Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 02.09.2015

Beate W. Hygen PhD Student Department of Psychology Norwegian University of Science and Technology Social ScienceMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Beate W. Hygen PhD Student Department of Psychology Norwegian University of Science and Technology Social Science Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Response: The study is part of the Trondheim Early Secure Study (TESS) conducted at the  Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and NTNU Social Science. The main aim of TESS is to detect risk and protective factors with regards to children’s mental health and well-being.  TESS examines multiple factors which may play a role in children`s development. There is substantial research, based on diathesis-stress theorizing, indicating that some individuals, including children, are more susceptible to the negative effects of contextual adversity than are others. However, according to differential susceptibility theory, such "vulnerable" individuals may also be the ones that benefit the most from positive environmental conditions. Thus, some individuals are more malleable for "better and for worse" to environmental exposures. The article Child exposure to serious life events, COMT, and aggression: Testing differential susceptibility theory was designed to examine if the COMT polymorphism moderated the effect of early-life adversity on aggressive behavior. Thus, we sought to competitively evaluate which model of person X environment interaction best accounted for the anticipated differential effects of life event stress on children's aggressive behavior.
Author Interviews, Hospital Acquired, Infections, Pediatrics / 31.08.2015

Daryl R. Cheng, MBBS Monash Children's Hospital Victoria, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daryl R. Cheng, MBBS Monash Children's Hospital Victoria, Australia   Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Inanimate objects worn and used by health care workers (HCW), such as neckties and stethoscopes,  have been shown to be reservoirs for potential pathogens. Of particular concern in the pediatric setting are identity (ID) badges and lanyards. Many pediatric health care workers use them not only for identification but also as a distraction tool during examination or procedures. Children have an increased tendency to place these items in their mouth as health care workers lean over to examine or care for them, therefore completing the chain of transmission for a potential nosocomial infection. Whilst previous studies have demonstrated that ID badges and lanyards worn by health care workers may harbor pathogenic bacteria , there is paucity of comparative data suggesting that ID badges may be similarly contaminated with viral pathogens. However, given the higher incidence of viral infections in pediatrics up to 50% of preterm infants screened during their hospital stay y had viruses detected in  their nasopharynx, further evaluation of the viral burden and potential for nosocomial transmission of  prevalent viruses are of both clinical and economic significance.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders, Technology / 27.08.2015

Stephanie J. Crowley, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Biological Rhythms Research Laboratory Department of Behavioral Sciences Rush University Medical Center Chicago, IL 60612MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Stephanie J. Crowley, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Biological Rhythms Research Laboratory Department of Behavioral Sciences Rush University Medical Center Chicago, IL 60612 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Crowley: Your readers may have seen recent reports by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the CDC about problems with early morning school bells for teens and the need to push school start times later.  These recent calls for later school start times come from data showing that biological processes make it challenging for a teen to get enough sleep and be rested for school when they have to wake up very early for school.  One of these biological processes is the circadian timing system, which is the approximate 24-hour brain clock that regulates the timing of sleep and wake.  During the teen years, the brain clock is shifted later making it more difficult for many teens to fall asleep early enough to get sufficient sleep on school nights. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Crowley: Melatonin suppression, as tested in this new study, is a good indication of how light affects the circadian system.  Our findings show that even a very small amount of light (similar to “romantic mood lighting”) in the evening suppressed melatonin levels in the middle-school-aged adolescents.  Because evening light “seen” by the brain clock shifts the clock later in time, the message is that biologically-driven later sleep times starts at this early age and needs to be considered when managing school and sleep schedules.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, University Texas / 24.08.2015

Jeffrey R. Kaiser, MD, MA Professor of Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology Section of Neonatology Baylor College of Medicine Texas Children's Hospital Houston, TX 77030MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jeffrey R. Kaiser, MD, MA Professor of Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology Section of Neonatology Baylor College of Medicine Texas Children's Hospital Houston, TX 77030 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Kaiser:  The continuous utero-placental-umbilical infusion of glucose ends at birth, and levels decrease during the first 1–2 hours stimulating counterregulatory hormones and promoting successful glucose homeostasis in healthy newborns. This is important because the newborn brain principally uses glucose for energy, and prolonged and severe hypoglycemia has been linked with poor long-term neurodevelopment. Most previous newborn hypoglycemia-outcome studies, however, are problematic because they did not control for maternal educational level and socioeconomic status, factors that are highly associated with childhood neurodevelopment and academic success. Further, little is known about whether newborn transient hypoglycemia (1 low value followed by a second normal value), frequently considered to be a normal physiological phenomena with no serious sequelae, is associated with poor academic achievement. To address this knowledge gap, we compared initial newborn glucose values from the universal glucose-screening database, available only at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), to their matched student achievement-test scores in 4th grade (10 years later). After controlling for gestational-age group, race, gender, multifetal gestation, insurance, maternal education, and gravidity, we observed transient hypoglycemia in a heterogeneous cohort of newborns born at a university hospital was associated with lower fourth-grade achievement-test scores—real-world assessments that predict high school graduation, college attendance, and long-term adult economic success.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 21.08.2015

