MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Thomas H. Inge, MD, PhD, FACS, FAAP
Surgical Director, Surgical Weight Loss Program for Teens
Director, Center for Bariatric Research and Innovation
Attending Surgeon, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center
Professor, UC Department of Surgery
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Inge: The mean age of the 242 participants of this observational study was 17.1±1.6 years and the median BMI was 50.5 kg/m2. Fifty-one percent demonstrated four or more major co-morbid conditions. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and adjustable gastric banding were performed in 66%, 28%, and 6% of subjects, respectively. There were no deaths during the initial hospitalization or within 30 days of surgery; major complications were seen in 19 subjects (8%). Minor complications were noted in 36 subjects (15%). All re-operations and 85% of re-admissions were related to WLS. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nicholas J. Christian, PhD
Graduate School of Public Health
University of Pittsburgh
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Christian: We found that the differences between measured and self-reported weights following bariatric surgery were small and did not systematically differ by measured body mass index or degree of postoperative weight change. The average degree of underreporting by self-report was 0.7 kg for women and 1.0 kg for men.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elsayed Z Soliman MD, MSc, MS, FAHA, FACC
Director, Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE)
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Medical Center Blvs, Winston Salem, NC 27157
Atrial Fibrillation and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Soliman: Using data from the REGARDS study, one of the largest US cohorts, we examined the risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI) associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). Overall, AF was associated with almost double the risk of MI. When we adjusted for common cardiovascular risk factors and potential confounders, the risk remained significantly high; about 70% increased risk. When we looked at women, men, blacks, and whites separately, we found significant differences between races and sex. AF in women and blacks was associated with more than double the risk of MI. This compares to less than 50% increased risk of heart attack associated with AF in men and whites . So AF is basically bad for all, but the risk of MI associated with AF is more pronounced in women and blacks.
MediclResearch.com Interview with:John W. Ayers, PhD, MA
Graduate School of Public Health
San Diego State University, San Diego, California
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Ayers: Our study, published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Internal Medicine was the first to describe daily rhythms in health behaviors.
Because trends in quitting contemplations are usually described annually using telephone surveys, we had to use a novel data source that could capture daily patterns. By monitoring aggregate Internet search queries we can see precisely what the population is thinking about by the content of their queries and that the population is engaged in the issue by searching. We therefore analyzed daily search volumes for smoking cessation queries (e.g., "quit smoking") in six languages across the entire globe.
We found that people search about quitting smoking more often early in the week, with the highest query volumes on Mondays, using a daily measure representing the proportion of quit smoking searches to all searches. This pattern was consistent across all six languages, suggesting a global predisposition to thinking about quitting smoking early in the week, particularly on Mondays.
English searches, for example, showed Monday query volumes were 11 percent greater than on Wednesdays, 67 percent greater than on Fridays, and 145 percent greater than on Saturdays. In total for all six languages, Monday query volumes were 25 percent higher than the combined mean number of searches for Tuesday through Sunday.
Practically these findings are very meaningful. For example, in English alone there are about 150,000 more quit smoking queries on Monday than on a typical day; about 8,000,000 over an entire year.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Jennifer Fay Kawwaas MD
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Kawwaas: Using CDC National ART Surveillance System (NASS) data, we found an increasing trend from 2000 to 2010 in the number of donor egg cycles performed annually and in the percentage of donor cycles that resulted in a good outcome, defined as delivery of a full term infant weighing more than 5.5lbs. Donor and recipient ages remained relatively stable at 28 and 41, respectively, over the 11-year period.
Elective single embryo transfer is recommended when the donor is under 35 years old, regardless of recipient’s age; transfer of a single day 5 embryo was associated with an increased chance of good perinatal outcome.
