Author Interviews, Autism, JAMA, Johns Hopkins / 22.04.2014

Li-Ching Lee, PhD, ScM Associate Scientist, Departments of Epidemiology and Mental Health Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore MD 21205MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Li-Ching Lee, PhD, ScM Associate Scientist, Departments of Epidemiology and Mental Health Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore MD 21205 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Li-Ching Lee: This population-based case-control study in young children provides evidence that prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use may be a risk factor for autism and other developmental delays (DD). Among boys, prenatal SSRI exposure was nearly 3 times as likely in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relative to children with typical development; the strongest association occurred with first-trimester exposure. Exposure was also elevated among boys with DD and was strongest in the third trimester. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Outcomes & Safety, Stroke / 22.04.2014

Priv.-Doz. Dr. med. Dr. phil. Martin Ebinger Oberarzt der Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Neurologie am Campus Charité Mitte Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB) Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin | CCM Charitéplatz 1 | 10117 Berlin | GermanyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Priv.-Doz. Dr. med. Dr. phil. Martin Ebinger Oberarzt der Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Neurologie am Campus Charité Mitte Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB) Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin | CCM Charitéplatz 1 | 10117 Berlin | Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ebinger: The main findings of our study was a significant time reduction during randomized weeks with prehospital thrombolysis compared to control weeks with regular care. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research / 22.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rustam Al-Shahi Salman Professor of clinical neurology and MRC senior clinical fellow, University of Edinburgh Honorary consultant neurologist, NHS Lothian upcoming JAMA publication:MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rustam Al-Shahi Salman Professor of clinical neurology and MRC senior clinical fellow University of Edinburgh Honorary consultant neurologist, NHS Lothian MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Al-Shahi Salman: Patients with arteriovenous malformations (abnormal connection between arteries and veins) in the brain that have not ruptured had a lower risk of stroke or death for up to 12 years if they received conservative management of the condition compared to an interventional  treatment. Interventional treatment for brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) with procedures such as neurosurgical excision, endovascular embolization, or stereotactic radiosurgery can be used alone or in combination to attempt to obliterate bAVMs. Because interventions may have complications and the untreated clinical course of unruptured bAVMs can be benign, some patients choose conservative management (no intervention). Guidelines have endorsed both intervention and conservative management for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations. Whether conservative management is superior to interventional treatment for unruptured bAVMs is uncertain because of the lack of long-term experience, according to background information in the article. (more…)
Author Interviews, Bipolar Disorder, JAMA / 19.04.2014

John I. Nurnberger, Jr., M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Psychiatry Joyce and Iver Small Professor of PsychiatryMedicalResearch.com Interview with: John I. Nurnberger, Jr., M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Psychiatry Joyce and Iver Small Professor of Psychiatry Indiana University School of Medicine   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Nurnberger: The main findings of the study are the biological pathways identified to be associated with bipolar disorder, including those involved in hormonal regulation, calcium channels, second messenger systems, and glutamate signaling. Gene expression studies implicated neuronal development pathways as well. These findings highlight the role of certain neurobiological processes that have been considered in prior hypotheses of bipolar disorder. They underline a role for calcium signaling, which has only been clearly implicated in the genetics of bipolar disorder in recent years. They also feature hormonal processes such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which has been known to be involved in stress responses, but has not been prominent in many recent theories of the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, JAMA, Surgical Research / 16.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Dorna Jafari, M.D. and Michael J Stamos, MD Professor of Surgery John E. Connolly Chair, Department of Surgery University of California, Irvine Orange, CA 92868 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Surgeons are faced with an aging population and data regarding outcomes is rare given that many studies preclude the elderly from the study population. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately discuss risk of surgical resection given the lack of data. Therefore we aimed to report the national trends and outcomes of colorectal cancer treatment in the elderly population. We demonstrated that the majority of resections are performed in patients >65yeras old. There is a trend towards a decrease in incidence of colorectal resection and a decrease in rate of mortality during 2001-2010.  However, the unique physiological changes associated with aging contribute to increase morbidity and morality as demonstrated by our findings. In fact patients >85 years have a 472% increase in risk-adjusted mortality during a hospital admission compared to younger patients. However, despite the substantially higher mortality and morbidity associated with age, there has been a marked improvement in surgical outcomes in the elderly population. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Lung Cancer, Pulmonary Disease / 15.04.2014

