MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nikolai Madrid Scheller
Department of Epidemiology Research
Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen
Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?Answer:In a large and comprehensive study of more than 1.5 million women including more than 500,000 HPV vaccinated there was no association between HPV vaccination and blood clots.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Olds, Ph.D.
Professor of Pediatrics and Director
Prevention Research Center for Family and Child Health
University of Colorado Department of Pediatrics
Aurora, Colorado 80045
Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Olds: We’ve conducted a randomized controlled trial of a program of nurse home visiting for low-income women with no previous live firths during pregnancy and the first two years of the child’s life, with randomization of participants beginning in 1990. In our most recent follow-up of mothers and children in Memphis, those who received nurse-visitation were less likely to have died over a 2-decade period following the child’s birth than those in the control group. Death among mothers and children in these age ranges in the US is rare and extraordinarily important for what it tells us about the health of the population studied in this trial.
For children, the reduction in death was present for preventable causes, that is, sudden infant death syndrome, injuries, and homicide. All of the child deaths for preventable causes were in the control group, for whom the rate was 1.6%. None of the nurse-visited children died of preventable causes.
The reductions in maternal mortality were found for two nurse-visited groups combined for this report: one received prenatal and newborn visitation and a second received visitation during pregnancy and through child age two. Overall, mothers assigned to the control group were nearly 3 times more likely to die than those assigned to the two nurse-visited conditions. The relative reduction in maternal mortality was particularly pronounced for deaths linked to maternal behaviors -- suicide, drug overdose, injuries, and homicide; for these external causes of death, 1.7% of the mothers in the control group had died, compared to 0.2% of those visited by nurses.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: W Curt LaFrance Jr MD, MPH
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Neurology,
Alpert Medical School, Brown University
Director of Neuropsychiatry and Behavioral Neurology,
Rhode Island Hospital
Providence RI 02903-4923
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. LaFrance: Patients treated with the 12 session, 1 hour, individual psychotherapy seizure treatment workbook had significant reductions in their seizures and improvement in their comorbid symptoms, quality of life and functioning. In contrast, treatment as usual /standard medical care (TAU/SMC) showed no improvement in seizures, comorbid symptoms or other outcomes.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. John Tisdale MD
Molecular and Clinical Hematology Branch
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases,
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Tisdale: Using a nonmyeloablative allogeneic HLA-match peripheral blood stem cell transplantation strategy aimed at tolerance induction, we were able to revert the phenotype in 26 of 30 adult patients with severe sickle cell disease ranging in age from 16 to 65 years. In contrast to standard transplantation strategies which rely on high doses of chemo and/or radiotherapy after which the entire bone marrow and blood system is replaced by that of the donor, our patients had a mixture of their own and that of their donor. This procedure was well tolerated, with no non-relapse mortality, and led to complete replacement of red blood cells by that of the donor in successfully engrafted patients. This replacement resulted in decreases in pain, pain medication usage, hospitalizations, and improvements in organ function.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Sandeep Vijan, MD, MS
Center for Clinical Management Research
Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Hospital,
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor MichiganMedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Vijan:The main finding was that the burdens and side effects of intensive glycemic treatment significantly detract from the overall benefit of lower risks of diabetes complications, often to the point where the treatments cause more loss than gain in quality of life. It takes many (often 15-20) years to gain benefit from treatment, but the burdens begin right away and continue throughout treatment. By the time you might experience treatment benefit in terms of reduced complication risk, you've had a lot of years to have the downsides of treatment - which commonly include significant weight gain, low blood sugars, gastrointestinal symptoms, not to mention having to take multiple pills or injections on a daily basis.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Frank H. Morriss, Jr., MD, MPH
Professor of Pediatrics - Neonatology
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Morriss: Our aim was to assess the association between surgery performed during the initial hospitalization of very low- birth-weight infants and subsequent death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-22 months’ corrected age. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of patients who were prospectively enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Generic Database from 1998 to 2009. Surgery was classified by the expected anesthesia type as either major surgery that likely would have been performed under general anesthesia; or minor surgery, that is, procedures that could have been performed under non-general anesthesia and in general were shorter in duration. There were 2,186 major surgery patients and 784 minor surgery patients and more than 9,000 patients who did not undergo surgery.