Tubal or uterine factor infertility and non-Hispanic Black race were associated with a lower chance of good perinatal outcome.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Elizabeth V. Asztalos, MD, M.Sc., FRCPC
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
2075 Bayview Ave., Room M4 230
Toronto, ON M4N 3M5
MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study?Answer: This study was focused to see if there were differences in the main neurodevelopmental outcomes of children whose mothers had participated in the original MACS trial. We found that there were no differences in the main outcomes of the trial as it related to the aspects of death and/or developmental. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Ali Rowhani-Rahbar PhD, MD, MPH
Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, California
University of Washington
Department of Epidemiology Health Sciences
Seattle, WA 98195
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study?Answer: We found that the magnitude of increased risk of fever and seizures
following immunization with the first dose of measles-containing
vaccines during the second year of life depends on age. Specifically,
the risk of seizures attributable to the vaccine during the 7 to 10 days
following vaccination was significantly greater among children 16-23
months of age (9.5 excess cases per 10,000 doses) than among children
12-15 months of age (4.0 excess cases per 10,000 doses). (more…)
MedicalResearch.com with:Professor Djillali Annane MD, PhD
Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France
CH d’Etampes, Etampes, France
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: The CRISTAL trial was designed in 2002 to clarify whether correction of acute hypovolemia in critically ill patients with colloids may increase the risk of death as compared to resuscitation with crystalloids. The trial has enrolled 2857 patients in 57 ICUs in France, Belgium, Canada and North Africa. The relative risk of death was at 28 day of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.88 to 1.04; P=0.26), and at 90 day of 0.92 (95%CI: 0.86 to 0.99; P=0.03) in favor of colloids. Colloids-treated patients had more days alive and off mechanical ventilation and off vasopressor both within 7 days and 28 days of randomization. There was no evidence for increased risk of kidney injury with colloids.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Mila Ju, MD
Resident, Division of Vascular Surgery
676 N. Saint Clair St., Ste 650
Chicago, IL 60611
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Ju: By using combined data from Hospital Compare, American Hospital Association, and Medicare claims databases, we found that better hospital venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis adherence rates were weakly associated with worse risk-adjusted VTE event rates. Moreover, hospitals with higher intensity of detecting VTE with imaging studies (such as venous duplex, chest computer tomography, etc.) had more VTE events (13.5 in highest VTE imaging quartile vs 5.0 in lowest VTE imaging quartile) per 1000 discharges. Our study suggests that VTE rates might be influenced by surveillance bias and not reflecting the true quality of care provided by the hospitals.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Valerie Sung MBBS(Hons) FRACP MPH NHMRC PhD Candidate
Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, and
Community Health Services Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Paediatrician, Centre for Community Child Health
The Royal Children’s Hospital
Parkville | 3052 | Victoria Australia
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Sung: The systematic review identified 12 studies (1825 infants) that investigated the use of probiotics to treat or prevent infant colic (excessive crying of unknown cause in babies less than 3 months old). Three of the 5 treatment trials concluded probiotics effectively treat colic in breastfed babies; one suggested possible effectiveness in formula-fed babies with colic, and one suggested ineffectiveness in breastfed babies with colic. The three effective trials used the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in breastfed babies only; in two of these trials, the mothers were on a dairy-free diet. Five of the 7 prevention trials suggested probiotics to be ineffective in preventing colic.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zudin Puthucheary MBBS B.Med.Sci D.UHM EDICM MRCP FHEA
NIHR Research Fellow, Respiratory and Critical Care
Institute of Health and Human Performance, UCL
Post-CCT Fellow in Trauma and Critical Care,
Kings College Hospital
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: That muscle wasting occurs rapidly and early in critical illness, with up to 2-3% loss of muscle mass per day. This is related to the numbers of organs failed, and is made worse by the degree of acute lung injury, and increased protein delivery. Muscle wasting is the result of both decreased muscle protein synthesis and increased muscle protein breakdown. In addition 40% of these patients developed muscle necrosis over the study period.
MedicalResearch.com Interview withDr. Mary T Hawn MD
Center for Surgical, Medical Acute Care Research and Transitions (C-SMART), Birmingham Veterans Administration Hospital, Birmingham, Alabama
Section of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery
University of Alabama at Birmingham
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Hawn: The risk of adverse perioperative cardiac events is elevated in patients with recent coronary stenting, but the risk does not differ by stent type and stabilizes for surgery more than 6 months following stenting.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Roshni Rao, MD
Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rao: That in most women with small breast cancer (<3.0cm in size), it is not necessary to removal all the lymph nodes underneath the arm, even if those nodes do have cancer. Radiation therapy, which is required after a partial mastectomy for breast cancer, can prevent these nodes from growing or becoming clinically significant.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Kelly K. Hunt, MD F.A.C.S.
Professor, Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Surgery
Chief, Breast Surgical Oncology Section, Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Hunt:We found that 40% of women who had node positive disease at initial presentation (confirmed by needle biopsy) had no evidence of residual cancer in the lymph nodes after chemotherapy.