Gary S. Marshall, M.D. Professor of Pediatrics Chief, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Director, Pediatric Clinical Trials Unit University of Louisville School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gary S. Marshall, M.D. Professor of Pediatrics Chief, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Director, Pediatric Clinical Trials Unit University of Louisville School of Medicine     Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Marshall: The infant immunization schedule has become crowded. That’s great news, in a sense, because it means that our children have become better protected against more diseases. At the same time, this has led to well child visits during which many shots are recommended, and some parents want to limit the number of injections their children receive at one time. This leads to deferrals, poor timeliness and decreased coverage rates, all of which could impair protection. This study shows that a hexavalent vaccine—one that combines diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and hepatitis B vaccines in one syringe—is safe and just as immunogenic as the currently used component vaccines. 
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 19.08.2015

Jennifer B. Kane PhD Assistant professor of Sociology University of California, Irvine MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jennifer B. Kane PhD Assistant professor of Sociology University of California, Irvine Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Kane: We know that low-birth-weight babies are more susceptible to later physical and cognitive difficulties and that these difficulties can sharpen the social divide in the U.S. But knowing more about what causes low birth weight can help alleviate this intergenerational perpetuation of social inequality through poor infant health. This study was designed to expand our knowledge of these causes. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Kane: This study found that risk factors for low birth weight extend far beyond pregnancy—dating all the way back to women’s early life environment as well as to conditions dating back three generations. For example, a woman’s own weight at birth, as well as her education level and marital status pre-pregnancy can have repercussions for two generations, putting her children and grandchildren at higher risk of low birth weight. This study also discovered new pathways of risk that contribute to poor infant health. For example, intergenerational transmissions of maternal education, potentially reflecting parent-child socialization or role modeling, appear to have a long-term influence on birth outcomes of future generations. In addition, this study showed that intra-generational and inter-generational processes work in conjunction with one another to place some infants at higher risk of low birth weight.
Author Interviews, Depression, JAMA, Pediatrics / 18.08.2015

Edward D. Barker, PhD Developmental Psychopathology Group Department of Psychology, King’s College London Institute of Psychiatry LondonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Edward D. Barker, PhD Developmental Psychopathology Group Department of Psychology, King’s College London Institute of Psychiatry London Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Barker: The study looks at how the brain may be affected by experiences that happen early in life and adolescence. It has been known for a long time now that people who experience intense adversity are at increased risk of developing depression and other psychiatric problems. Previous research has also shown that both adversity and depression can affect the development of the brain and lead to altered brain structure. In this study, we wanted to examine how early adversity and depression relate to altered brain structure when you examined each within a specific temporal order (i.e., adversity, then depression/anxiety, then brain structure). This study design allowed us to examine not only the effects of adversity and depression, but also if some of the variation in brain structure associated with depression may also be explained by early adversity. Other researchers have previously suggested that some of the variation in brain structure observed in depressed patients may relate to early adversity, but no previous study has examined this prospectively like we did, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
Author Interviews, Baylor University Medical Center Dallas, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 17.08.2015

