following SSRI exposure in late pregnancy (increasing to approximately 5 per 1,000 live births). This increased risk means that 286 to 351 women would have to be treated with an SSRI during late pregnancy in order to result in 1 additional case of PPHN.
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, NEJM, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 15.01.2014

W. Katherine Yih Ph.D., M.P.H Department of Population Medicine Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care InstituteMedicalResearch.com Interview with: W. Katherine Yih Ph.D., M.P.H Department of Population Medicine Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Yih: The main findings are that vaccination with the first dose of RotaTeq is associated with a small increase in the risk of intussusception, which is concentrated in the first week after vaccination.  The estimated risk is about 1.5 excess cases per 100,000 first doses administered.  This risk is fairly small, amounting to roughly 1/10 of the risk seen after the original rotavirus vaccine (called Rotashield) that was used in 1998-1999, before it was withdrawn from the market. We also found evidence that Rotarix increases the risk of intussusception.  However, the number of infants receiving Rotarix and the number getting intussusception after Rotarix were too small to allow us to estimate the risk after Rotarix with any precision.
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Nutrition, Pediatrics / 14.01.2014

Flavia Indrio, MD Department of Pediatrics Aldo Moro University of Bari Bari, ItalyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Flavia Indrio, MD Department of Pediatrics Aldo Moro University of Bari Bari, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding is that for the first time the use in prevention instead of treatment with a probiotic for the colic regurgitation and constipation.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Nutrition, Pediatrics, University of Michigan / 14.01.2014

Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath, MSA Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann ArborMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath, MSA Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This study examined 2007-2012 commercialism trends in schools attended by nationally representative samples of US elementary and secondary students. While some measures showed significant decreases over time (especially beverage vending measures), most students at both elementary and secondary school levels continued to be exposed to school-based commercialism. Commercialism increased significantly with grade level. The most frequent type of commercialism varied by school level:  food coupons used as incentives was most common at the elementary school level, while exclusive beverage contracts were the most prevalent type of commercialism for middle and high school students.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Pediatrics, Stanford / 11.01.2014

Naama Barnea-Goraly M.D. Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research Stanford UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Naama Barnea-Goraly M.D. Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research Stanford University MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our main findings showed that compared with age and sex matched controls, children with type 1 diabetes have significant differences in white matter structure in widespread brain regions. Within the type 1 diabetes group, earlier onset of diabetes and longer duration were associated with greater alterations in white matter structure. In addition, measures of hyperglycemia and glucose variability, but not hypoglycemia were associated with white matter structure; however, hypoglycemia exposure and the number of severe hypoglycemia events in our sample were too small to identify statistically meaningful differences. Finally, we observed a significant association between white matter structure and cognitive ability in children with type 1 diabetes, but not in controls.
Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Pediatrics / 07.01.2014

William P. Meehan III, MD Director, Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention Director, Sports Concussion Clinic, Boston Children?s Hospital 9 Hope Avenue, Suite 100 Waltham, MA 02453MedicalResearch.com Interview with: William P. Meehan III, MD Director, Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention Director, Sports Concussion Clinic, Boston Children?s Hospital Waltham, MA 02453 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Meehan: The study has 2 findings that I believe are the most worthy of attention.  First, although cognitive rest has been recommended as a therapy for concussion for several years now, there has been little data showing its effect. This lack of data has led to variability in the recommendations for cognitive rest, with some experts not recommending it all, and others recommending athletes avoid all cognitive activity, lying alone in a dark room even, until they are completely recovered.  As you can imaging, this has generated controversy.  We believe this is the first study showing the independent, beneficial effect of limiting cognitive activity on recovery from concussion.