We found that any surgical procedure increased the adjusted risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment in low birth weight infants by about 30%. Not all surgical procedures were associated with increased risk, however. Compared with those who did not undergo surgery, patients who were classified as having major surgery had a risk-adjusted odds ratio of death or neurodevelopmental impairment of 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.24-1.87). However, those who were classified as having minor surgery had no increased adjusted risk. Among survivors who had major surgery compared with those who did not undergo surgery the risk-adjusted odds ratio for neurodevelopmental impairment was 1.56 (95% confidence interval 1.26-1.93), and the risk-adjusted mean Bayley II Mental Developmental Index and mean Psychomotor Developmental Index values were significantly lower.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Strauss, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Author
Center for Devices and Radiological Health
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Md
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Strauss:The underrepresentation of women in clinical trials for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices, as with other devices, has made it difficult to assess differences in the safety and effectiveness of these devices for women vs. men. The FDA is exploring the potential of pooling and analyzing data from multiple trials to bridge the knowledge gap for certain subpopulations (such as women) often underrepresented in medical device clinical trials. By conducting one such meta-analysis, the FDA found that women benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) significantly more than men do.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Benjamin S. Brooke, M.D., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Surgery
Division of Vascular Surgery
University of Utah School of Medicine
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Brooke:This study was designed to evaluate whether high-risk surgical patients who visit a primary care provider (PCP) during the early period following hospital discharge are less likely to be readmitted within 30-days. We examined this question by performing a retrospective cohort analysis of Medicare beneficiaries (2003-2010) who underwent a high risk surgery (open thoracic aortic aneurysm repair) as well as a control group of patients who underwent a lower risk surgical procedure (open ventral hernia repair), and then determining whether there was evidence of early PCP follow-up.
In risk-adjusted analyses, we found that early primary care provider-follow-up was associated with a significant lower likelihood of 30-day readmission for high-risk patients undergoing open thoracic aortic aneurysm repair, particularly if a post-operative complication had occurred. In comparison, early primary care provider follow-up did not have a significant effect on lowering readmissions in uncomplicated patients and those undergoing lower-risk operations such as ventral hernia repair.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prashanthi Vemur, Ph.D.
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Vemuri: Lifetime intellectual enrichment might delay the onset of cognitive impairment and be used as a successful preventive intervention to reduce the impending dementia epidemic. We studied two non-overlapping components of lifetime intellectual enrichment: education/occupation-score and mid/late-life cognitive activity measure based on self-report questionnaires. Both were helpful in delaying the onset of cognitive impairment but the contribution of higher education/occupation was larger.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kay W. Chang, MD
Associate Professor of Otolaryngology and Pediatrics
Department of Otolaryngology
Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford
Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Chang:At 18 months after surgery, weight percentiles in the study group increased by a mean of 6.3 percentile points, and body mass index percentiles increased by a mean of 8.0 percentile points. The greatest increases in weight percentiles were observed in children who were between the 1st and 60th percentiles for weight and younger than 4 years at the time of surgery. An increase in weight percentile was not observed in children who preoperatively were already above the 80th percentile in weight.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dalliah Black, MD F.A.C.S.
Department of Surgical Oncology
The University of Texas
MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Black: This is a retrospective study from 2002 - 2007 using the SEER/Medicare database of over 31,000 women with node negative breast cancer evaluating the utilization of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) as it transitioned from an optional method for axillary staging to the standard of care instead of complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We found that SNB use increased each year in both white and black breast cancer patients throughout the study period. However, SNB was less often performed in black patients (62.4%)compared to white patients (73.7%) and this disparity persisted through 2007 with a 12% difference. Appropriate black patients more often had an ALND instead of the minimally invasive sentinel node biopsy which resulted in worse patient outcomes with higher lymphedema rates in black patients. However, when black patients received the minimally invasive SNB, their rates of lymphedema were low and comparable to white patients who received SNB.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with Carlos J. Rodriguez, MD, MPH
Department of Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Rodriguez: As a clinician there is a notion suggesting that lower blood pressure is better but our current research to date is controversial and not conclusive. We wanted to study a large group of people with hypertension and see whether over 20 years of follow up, if a lower systolic blood pressure would be associated with lower cardiovascular events (heart attack, stroke, heart failure, angina). We hypothesized that there would be a linear association between blood pressure and events, that lower blood pressure would be associated with lower events and that as the blood pressure went up there would be more events. We found this was not the case but that hypertensives with a blood pressure between 120-138mmhg have the greatest benefit and those with a blood pressure less than 120mmhg did not have additional benefit.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Monika Waszczuk
1+3 PhD Student
MRC SGDP Research Centre
Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London
DeCrespigny Park London UK
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Answer:Little is known about the genetic influences on the relationship between depression and anxiety disorders across development. We used two population-based prospective longitudinal twin and sibling studies to investigate phenotypic associations between the symptoms of these disorders, and tested genetic structures underlying these symptoms across three developmental stages: childhood, adolescence and early adulthood.
We found that depression and anxiety disorder symptoms are largely distinct in childhood and are influenced by largely independent genetic factors. Depression and anxiety symptoms become more associated and shared most of their genetic etiology from adolescence. An overarching internalizing genetic factor influencing depression and all anxiety subscales emerged in early adulthood. These results provide preliminary evidence for different phenotypic and genetic structures of internalizing disorder symptoms in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, with depression and anxiety becoming more associated from adolescence.