Arpitha Chiruvolu MD FAAP Neonatologist Baylor University Medical Center Department of Neonatology Dallas, TX 75246 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arpitha Chiruvolu MD FAAP Neonatologist Baylor University Medical Center Department of Neonatology Dallas, TX 75246  MedicalResearch: What is the background and main findings of the study? Dr. Chiruvolu: There is growing evidence that delaying umbilical cord clamping (DCC) in very preterm infants may improve hemodynamic stability after birth and decrease the incidence of major neonatal morbidities such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and necrotizing enterocolitis. Recently, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) published a committee opinion that supported delaying umbilical cord clamping in preterm infants, with the possibility for a nearly 50% reduction in IVH. However, the practice of DCC in preterm infants has not been widely adopted, mainly due to the concern of a delay in initiating resuscitation in this vulnerable population. Furthermore, there is uncertainty regarding the magnitude of published benefits in very preterm infants, since prior trials were limited by small sample sizes, wide variability in the technique and inconsistent reporting of factors that may have contributed to clinical outcomes. We recently implemented a delaying umbilical cord clamping quality improvement (QI) process in very preterm infants at a large delivery hospital. The objective of this cohort study was to evaluate the clinical consequences of a protocol-driven delayed umbilical cord clamping implementation in singleton infants born £ 32 weeks gestation. We hypothesized that DCC would not compromise initial resuscitation and would be associated with significant decrease in early red blood cell transfusions and IVH compared to a historic cohort. Delayed umbilical cord clamping was performed on all the 60 eligible infants. 88 infants were identified as historic controls. Gestational age, birth weight and other demographic variables were similar between both groups. There were no differences in Apgar scores or admission temperature, but significantly fewer infants in theDelayed umbilical cord clamping cohort were intubated in delivery room, had respiratory distress syndrome or received red blood cell transfusions in the first week of life compared to the historic cohort.  A significant reduction was noted in the incidence of IVH inDelayed umbilical cord clamping cohort compared to historic control group (18.3% versus 35.2%). After adjusting for gestational age, an association was found between the incidence of IVH and Delayed umbilical cord clamping with IVH significantly lower in the DCC cohort compared to historic cohort with odds ratio of 0.36 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.84, P <0.05). There were no significant differences in mortality and other major morbidities.
Author Interviews, HIV, NIH, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 15.08.2015

George K Siberry, MD, MPH, Medical Officer Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease (MPID) Branch Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MDMedicalResearch.com Interview with: George K Siberry, MD, MPH, Medical Officer Maternal and Pediatric Infectious Disease (MPID) Branch Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Siberry:  Vaccines may not work as reliably in children with HIV infection, especially when their HIV is not under effective treatment. Today, most children in the United States who were born with HIV infection are receiving effective HIV treatment and have reached school age or even young adulthood. However, many received their childhood vaccines before they got started on their HIV treatment (because modern HIV treatments weren’t available when they were very young or their HIV infection was diagnosed late). So we wanted to see if these older children still had immunity from the vaccines they received when they were much younger. Medical Research:  What are the main findings? Dr. Siberry: We looked specifically at whether older children with HIV since birth were protected against measles, mumps, and rubella, the three viral infections covered by the measles-mumps-rubella (or MMR) vaccine. We found that 1/3 up to almost 1/2 of these children were not protected against these viruses, even though nearly all of the children had received at least 2 MMR doses, as recommended. And even if their HIV was currently under excellent control.  When we analyzed factors that were linked to being protected, we found that one of the most important factors was whether you got your MMR vaccine doses after you got on good treatment for your HIV infection.  For instance, over 85% of children who had gotten at least 2 MMR vaccine doses after being on effective HIV treatment were protected against measles compared to less than half of those who didn’t get both of their MMR vaccine doses while on effective HIV treatment.
Author Interviews, Hospital Readmissions, JAMA, Pediatrics / 11.08.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alisa Khan, MD Pediatric hospitalist Boston Children's Hospital and Instructor of Pediatrics Harvard Medical School Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Khan: Patients can be readmitted to the same hospital they were discharged from or to a different hospital.  In adults, readmissions to different hospitals make up about 20% of all readmissions.  We don’t know a lot about how often different-hospital readmissions happen in children. Insurance companies know hospitals’ true readmission rates (which include when a hospital’s patients are readmitted to the same hospital and when they are readmitted to a different hospital).  However, hospitals don’t know their true readmission rates since they don’t have access to the full information that insurance companies have. If hospitals don’t know their true rates, they may think they are doing better at preventing readmissions than they really (for instance, if all their discharged patients are simply being readmitted to a different hospital).  Hospitals may also draw incorrect conclusions when they compare themselves to one another (like through benchmarking), and may not be able to predict whether they will be subject to penalties by insurers for having excessively high readmission rates. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Khan: We found that about 1 in 7 pediatric readmissions in New York over a 5-year period were to a different hospital than the hospital the patient was discharged from.   The percentage of different-hospital readmissions varied by hospital and patient characteristics.  Patients who were admitted to non-children’s hospitals, lower-volume hospitals, or urban hospitals had a higher chance of being readmitted to a different hospital, as did patients who were younger, white, privately insured, or who had certain chronic conditions (like mental health, neurologic, and circulatory conditions). We also found a lot of variability in how much individual hospitals would underestimate their true readmission rates if they only used this incomplete same-hospital readmission info.  Some hospitals would underestimate their true readmission rates by only 0.6 relative percentage points while others would underestimate them by 68 points.
Author Interviews, Fertility, JAMA, Pediatrics / 11.08.2015