We performed sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery followed by axillary lymph node dissection in all of the patients and found a false negative rate of 12.6% with the SLN procedure.
The false negative rate was lower when surgeons used two mapping agents (blue dye and radioisotope) to identify the sentinel nodes and when they removed more than 2 sentinel nodes.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anthony Harris, MD, MPH
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
Professor University of Maryland
School of Medicine
Acting Medical Director of Infection Control
University of Maryland Medical Center
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Harris: The aim of the study was to understand if wearing disposable gowns and gloves for all patient contact in the ICU could help prevent the spread of MRSA and similar antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Secondarily we wanted to make sure this type of patient isolation did not result in any harm to patients. The results of the study were that gowns and gloves worn by healthcare workers for contact with all patients in the ICU did not decrease the number of patients who acquired VRE but did decrease MRSA about 40 percent. Also, wearing gloves and gowns did not adversely impact patient care. For our goal of studying all types of infection, we did not find a benefit to universal gown and glove use. However, for transmission of MRSA alone, the intervention decreased transmission by about 40 percent. Although previous studies have showed isolation is associated with falls, bed sores and other adverse events, we found gowns and gloves did not produce more of these negative events.
MedicalResearch.com InterviewMa, Wei
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics
School of Public Health
Jinan, Shandong Province, 250012 China
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: The results of this meta-analysis suggested that there was an inverse dose-response association between levels of recreational physical activity and risk of hypertension. Individuals who participated in high levels of recreational physical activity had a 19% lower risk of hypertension than those who didn’t exercise much. In addition, those with moderate levels of recreational physical activity had an 11% lower risk of hypertension.
However, there was no significant association between occupational physical activity and risk of hypertension.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mads Wissenberg, MD
Department of Cardiology
Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen
Niels Andersens Vej 65
2900 Hellerup, Denmark Post 635
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: Our main findings from this nationwide study are that during a 10-year period where several national initiatives were taken to increase bystander CPR and improve advanced care, bystander CPR increased more than a two-fold from 21 % in 2001 to 45% in 2010. In the same period survival on arrival at the hospital increased more than a two-fold from 8% in 2001 to 22% in 2010, and 30-day survival more than a three-fold from 3.5% in 2001 to 11% in 2010.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shaon Sengupta, MD MBBS MPH
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Sengupta: In this study we looked at all full-term neonates, which are defined as those born between 37 weeks 0 days to 41 weeks 6 days.
Early term deliveries (37–38 weeks) are a significant part of all full-term deliveries, but are not the norm.
In our study, 27% of neonates were born early term (37-38 weeks) while almost 62% were born at or after 39 weeks (term neonates). Similar data has been reported by other established sources of vital statistics.
While traditionally, full term neonates are perceived to be a homogenous low-risk group, the findings from our study urge the pediatrics/neonatal provider to recognize early term (37-38 weeks) neonates as a higher risk group. They have significantly higher risk of NICU admission, respiratory morbidity, hypoglycemia, need for IV fluids and antibiotics.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marsha A. Raebel, PharmD, BCPS, FCCP
Investigator in Pharmacotherapy
Institute for Health Research
10065 E. Harvard Ave Suite 300
Denver, CO 80231.
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
Answer: We found that in a group of patients who took chronic opioids for non-cancer pain and who underwent bariatric surgery there was greater chronic use of opioids after surgery compared with before surgery, findings that suggest the need for proactive management of chronic pain in these patients after surgery.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Sarah D. Berry MD MPH
Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew Senior Life
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Berry: Repeating a bone mineral density (BMD) screening test in 4 years provided little additional value beyond baseline BMD when assessing fracture risk. Also, the second BMD measure resulted in little change in risk classification that is commonly used in clinical management of osteoporosis.
MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Dr. Lauren Hersch Nicholas Ph.D
Research Affiliate, Population Studies Center.