Renda Soylemez Wiener, MD, MPH Assistant Professor of Medicine The Pulmonary Center Boston University School of Medicine Center for Healthcare Organization & Implementation Research Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial VA HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Renda Soylemez Wiener, MD, MPH Assistant Professor of Medicine The Pulmonary Center Boston University School of Medicine Center for Healthcare Organization & Implementation Research Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial VA Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Soylemez Wiener: The main finding is that evaluation of pulmonary nodules to determine whether or not they are cancerous is inconsistent with clinical practice guideline recommendations in almost half of cases, suggesting there is room for improvement in clinical care of these patients. Patients with pulmonary nodules are sometimes evaluated more aggressively than they should be (18%), which can cause harms to patients from unnecessary invasive tests (biopsies or surgery) or unneeded radiation exposure from imaging studies. Still more patients (27%) are followed less aggressively than they should be, which in the worst case scenario could lead to delays in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. It is particularly important to improve care of these patients now, because new guidelines from the US Preventive Services Task Force recommend CT screening for lung cancer screening, which often finds pulmonary nodules that require evaluation. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Weight Research / 15.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dagfinn Aune MS Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics School of Public Health Imperial College London St. Mary's Campus Norfolk Place, Paddington, London W2 1PG, UK MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies examining the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of fetal death, stillbirth, neonatal, perinatal and infant death. We found that the risk of all these outcomes increased with greater BMI in a dose-response fashion. For example even within the high end of what is considered the normal BMI range (BMI of 24-25) there was a 10-20% increase in the relative risk, but the strongest relations were seen for those who were obese and morbidly obese with 30-60% and 2-3 fold increases in the relative risk respectively (depending on the outcome examined). (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Mental Health Research / 15.04.2014

https://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1860496MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jeffery  C. Huffman, M.D. Harvard Medical School Department of Psychiatry Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Huffman: Depression and anxiety in cardiac patients are associated with adverse cardiac outcomes.  We completed a very low-intensity care management intervention to identify depression and anxiety disorders during a cardiac admission and then to assist in the monitoring and management of the condition over the next 24 weeks. There have been other care management trials in cardiac patients, but ours was the first to co-manage depression and anxiety, the first to initiate treatment in the hospital, the first to take a broad population of cardiac patients rather than a single diagnosis, and the first to use such a low-resource strategy with only a single part-time social worker to coordinate care. We found that the care management intervention was associated with significant improvements in mental health treatment, mental health related quality of life, depression, and function at 24 weeks compared to enhanced treatment as usual.  We did not find differences in anxiety, adherence, or cardiac readmissions. (more…)
Addiction, Frailty, Geriatrics, JAMA, Pharmacology / 15.04.2014

Cara Tannenbaum, MD, MSc The Michel Saucier Endowed Chair in Geriatric Pharmacology, Health and Aging La Chaire pharmaceutique Michel-Saucier en santé et vieillissement Professor of Medicine and Pharmacy University of Montreal Centre de Recherche Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal Montreal, QC MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cara Tannenbaum, MD, MSc The Michel Saucier Endowed Chair in Geriatric Pharmacology, Health and Aging,Professor of Medicine and Pharmacy University of Montreal Centre de Recherche Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal Montreal, QC MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tannenbaum: The EMPOWER study showed that providing older patients with information about the harms of sleeping pill use led to discontinuation or dose reduction in 1-in-every 4 patients with longstanding use of benzodiazepines. Receipt of evidence-based information about drug harms resulted in a 8-fold higher likelihood of benzodiazepine cessation. Many physicians think that patients become too dependent on sedative-hypnotics to successfully discontinue. Regardless of age, sex, and duration of use, 27% of patients aged 65-95 in this study successfully completed the recommended 20-week tapering protocol during a 6-month time period and another 11% were in the process of tapering. EMPOWERing patients with evidence-based information therefore results in appropriate risk reduction. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA / 11.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wei-ping Zhou, MD, PhD Department of Hepatic Surgery Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital Shanghai, China MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?  Answer:  The main finding is that Quantitative HBsAg can be used as a new prognostic factor of Hepatocellular Carcinoma recurrence after partial hepatectomy in patients with a low HBV-DNA level. (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, JAMA / 10.04.2014