Prof. Dr. med. Christian F. Poets Neonatologie, Univ.-Klinikum Tübingen Tübingen GermanyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Dr. med. Christian F. Poets Neonatologie, Univ.-Klinikum Tübingen Tübingen Germany Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Prof. Poets: Episodes of intermittent hypoxemia (lack of oxygen) and bradycardia (slow heart rate) are common in very preterm infants and often a subject of considerable concern. However, up to now there has been a lack of knowledge as to how often or how long such episodes may occur without increasing an infant’s risk for impaired development or even death. In this study, we utilized long-term recordings (lasting 8-12 weeks) of oxygen saturation and heart rate obtained as part of the Canadian Oxygen Trial (COT), a large study performed in extremely immature infants and comparing a higher with a lower oxygen saturation target range (85-89 vs. 91-95% oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry). For this secondary analysis, we wanted to test the hypotheses that spending a high proportion of time at an oxygen saturation below 80% or a pulse rate <80 beats per minute increases the risk of the following adverse outcomes:
  1. Death after reaching a post-menstrual age of 36 weeks (i.e. 4 weeks before their due date) or disability, determined at 18-22 months corrected age and defined as motor impairment, cognitive or language delay, severe hearing loss, or bilateral blindness;
  2. Motor impairment (determined at 18-22 months corrected age);
  3. Cognitive or language delay (determined at 18-22 months corrected age);
  4. Severe retinopathy of prematurity.
Medical Research: What are the main findings? Prof. Poets: Analyzable recordings and outcome data were available for 1019 infants, of which the least affected 10% spent 0.4%, and the most affected infants 13.5% of the time at an oxygen saturation <80%. We found that the risk to develop all of the adverse outcomes mentioned above increased with the percentage of time spent at an oxygen saturation below 80%, but this was true only for hypoxemic events lasting for at least 1 minute. Episodes with a low heart rate (in the absence of concomitant hypoxemia) were not associated with an increased risk of an adverse outcome. Interestingly, hypoxemic events occurring in infants originally randomized to the higher oxygen group in the original COT study were associated with a stronger increase in the risk of death or disability than such episodes occurring infants randomized to the lower oxygen saturation target range. 
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 08.08.2015

Prof. Abdel-Latif MohamedDiscipline of Neonatology, Medical School, College of Medicine, Biology & Environment Australian National University Acton, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Abdel-Latif Mohamed Discipline of Neonatology, Medical School, College of Medicine, Biology & Environment Australian National University Acton, Canberra, ACT, Australia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Prof. Mohamed: Despite decades of research and debate amongst neonatologists, consensus regarding optimal management of Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) in the premature infant is yet to be established. The vast majority of premature infants are treated with oral or intravenous medication and surgical ligation is usually reserved to severely ill infants. Our study demonstrated that treatment for Patent Ductus Arteriosus , particularly of a surgical nature, maybe associated with a greater risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at 2-3 years of age. This was particularly so among infants born below 25 weeks gestation. This result may support permissive tolerance of PDAs. However, reasons for this association remain to be elucidated through carefully designed prospective trials.
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA, Pediatrics / 28.07.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wade Harrison, MPH The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical Practice Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, New Hampshire Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Harrison: This study used national birth certificate data to examine time trends in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission rates for all U.S. newborns and the composition of the cohort of admitted newborns.  Most of the existing studies of neonatal intensive care are limited in examining specific groups of newborns (e.g. those <1500 g, those with a specific complication, within limited geographies, etc.) or only looking at how care is delivered after a baby is admitted, leaving aside the question of whether to admit them in the first place.  This is an important area to study because the newborn period is a critical time for babies and their families to establish good feeding practices and increase bonding among other important needs; also, neonatal intensive care is very expensive and like all medical interventions can carry certain risks.  We found that NICU admission rates increased for all newborns across the birth weight spectrum.  Additionally, although NICUs were initially developed to care for very small and premature newborns, just under half of current NICU admissions are for normal birth weight and full term infants, who are likely to be less ill.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Diabetes, Nutrition, Pediatrics / 22.07.2015