MedicalResearch Interview with: Jay Giri, MD MPH
Assistant Professor, Perelman School of Medicine
Director, Peripheral Intervention
Interventional Cardiology & Vascular Medicine
University of Pennsylvania
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Giri: Use of thrombolytics was associated with lower all-cause mortality and increased rates of intracranial hemorrhage. These results were also seen in intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism. Finally, it appeared that patients under age 65 might be at less bleeding risk from thrombolytics.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Greg D. Sacks, MD, MPH
Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLAMedicalResearch: What are the main findings of this study?
Dr. Sacks: This study evaluated the all-cause readmissions measure developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to penalize hospitals for unplanned readmissions. By evaluating readmissions of surgical patients at a single academic medical center, we found that the readmissions measure was able to identify only a third of the planned readmissions and mislabeled the remaining two thirds of planned readmissions as unplanned. This discrepancy was a result of the measure’s reliance on administrative claims data, which disagreed in 31% of cases with clinical data abstracted from the patient’s chart. Also, almost a third (27%) of the readmissions in this study were for reasons unrelated to the original hospitalization.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tetyana Kendzerska MD, PhD
Institute for Clinical Evaluative Science,
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Kendzerska: Based on a large sample of more than 8,500 participants with suspected sleep apnea, our study shows that among people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and controlling for risk factors for diabetes development, initial OSA severity predicted risk for incident diabetes. Measures of the physiologic consequences of OSA (e.g., low level of oxygen, sleep deprivation) were also risk factors for diabetes in this population.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Christianne L. Roumie, MD MPH
Associate Professor Internal Medicine and Pediatrics
Institute for Medicine and Public Health
Staff Physician VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System
Nashville TN 37212
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Roumie:This retrospective cohort study compared time to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, or death among Veterans with diabetes that were initially treated with metformin, and subsequently added either insulin or sulfonylurea. Among 178,341 Veterans on metformin monotherapy, 2,948 and 39,990 added insulin or sulfonylurea, respectively. Patients were about 60 years old, about 35% had history of heart disease or stroke, had been on metformin for an average of 14 months and their hemoglobin A1c was 8.1% at the time of addition of the second medication. Compared to those who added a sulfonylurea, those who added insulin to metformin had a 30% higher risk of the combined outcome of heart attack, stroke, and all-cause mortality. Although new heart attacks and strokes occurred at similar rates in both groups, mortality was higher in patients who added insulin.
MedicalResearch Interview with:Lars Sjöström, MD, PhD
Department of Body Composition and Metabolism
Sahlgrenska University Hospital
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?
Prof. Sjöström: In obese diabetic subjects, the 2-year diabetes remission was 72% in bariatric surgery patients but only 16% in obese controls obtaining conventional obesity and diabetes treatment. After 15 years, 30% were in remission in the surgery group and 6.5% in the control group. In addition, the 20-year incidence of diabetes complication was 30 -55% lower in surgery than control patients. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with David S.H. Lee, Pharm.D., Ph.D.
Department of Pharmacy Practice
College of Pharmacy
Oregon State University/Oregon Health and Science University
Portland OR, 97239
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Lee: We found that older men taking a statin were less physically active and had more sedentary behavior. They had about 37 minutes of less moderate exercise per week. For comparison, the American heart Association recommends about 40 minutes of moderate activity 3-4 times per week. We also found that those that started using a statin during the study had the largest drop in physical activity.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Aurélie Lasserre ,MD
Center for psychiatric epidemiology and psychopathology
Department of Psychiatry
Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV)
Site de Cery, Switzerland
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of this study?Dr. Lasserre: Several recent studies have shown that Major Depressive Disorder with atypical features (defined as having a depressive episode where mood reactivity is maintained and two of the following features: increase in appetite, hypersomnia (oversleeping), leaden paralysis (heavy limbs) and increased sensitivity to rejection) was associated with obesity, but the temporal sequence was not known, i.e. it was not clear whether atypical depression predisposes to obesity or the converse. Our study revealed that Major Depressive Disorder with atypical features does lead to an increase in body-mass index, obesity, waist circumference and fat mass over a period of 5 years. This result was not explained by socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol or tobacco consumption, physical activity, co-existing mental disorders or medication. Interestingly, we also observed that the weight gain in subjects with atypical features was not a temporary phenomenon but it persisted after the remission of the depressive episode and was not attributable to new episodes.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Eric M. Mortensen, M.D., M.Sc.