Bradley S. Peterson, MD Director of the Center for Developmental Neuropsychiatry Director of the Center for Developmental Neuropsychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute Suzanne Crosby Murphy Professor in Pediatric Neuropsychiatry, Columbia University, NYMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bradley S. Peterson, MD Director of the Center for Developmental Neuropsychiatry Director of the Center for Developmental Neuropsychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute Suzanne Crosby Murphy Professor in Pediatric Neuropsychiatry, Columbia University, NY MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Peterson: We detected the presence of lactate in the brains of 13% of 75 participants who had ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder), compared with 1% of the brains of 96 typically developing control participants. The presence of lactate was especially more common in adults who have ASD. Lactate is a product of anaerobic metabolism, which generally should not occur in healthy, living brains under normal circumstances. The presence of lactate in the brains of persons with Autism Spectrum Disorder therefore suggests the presence of deficient production of energy stores by a component of brain cells called “mitochondria”. We detected lactate most commonly in the cingulate gyrus, a region that supports the higher-order control of thought, emotion, and behavior, and that has been implicated previously in Autism Spectrum Disorder. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 07.04.2014

Dr. Marie Claude Ouimet, Ph.D. Assistant Professor/ Professeure adjointe University of Sherbrooke/ Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences/ Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santé Longueuil, QC, Canada, J4K 0A8MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Marie Claude Ouimet, Ph.D. Assistant Professor/ Professeure adjointe University of Sherbrooke/ Université de Sherbrooke Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences/ Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santé Longueuil, QC, Canada, J4K 0A8 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ouimet :The goal of our study was to examine if teenagers’ driving risk was associated with a neurobiological factor. Driving was continuously observed with cameras and sensors installed in the vehicles of teenagers during their first 18 months of licensure. Cortisol response was measured within the first weeks of licensing. Our study showed two main findings: 1) Higher cortisol response to a stressful event was associated with lower crash and near crash rates over the study period; 2) Higher cortisol response was also linked to a sharper decrease in crash and near crash rates over time.   (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA / 07.04.2014

dr_sandra_l_deckerMedicalResearch.com Interview Sandra L. Decker, Ph.D. Distinguished Consultant Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics Hyattsville, MD 20782   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Decker: One of the main findings is that the percent of the low income population that is uninsured is higher in states not expanding Medicaid than those expanding.  The low income uninsured in non-expansion states are more likely to report having or having had certain health conditions such as hypertension, cancer, stroke, emphysema, or a heart condition than those in expansion states.  (more…)
Breast Cancer, JAMA, Outcomes & Safety / 03.04.2014

Dr. Lydia  Pace, MD, MPH Division of Women’s Health, Brigham and Women’s Hospital Boston, MassachusettsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Lydia  Pace, MD, MPH Division of Women’s Health, Brigham and Women’s Hospital Boston, Massachusetts MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pace: We reviewed the existing literature about the benefits and harms of mammography, focusing on the reduction of breast cancer deaths associated with mammography, as well as the two most often-discussed harms: false positive results and overdiagnosis. We also reviewed the literature about interventions to help patients make informed decisions. We found that the literature suggests that routine screening mammography does reduce mortality associated with breast cancer, across all age groups. However, it is also associated with high rates of false positive results, and considerable rates of overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis is the most concerning potential risk of mammography screening. Overdiagnosis is the detection of a tumor through screening that would never have caused problems for a patient. It occurs either because of a very slow-growing tumor, or because a woman has medical problems (or is old enough) such that she will likely die of another cause before the cancer became apparent. Overdiagnosis is concerning because we cannot know when a cancer is overdiagnosed, and thus a patient who is overdiagnosed will receive unnecessary treatment for cancer. The scientific literature on mammography is complex, and there are important limitations to the studies both of mammography’s benefits and harms. However, we feel that the best available data suggest that among 10,000 50 year old women undergoing annual mammography for 10 years, 5 deaths will be averted through screening mammography, while about 6130 women will experience at least one positive result. Furthermore, there is about a 19% chance that, if that woman is diagnosed with cancer detected by a mammogram, that cancer is one that would never have caused her problems. Lastly, our review showed that we need more studies to guide us in how an individual woman’s risk should dictate her mammography decisions, and how to support women in making those decisions. However, we know that most women with higher risk for breast cancer will experience higher benefit from mammography screening. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA / 02.04.2014