Prof. Lu Qi, Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health and Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lu Qi, MD, PhD, FAHA Associate Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Assistant Professor of Nutrition HarvardSchool of Public Health Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Lu QiMost previous studies focus on the effects of either lifestyle or prenatal malnutrition on diabetes risk; no study has assess these two types of risk factors in combination.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, NYU, Pediatrics, Toxin Research / 10.07.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Teresa M. Attina, MD, PhD, MPH and Leonardo Trasande, MD, MPP Department of Pediatrics NYU Langone Medical Center Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Response: Phthalates are environmental chemicals widely used in consumer and personal care products, and often found in plastic to increase flexibility. Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) is of particular interest because industrial processes to produce food frequently use plastic products containing DEHP. Because recognition of potential health risks related to DEHP exposure has increased, DEHP is being replaced by di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP), two phthalates with similar chemical properties. Specifically, DINP is used in plastic products for food packaging, and DIDP is used in furnishings, cookware, medications, and several other consumer products. These alternatives have not been substantially studied for toxicity in laboratory studies because these studies are not required for regulatory approval: unlike the EU, in the US the current regulatory framework assumes that chemicals are safe until proven toxic. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Response: We examined DINP and DIDP levels in urine samples from children and adolescents (6 to 19 years old) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2009 and 2012, to assess if these levels were associated with blood pressure measurements. Diet, physical activity, gender, race/ethnicity, income, and other factors that can contribute to increased blood pressure were also included in the analysis. A significant association was found between high blood pressure and DINP/DIDP levels in study participants. This is not a cause-and-effect relationship but it suggests that phthalates may contribute to increased blood pressure.
Author Interviews, Depression, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics / 10.07.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katie Burkhouse, Graduate Student and Dr. Brandon Gibb Ph.D Professor of Psychology Director of the Mood Disorders Institute and Center for Affective Science Binghamton University Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Gibb:  One of the strongest risk factors for depression is a family history of the disorder.  However, even among this at-risk group, the majority of children of depressed parents do not develop depression themselves.  For those who do become depressed, the depression can severely and negatively affect their social and academic functioning, become chronic or recurrent over the lifespan, and increase risk for suicide.  What is needed therefore, is a good indicator of which children may be at greatest risk for depression so that interventions can be targeted to these individuals.  We believe that pupil dilation may represent one such marker.  Changes in pupil dilation are associated with activity in the brain’s emotional circuits and have been linked in previous research to the presence of depression.  What my graduate student Katie Burkhouse found is that, even among children who are not currently experiencing symptoms of depression, the degree to which their pupil dilates when they look at pictures of sad faces predicts their risk for developing clinically significant episodes of depression over the next two years.  The findings were specific to pupil responses to sad faces and were not observed when children looked at happy or angry faces suggesting that there is something specific to how the children were processing sad images.
Author Interviews, CDC, Pediatrics, Vitamin D / 25.06.2015

Katherine Ahrens Ph.D. MPH National Center for Health Statistics Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Hyattsville, MDMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katherine Ahrens Ph.D. MPH National Center for Health Statistics Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Hyattsville, MD Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Ahrens: In 2008, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) revised their recommended minimum daily intake of vitamin D for infants and children to 400 IU. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Ahrens: Approximately one quarter of US infants aged 0 to 11 months met the 2008 AAP vitamin D recommendations on a given day in 2009 to 2012. Fewer than 1 in 5 breastfed infants met the vitamin D recommendations compared to nearly 1 in 3 non-breastfed infants.
Accidents & Violence, Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Pediatrics / 24.06.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lois K. Lee, MD, MPH Division of Emergency Medicine Boston Children's Hospital Boston, MA 02115 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause of death for children and adults in the U.S. Seat belts are the single most effective protective device to decreased death and mitigate injuries in the event of a motor vehicle crash. Our study found that states with primary seat belt laws, where a motorist can be ticketed only for not wearing a seat belt, demonstrated a 17% decreased fatality rate, compared to states with secondary seat belt laws, where a motorist must be cited for another violation first before also getting ticketed for not wearing a seat belt. We found this difference was robust even after controlling for other motor vehicle safety legislation and state demographic factors. We found that although seatbelts prevent deaths, they don't completely stop injury so if you have been in an accident that wasn't your fault then you might want to look for a place like the Parnall Law Firm to see if they can help you get compensation for your injuries.
Author Interviews, C. difficile, Columbia, Gastrointestinal Disease, Microbiome, Pediatrics / 19.06.2015