VA North Texas Health Care System and
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Mortensen: The main findings of our study was that for older patients hospitalized with pneumonia that with the use of azithromycin although there is a small increase in the number of non-fatal heart attacks there was a much lower decrease in mortality. In addition there were no other significant increases in cardiac events. So the overall risk:benefit ratio was that for each non-fatal heart attack there were 7 deaths that were prevented.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sana Al-Khatib, M.D. MHS
Duke Clinical Research Institute
Duke University School of Medicine
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Al-Khatib: Patients with an ejection fraction (measure of the pumping ability of the heart) of 30% to 35% who receive a prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator have better survival than similar patients with no implantable defibrillator.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Christopher Wildeman PhD
Associate Professor of Sociology
Faculty fellow at the Center for Research on Inequalities and the Life Course (CIQLE), and at the Institution for Social and Policy Studies (ISPS) at Yale University.
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Wildeman: There are four key findings in the study.
First, the cumulative risk of having a confirmed maltreatment report any time between birth and age 18 is much higher than most people would have thought. Fully 1 in 8 American children will experience this event at some point.
Second, the risk of experiencing this event is highly unequally distributed, with Black and Hispanic experiencing it much more than Hispanic, White, and (especially) Asian children. Between 1 in 4 and 1 in 5 Black children will have a confirmed maltreatment report at any time in their childhood. For Native American, the risk is about 1 in 7.
Third, the risk of maltreatment is quite similar for boys and girls.
Finally, the highest risks of child maltreatment are in the first few years of life, suggesting that interventions aiming to diminish maltreatment should focus on parents with very young children.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Reed Jost, MS
Retina Foundation of the Southwest
9600 N Central Expwy, Suite 200
Dallas, TX 75231
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: Commercially available automated screening devices assess refractive risk factors, not amblyopia or strabismus, resulting in under-referral of affected children and over-referral of healthy children to pediatric eye care professionals. The Pediatric Vision Scanner is a binocular retinal birefringence scanner that directly detects strabismus and amblyopia by analyzing binocular scans for the presence or absence of birefringence, which is characteristic of steady, bifoveal fixation. We found that the Pediatric Vision Scanner outperformed an automated, refractive error screener (SureSight Autorefractor) in a cohort of 300 patients (2-6 years) tested in a pediatric ophthalmology setting. Compared to the SureSight, the Pediatric Vision Scanner had significantly higher sensitivity and higher specificity in the detection of strabismus and amblyopia. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr David A Hanauer MD MS
Department of Pediatrics
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor, MI
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the studyDr. Hanauer: The main findings of our study were that:
(1) Awareness and usage of rating sites for physicians appears to be growing,
(2) The public is using these sites to make decisions about selecting (or avoiding) a physician, and
(3) The percentage of people leaving ratings is still low (about 5%) suggesting that the results may not be representative of the majority of patient experiences.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Theodore J. Cicero, PhD
Professor, Vice Chairman for Research
Department of Psychiatry
Washington University in St Louis
St Louis, Missouri
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Cicero: Heroin users nowadays are predominantly white men and women in their late 20s living outside large urban areas who were first introduced to opioids through prescription drugs compared to the 1960s when heroin users tended to be young urban men whose opioid abuse started with heroin.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Susan WuMD
Division of Hospital Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles
Assistant Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Wu: We performed a randomized trial at 2 urban free-standing children's hospitals, comparing inhaled 3% hypertonic saline to 0.9% normal saline in patients under 24 months with bronchiolitis. Patients with prematurity less than 34 weeks, cyanotic heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, and previous episodes of wheezing or bronchodilator use were excluded. Patients were 4 mL of study medication nebulized up to 3 times in the emergency department; if admitted, patients continued to receive the assigned study medication three times a day until discharge. A total of 408 patients were analyzed. We found that 28.9% of patients treated with hypertonic saline required hospital admission, compared with 42.6% of patients in the normal saline group.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kimford J. Meador, MD
Department of Neurology & Neurological Sciences
Stanford Comprehensive Epilepsy Center
Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford, CA 94305-5235.
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Meador:Breastfeeding while taking antiepileptic drugs does not appear to pose a risk to the child's development, and in fact the cognitive outcomes were better for those children who were breastfed vs. those were not.
MedicalResearch.com Interview withDr. Edythe D.London PhD
Professor, Departments of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, and Molecular and Medical Pharmacology
David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA
MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. London: Brain function related to risky decision-making was different in stimulant users (methamphetamine users) than in healthy control subjects. In healthy controls, activation in the prefrontal cortex (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) during risk-taking in the laboratory was sensitive to the level of risk. This sensitivity of cortical activation was weaker in stimulant users, who instead had a stronger sensitivity of striatum activation. The groups also differed in circuit-level activity (network activity) when they were not performing a task but were “at rest.” Stimulant users showed greater connectivity within the mesocorticolimbic system, a target of abused drugs. This connectivity was negatively related to sensitivity in the prefrontal cortex to risk during risky decision-making. In healthy control subjects, connectivity between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and striatum was positively related to sensitivity of prefrontal cortical activation to risk during risky decision-making.
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