 Daniel J. Elliott, M.D., MSCE, FACP Associate Chair of Research Department of Medicine and Research Scholar Value Institute, Christiana Care Health SystemMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniel J. Elliott, M.D., MSCE, FACP Associate Chair of Research Department of Medicine and Research Scholar Value Institute, Christiana Care Health System MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Elliott: The optimal workload for hospitalists has been a question since the earliest days of hospital medicine. However there has been very little empirical evidence to understand the relationship between workload and outcomes. The objective of our study was to determine the association of daily workload for hospitalists on the efficiency, quality, and cost of care.  We analyzed data from a single private practice hospitalist group at a community-based health system between February 2008 and January 2011. Our research showed that both length of stay and cost increased for patients as hospitalist workload increased. At the same time, our research showed that workload did not affect patient satisfaction as measured by HCAHPS scores or quality and safety outcomes including admissions, rapid response team activation and mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, University of Michigan / 01.04.2014

Mary A.M. Rogers, PhD, MS Research Associate Professor Research Director, Patient Safety Enhancement Program Department of Internal Medicine University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI  48109-2800MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mary A.M. Rogers, PhD, MS Research Associate Professor Research Director, Patient Safety Enhancement Program Department of Internal Medicine University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI  48109-2800 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rogers: The risk of serious infection is considerably elevated after receiving allogeneic (donor) red blood cell transfusions.  For every 38 patients under consideration for transfusion, 1 patient could be spared an infection if more restrictive hemoglobin thresholds were used.  When patients were given transfusions only after their hemoglobin fell below 7.0 g/dL, 1 patient avoided an infection of every 20 patients treated.  The results were most consistent in elderly patients receiving hip and knee replacement surgeries.  Their risk of infection decreased by 30% when lower hemoglobin thresholds were used. (more…)
Author Interviews, Erectile Dysfunction, JAMA, Prostate, Prostate Cancer, Radiation Therapy / 01.04.2014