Daniel E. Freedberg, MD, MS Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases Columbia University, New YorkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniel E. Freedberg, MD, MS Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases Columbia University, New York Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Freedberg: Acid suppression medications are increasingly prescribed to relatively healthy children without clear indications, but the side effects of these medications are uncertain. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Freedberg: Acid suppression with (proton pump inhibitors ) PPIs or (histamine-2 receptor antagonists) H2RAs was associated with increased risk for C. diff infection in both infants and older children. Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? Dr. Freedberg: Increased risk for C. diff should be factored into the decision to use acid suppression medications in children.  Our findings imply that acid suppression medications alter the bacterial composition of the lower gastrointestinal tract.
Author Interviews, Cannabis, Pediatrics / 15.06.2015

Dr. Gary Smith MD, DrPH Center for Injury Research and Policy Nationwide Children's Hospital Columbus, OhioMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Gary Smith MD, DrPH Center for Injury Research and Policy Nationwide Children's Hospital Columbus, Ohio Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Smith: As of January 2015, 23 states and Washington D.C. have legalized marijuana for medical use. Four of those same states and Washington D.C. have also voted to legalize marijuana for recreational use. The debate about legalization often focuses on health effects among adults, economic benefits, and crime rates. Lost in the discussion is the potential harm to young children from unintentional exposure to marijuana. The study found that the rate of marijuana exposure among children 5 years of age and younger rose 147.5 percent from 2006 through 2013 across the United States. The rate increased almost 610 percent during the same period in states that legalized marijuana for medical use before 2000. In states that legalized marijuana from 2000 through 2013, the rate increased almost 16 percent per year after legalization, with a particular jump in the year that marijuana was legalized. Even states that had not legalized marijuana by 2013 saw a rise of 63 percent in the rate of marijuana exposures among young children from 2000 through 2013. Most children were exposed when they swallowed marijuana – that may be related to the popularity of marijuana brownies, cookies and other foods.
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Leukemia, NYU, Pediatrics / 15.06.2015

Susan Schwab, PhD Assistant professor at NYU Langone Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Susan Schwab, PhD Assistant professor at NYU Langone Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Schwab:  T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) remains a devastating pediatric disease.  Roughly 20% of children do not respond to current therapies.  Furthermore, metastasis to the central nervous system is common in T-ALL, and intrathecal chemotherapy, even when successful at eradicating the cancer, causes serious long-term cognitive side-effects. Here we report that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is essential for T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression in both mouse and human xenograft models of disease.  Consistent with sustained disease remission in the absence of CXCR4, loss of CXCR4 signaling results in decreased levels of c-Myc, which is required for leukemia initiating cell activity.   T-ALL cells reside near cells generating the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 in the bone marrow, and our data suggest that vascular endothelial cells may be an important part of the T-ALL niche.
Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders / 14.06.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kimberly Allen PhD, RN Assistant Professor Center dr-kimberly-allenfor Narcolepsy, Sleep and Health Research Department Women Children and Family Health Science Chicago, IL 60612 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Allen: Pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.Each year in the United States over 1Ž2 million children are admitted to the hospital for traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Depending on the severity of the injury and how the individual child responds to the primary injury, a range of medical care may be necessary from an overnight hospital admission for observation to admission in the intensive care unit (ICU) and inpatient rehabilitation facility to re-teach and help to recover skills children once knew. The short- and long-term consequences of traumatic brain injuries include: motor and sensory impairments; cognitive, emotional, psychosocial impairments; headaches, and sleep disruptions. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Allen: The main finding from this pilot study with two groups with 15 children in each group: one of children with traumatic brain injuries and one of typically, developing healthy children was that children with traumatic brain injuries have significantly more daytime sleepiness and worse sleep quality compared to the control group. Additionally, children with TBI also had lower overall  functional scores (e.g, school, social) compared to the controlled children. All of the surveys were completed by the child’s parent.
Author Interviews, BMJ, Osteoporosis, Pediatrics / 12.06.2015