Faculty Research Fellow, Survey Research Center
University of Michigan
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Nicholas: We found that a Medicare policy designed to improve the safety of bariatric surgery was associated with 17% decline in the share of Medicare patients from minority groups receiving bariatric surgery.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Fern R. Hauck, MD, MS
Spencer P. Bass, MD Twenty-First Century Professor of Family Medicine
Director, International Family Medicine Clinic
Department of Family Medicine
University of Virginia, PO Box 800729
Charlottesville, VA 22908-072
Co-author of "14 Ways to Protect Your Baby from SIDS"
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Hauck:We looked at data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, which followed mother from pregnancy through the first year of infant life. Mothers received several surveys that asked about infant feeding and bedsharing (sleeping with their infant in the same bed or other sleep surface). We found that mothers who bedshared for the longest time had the longest duration of breastfeeding compared with mothers who did not bedshare or bedshared for shorter times. Breastfeeding duration was also longer among mothers who were better educated, were white, had previously breastfed another child, had planned to breastfeed this baby, and had not returned to work in the first year after the baby was born.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:H. Blair Simpson, M.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University
Director of the Anxiety Disorders Clinic and the Center for OCD and Related Disorders at the New York State Psychiatric Institute
New York, NY 10032
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Simpson: This is the first RCT to compare two recommended SRI augmentation strategies for adults with OCD. Adding EX/RP to SRIs was superior to risperidone and to pill placebo in reducing OCD symptoms and improving insight, functioning, and quality of life. Risperidone was not superior to placebo on any outcome.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Richard Saitz, MD MPH
Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology
Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health
Clinical Addiction Research and Education Unit, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Saitz: Chronic care management in primary care did not improve health outcomes (abstinence from cocaine, opioids or heavy drinking; or any other clinical outcomes, like addiction consequences, emergency or hospital use, health-related quality of life, addiction severity) for people with alcohol or other drug dependence.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Rodolfo Savica, MD, MSc
Department of Neurology, College of Medicine
Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study?Dr. Savica:This study is the first in North America to explore the incidence of DLB and PDD in a population based sample. We found that the overall incidence of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), considered the second leading cause of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer`s disease, is lower than that of Parkinson`s disease (PD), increases steeply with age, and is markedly higher in men than in women.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Faisal G. Bakaeen, MD FACS
Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TexasThe Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Bakaeen: The relative use of off-pump CABG peaked at 24% in 2003, followed by a slow decline after that to about 19%. In addition, the conversion rate from off- to on-pump decreased with time and has stayed below 3.5% in recent years. Perioperative mortality rates decreased over time for both on- and off-pump CABG and have stayed below 2% since 2006. The mortality associated with converted cases was high regardless of the surgery year.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Mine Tezal, DDS, PhD
University at Buffalo
NYS Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tezal: We observed an inverse association between dental caries and head and neck cancer (HNSCC), which persisted among never smokers and never drinkers. Besides untreated caries, two other objective measures of long-standing caries history (endodontic treatments and crowns) were also inversely associated with HNSCC with similar effect sizes, supporting the validity of the association. Missing teeth was associated with increased risk of HNSCC in univariate analyses, but after adjustment for potential confounders, its effect was attenuated and was no longer statistically significant.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Laura A. Petersen, MD, MPH
MEDVAMC Associate Chief of Staff, Research
Director, VA HSR&D Center of Excellence (152)
Houston TX 77030
Professor of Medicine
Chief, Section of Health Services Research
Baylor College of Medicine
HSR&D Center of Excellence
Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Houston, Texas 77030
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Petersen: VA physicians randomized to the individual incentive group were more likely than controls to improve their treatment of hypertension. The adjusted changes over the study period in Veterans meeting the combined BP/appropriate response measure were 8.8 percentage points for the individual-level, 3.7 for the practice-level, 5.5 for the combined, and 0.47 for the control groups. Therefore, a physician in the individual group caring for 1000 patients with hypertension would have about 84 additional patients achieving blood pressure control or appropriate response after 1 year. The effect of the incentive was not sustained after the washout period. Although performance did not decline to pre-intervention levels, the decline was significant. None of the incentives resulted in increased incidence of hypotension compared with controls. While the use of guideline-recommended medications increased significantly over the course of the study in the intervention groups, there was no significant change compared to the control group. The mean individual incentive earnings over the study represented approximately 1.6% of a physician’s salary, assuming a mean salary of $168,000.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Elsie Taveras
Massachusetts General Hospital for Children
Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics
100 Cambridge St, 15th Floor
Boston, MA 02114
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Taveras: The main findings of the study were that, overall, the body mass index of children in the intervention group dropped an average of 0.18, while it rose 0.21 in the control group. Children in the intervention group were sleeping about 45 minutes longer than children in the control group. Time spent watching television on weekends dropped about an hour per day in the intervention group, leading to a significant difference from the control group, which increased weekend TV viewing. Both groups had a small reduction in weekday TV viewing, with a greater decrease in the intervention group, as well.
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