Dr. Thomas M. Pisansky MD Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MinnesotaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Thomas M. Pisansky MD Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pisansky: This patient-reported outcomes research did not identify a beneficial effect of once-daily tadalafil to prevent radiotherapy-related erectile dysfunction in men with prostate cancer. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, JAMA, University of Pittsburgh, Wake Forest / 31.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Timothy Hughes, PhD, MPH Roena B. Kulynych Center for Memory & Cognition Research Department of Internal Medicine Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine Wake Forest School of Medicine Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC  27157-1207Timothy Hughes, PhD, MPH Roena B. Kulynych Center for Memory & Cognition Research Department of Internal Medicine Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine Wake Forest School of Medicine Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC  27157-1207 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hughes: This study is a follow-up to our recent paper that showed a novel relationship between arterial stiffness (commonly measured by pulse wave velocity) and the presence and extent of amyloid deposition in the brain, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. For this study, we repeated brain amyloid imaging (using the Pittsburgh Compound B during PET imaging) in order to look for predictors of change in amyloid over two years in n=81 elderly adults aged 80+ and free from dementia. We observed that measures of systemic arterial stiffness (e.g. brachial ankle pulse wave velocity) was strongly associated with the extent of amyloid deposition in the brain at both baseline and follow-up. The change in brain amyloid accumulation over two years resulted in an increase in in the number of participants with Alzheimer’s-like (amyloid-positive) from 45% at baseline to a surprising 75% after just two years. This change in brain amyloid accumulation over two years was strongly related to having greater central stiffness (as measured by carotid femoral pulse wave velocity). These relationships between arterial stiffness and brain amyloid deposition were independent of the effects of age, gender, body mass index, antihypertensive medication use and even current blood pressure. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, JAMA / 31.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: M.S. ReimersM.S. Reimers, MD PhD Student and Dr. Jan Liefers MD Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Aspirin use was associated with an improved survival, as we have published before when investigating this cohort (Bastiaannet et al, Brit J Cancer 2012/ Reimers et al. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012. In this study we have focused on investigating which patients will benefit from aspirin treatment by investigating some tumor markers, such as PTGS2 expression, HLA class I expression and PIK3CA mutation status. Interestingly, only patients with HLA class I expression on their tumor membrane will benefit from aspirin treatment and have a better outcome. We raise the hypothesize that aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation to circulating tumors cells. By interfering with this process, the metastatic potential of these circulating tumour cells is inhibited, thereby preventing metastasis and colon cancer death.HLA class I expression might be needed for signalling between platelets and circulating tumor cells. If this hypothesis is confirmed by others or in vitro studies, than this might explain the finding that aspirin seems not only beneficial as an adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer patients, but also for patients with other malignancies (oesophagus, breast, etc). Interestingly, preliminary findings from our team investigating aspirin use in oesophageal cancer also showed that aspirin use in these tumors was associated with an improved survival. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Duke, JAMA / 29.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ann Marie Navar-Boggan, MD, PhD Division of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, North Carolina MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Navar-Boggan: Two groups of adults are really affected by the updated guidelines. First, 13.5 million adults, including one in five adults over the age of 60, were previously considered to have uncontrolled blood pressure but now meet new guideline goals. Next, 14 million adults over the age of 60 (one in four adults in this age group) are currently on blood pressure lowering therapy and meeting the older, more stringent targets. The guidelines state that no changes are necessary in this group, but they may be eligible for reduced therapy, particularly if they have had side effects or difficulty with the therapies they are taking. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Smoking / 24.03.2014

Pamela Ling, MD MPH Associate Professor, Department of Medicine Director, Tobacco Control Policy Fellowship Center for Tobacco Research and Education University of California San Francisco San Francisco, CA 94143-1390MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pamela Ling, MD MPH Associate Professor, Department of Medicine Director, Tobacco Control Policy Fellowship Center for Tobacco Research and Education University of California San Francisco San Francisco, CA 94143-1390 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ling:  We followed a sample of smokers from a nationally representative panel for one year.  We found that there was no difference in the rate of quitting between smokers who used an e-cigarette and those who did not. Put another way, smokers who had used e-cigarettes at the beginning of the study were equally likely to have quit smoking one year later as those who did not use e-cigarettes. There was no relationship between e-cigarette use and quitting even after taking into account measures of tobacco dependence (number of cigarettes smoked per day, how early in the day a smoker has his first cigarette) and intention to quit smoking. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 24.03.2014

Craig A. Anderson, Distinguished Professor Director, Center for the Study of Violence Department of Psychology Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-3180MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Craig A. Anderson, Distinguished Professor Director, Center for the Study of Violence Department of Psychology Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-3180 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Anderson: There are three main findings from this long-term study of violent video game effects. 1. Over time, repeated play and practice of violent video games led to an relative increase in aggressive thought patterns and in physical aggression. 2. As predicted by social-cognitive theoretical models, the violent video game effect on physical aggression was directly linked to the increase in aggressive thought patterns. That is, one key reason why repeated exposure to violent video games increases aggression is because such exposure changes the way children and adolescents think about people and events that occur in their lives. In a sense, their personality changes, so that they perceive more hostility around them and come to view physically aggressive behavior as a proper solution to even minor conflicts and provocations. 3. These effects of repeated exposure to violent video games were quite general across types of people. Boys and girls, younger children and older adolescents, high aggressive and low aggressive children, all showed pretty much the same effects. In other words, no subgroup was immune to the harmful effects of violent video games. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Johns Hopkins, Surgical Research / 24.03.2014

Elizabeth C. Wick, MD Assistant Professor,Department of Surgery The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MarylandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elizabeth C. Wick, MD Assistant Professor,Department of Surgery The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wick: The main finding is the high variability in physician practice for prescribing steroids and the lack of clear guidance as to best practice in the literature. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, NIH, Omega-3 Fatty Acids / 19.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Denise Bonds, MD, MPH National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)  MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr.Bonds: We found no cardiovascular benefit to supplementation of the diet with either omega-3 fatty acids or with the macular xanthophyll’s lutein and zeaxanthin. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA, Pharmacology, Psychological Science / 19.03.2014

Dr. Christian Fynbo Christiansen Clinical Associate Professor Department of Clinical Epidemiology Aarhus University HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Dr. Christian Fynbo Christiansen Clinical Associate Professor Department of Clinical Epidemiology Aarhus University Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Christiansen:  We included 24,179 critically ill nonsurgical patients receiving mechanical ventilation in intensive care units in Denmark, and matched comparison groups of hospitalized patients and the general population. We assessed psychiatric diagnoses and medication prescriptions before and after critical illness. We found an increased prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses in the 5 year period before critical illness, compared to both other hospitalized patients and the general population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, OBGYNE / 19.03.2014

Shamez Ladhani, MRCPCH PhD Health Protection Services, Immunisation, Hepatitis, and Blood Safety Department, Public Health England, LondonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shamez Ladhani, MRCPCH PhD Health Protection Services, Immunisation, Hepatitis, and Blood Safety Department, Public Health England, London   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ladhani: Pregnancy was associated with an increased of serious infection by a bacterium called Haemophilus influenzae which is usually associated with respiratory tract infections. Nearly all the H. influenzae were unencapsulated; that is, they did not have an outer sugar capsule which is often required to make the bacterium more virulent. The encapsulated H. influenzae type b (Hib), for example, was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in your children prior to routine immunisation. We also found that infection with unencapsulated H. influenzae was associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, including miscarriages, stillbirth and premature birth. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, JAMA, Thromboembolism / 19.03.2014

Marc Righini, MD Division of Angiology and Hemostasis Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, SwitzerlandMedical Research.com Interview with: Marc Righini, MD Division of Angiology and Hemostasis Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Righini: The study shows that when compared with a fixed D-Dimer cutoff of 500 ng/ml, the combination of pretest clinical probability assessment with age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off was associated  with a larger number of patients in whom Pulmonary Embolism  could be excluded, with a low likelihood of recurrent VTE. The benefit was the most important in patients  75 years or older, in whom using the age-adjusted cutoff instead of the 500 ng/ml cutoff increased five-fold the proportion of patients in whom PE could be excluded on the basis of D-dimer measurement. (more…)
Cognitive Issues, JAMA, Mayo Clinic, Medical Research Centers, Pulmonary Disease / 19.03.2014

Michelle M. Mielke, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Health Sciences Research, Division of Epidemiology Department of Neurology Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michelle M. Mielke, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Health Sciences Research, Division of Epidemiology Department of Neurology Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mielke: Using a population-based sample of cognitively normal individuals, aged 70-89 at baseline, we found that a medical-record confirmed diagnosis of COPD was associated with an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment, specifically non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment.  The risk of mild cognitive impairment increased with a longer duration of COPD such that individuals who had COPD for more than 5 years had a 2.5-fold increased risk of developing non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Pain Research, Pharmacology, Radiology, University of Michigan / 17.03.2014

Dr. Brian C. Callaghan MD Department of Neurology University of Michigan Health System, Ann ArborMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Dr. Brian C. Callaghan MD Department of Neurology University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Callaghan:  The main findings are that we order headache neuroimaging (MRIs and CTs) frequently, this accounts for approximately $1 billion dollars annually, and the number of tests ordered is only increasing with time. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Brain Injury, JAMA / 14.03.2014

Pashtun Shahim, MD Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Department of Neurochemistry Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pashtun Shahim, MD Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Department of Neurochemistry Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Shahim: Sports-related concussion in professional ice hockey players is associated with acute axonal and astroglial injury. Plasma total tau, which is a highly central nervous system-specific protein, is a promising biomarker to be used both in the diagnosis of concussion and in the decision-making when an athlete can be declared fit to return to play. (more…)