Anne Winther Msc Department of Health and Care Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway Division of Rehabilitation Services, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, NorwayMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anne Winther Msc Department of Health and Care Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway Division of Rehabilitation Services, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Norway has one of the highest reported incidences of osteoporotic fractures in the world. Research on fracture risk has primarily focused on bone mass in the elderly. However, there is a growing awareness of the importance of bone mass during growth as a compensation for the inevitable bone loss and prevention of fractures in the elderly . A recent study on Norwegian adolescents´ lifestyle and bone health concluded  that peak bone mass seem to be modifiable by lifestyle factors as higher physical activity levels were strongly associated with bone mass. The other way around; low levels of physical activity may have considerable negative effects on bone health, and increasing sedentary behavior in place of sports and play during growth is worrying. In this study we explored the associations between self-reported hours spent in front of television/computers during weekends along with self reported hours spent on leisure time physical activities and bone mass density (BMD) levels at the hip. This population based study, Fit Futures 1 consisting of 388 girls and 359 boys 15-17 years old was conducted in 2010/2011, and repeated two years later including 66% of the original cohort (Fit Futures 2; 312 girls and 231 boys). Boys spent more time in front of computers and television than girls; approximately 5 and 4 hours, compared with 4 and 3 hours daily in weekends and weekdays, respectively. Physical activity levels were adversely related to leisure time computer use at weekends. However, 20 % of the girls and 25 % of the boys balanced 2-4 hours in front of the screen daily with more than 4 hours of sports and hard training per week. Screen time at weekends was negatively associated with bone mass density levels in boys and positively in girls, after adjustments of several confounders known to affect bone, including age, puberty, physical activity levels and weekday screen time. Moreover; these contrasting patterns persisted two years later.
Author Interviews, CDC, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 10.06.2015

Eyal Leshem, MD Division of Viral Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GeorgiaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eyal Leshem, MD Division of Viral Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Routine vaccination of US children to protect against rotavirus began in 2006. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of implementation of rotavirus vaccine on gastroenteritis and rotavirus hospitalizations of children younger than 5 years old. The main finding from this study is that hospitalizations for diarrhea in U.S. children younger than 5 years old decreased dramatically during 2008 to 2012 following implementation of routine rotavirus vaccination in 2006. Additionally, seasonal peaks of hospitalizations for rotavirus illness were considerably reduced after the vaccine was implemented compared to years prior to rotavirus vaccination. By 2012, rates of rotavirus hospitalization declined by approximately 90% across all settings and age groups. Factors such as increasing vaccine coverage as well as herd immunity resulting in less transmission of rotavirus may be responsible for this large decrease.
Author Interviews, BMJ, Depression, Pediatrics / 03.06.2015

Dr. Lucy Bowes Ph.D Leverhulme Early Career Research Fellow Fellow of Magdalen College Department of Experimental Psychology University of Oxford OxfordMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Lucy Bowes Ph.D Leverhulme Early Career Research Fellow Fellow of Magdalen College Department of Experimental Psychology University of Oxford Oxford Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Major depression is a severe mental illness, and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Rates of depression begin to rise in the teenage years, though the reasons for this remain unclear. Peers become particularly important during this time, and victimisation by peers or “bullying” has been proposed as one potentially modifiable risk factor for depression. There are robust findings that peer victimisation in childhood is associated with short-term internalizing symptoms, however it remains unclear whether victimization in the teenage years is associated with major depression. Only a relatively small number of longitudinal studies have prospectively investigated victimisation in relation to depression meeting diagnostic criteria in late adolescence or adulthood. Limitations of these studies include poor measures of bullying, lack of adjustment for key confounders such as baseline emotional and behavioral difficulties and child maltreatment. Our prospective cohort observational study, published in The BMJ, used detailed self-report data on peer victimisation at 13 years from 6,719 participants of the ALSPAC or ‘Children of the 90s’ study. The outcome was depression at 18 years, measured using a self-administered computerised version of the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised, CIS-R (data available for 3,898 participants). We adjusted for a range of confounders including baseline emotional and behavioral problems, family background and other risk factors. Of the 683 children who reported frequent victimisation at 13 years, 101 (14.8%) were depressed at 18 years. Of the 1,446 children reporting some victimisation, 103 (7.1%) were depressed, and of the 1,769 children reporting no victimisation at 13 years, 98 (5.5%) were depressed. Children who were frequently victimized had over a two-fold increase in odds of depression compared with children who were not victimized by peers. This association was slightly reduced when adjusting for key confounders. The population attributable fraction suggested that 29% of depression at 18 could be explained by peer victimisation if this were a causal relationship.
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 01.06.2015

Prof. Michael Breakspear MB BS, Ba(Hons), Bsc(Med), PhD QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute Royal Brisbane HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Michael Breakspear MB BS, Ba(Hons), Bsc(Med), PhD QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute Royal Brisbane Hospital Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Prof. Breakspear: The first 72 hours following complicated full-term or premature delivery of a newborn represents a critical window in which survival and long term brain development hangs in the balance. During this window of time, there does not currently exist a reliable, non-invasive, real-time measure of neuropathology that provides neurologists and neonatologists prognostic indicators of clinical outcome. We developed a tool that draws on techniques in physics used to characterize naturally occurring phenomena, such as earthquakes and avalanches, to analyze brain activity recordings of preterm infants. Our tool allows early identification of preterm infants at significant risk of developing poor long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes, such as cerebral palsy and learning difficulties at two years of age.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 31.05.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Katz, MD Divisions of Cardiology, and Neonatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine Aurora, Colorado Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Katz: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of infant mortality in the US between 1 month and 1 year of life.  This is the first large study to demonstrate an association between high altitude and SIDS.  In particular there is a doubling of risk above 8,000 feet of elevation relative to below 6,000 feet. Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? Dr. Katz: There is an association between high altitude residence and Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).  The reason for this association is still unknown, but hypoxia may be the common link.  While the population living above 8000 feet is small in the US, it is large worldwide.  Better understanding this association is of great medical importance.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 23.05.2015

Dr. Simon Cheng PhD. Department of Sociology University of Connecticut, Storrs, CTMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Simon Cheng PhD. Department of Sociology University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Cheng: Our research is an empirical response to the Regnerus study, one of the most visible and controversial articles ever published in the social sciences.  His study concluded that individuals raised by a gay or lesbian parent display less favorable adulthood outcomes than those who grew up in intact biological families.  There have been many debates about the study’s conclusion and analysis, but we (Cheng and Powell) are the first to reassess Regnerus’s findings by analyzing his own data.  Our reanalysis seriously calls into question his conclusions. We find that a large number of the people studied in the Regnerus study likely were misclassified as living with gay/lesbian parents.  The misclassifications took several forms:
  • Of the 236 people Regnerus defined as being raised by a “lesbian mother” or “gay father’ 24 (10%) report that they actually never lived with that parent
  • An additional 34 (14%) report that they lived with that parent for a year of less.
  • The 236 people include some questionable responses that lead us to doubt the seriousness of the person completing the survey. The most notable example is a 25 year-old man who reports that his father had a romantic relationship with another man, but also reports that he (the respondent) was 7-feet 8-inches tall, weighted 88 pounds, was married 8 times, and had 8 children.  Another person claims to have been arrested at age 2.
  • The 236 people also include responses that at best are inconsistent and illogical.  For example, one person repots “having always live alone but also claims to have always lived with the mother, father, and two grandparents.”
After reviewing each case, we demonstrated that at least one-third and up to two-fifths were miscounted by Regnerus as having been raised by gay or lesbian parents. Regnerus’s disputable findings are due to these misclassifications and other questionable methodological choices.  When the analyses are more carefully done, our results show minimal differences between young adults who were raised by gay and lesbian parents and young adults who were raised by heterosexual parents.
Author Interviews, Microbiome, Pediatrics / 23.05.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ms. Pajau Vangay Graduate Research Fellow Biomedical Informatics and Computational Biology Vice President of Grants, Council of Graduate Students University of Minnesota Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previous studies showed links between antibiotic use and unbalanced gut bacteria, and others showed links between unbalanced gut bacteria and adult disease. Over the past year we synthesized hundreds of studies and found evidence of strong correlations between antibiotic use, changes in gut bacteria, and disease in adulthood.
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 22.05.2015

Katherine Jones, M.A. Research Associate, Department of Research The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Department of Psychology, American UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katherine Jones, M.A. Research Associate, Department of Research The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Department of Psychology, American University Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response:  It is well evidenced that breastfeeding is highly advantageous for the mother, child, and society. Benefits to breastfeeding may be significantly larger for minority women as they are disproportionately affected by numerous adverse health outcomes. The benefits of breastfeeding may help mitigate some of these negative health consequences, and thus, also bridge larger gaps in racial and ethnic health disparities. This article aimed to review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and practices, conduct a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions, address barriers to breastfeeding among minority women, and provide obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) with recommendations on how they can help improve rates among minority women. Overall, racial and ethnic minority women continue to have lower breastfeeding rates than white women in the United States, with African American women having the lowest rates of breastfeeding initiation and continuation among to all women. Minority women report several unique barriers to breastfeeding, including lack of access to information that promotes and supports breastfeeding, lack of work and cultural acceptance and support, language and literacy barriers, acculturation, and historical, sociopolitical, and economic challenges. Results from the systematic review of breastfeeding interventions among minority women indicated that breastfeeding-specific clinic appointments, enhanced breastfeeding programs, group prenatal education, peer counseling, and hospital policy changes significantly improve breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity.