Author Interviews, Endocrinology, NIH, Pediatrics / 19.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50940" align="alignleft" width="150"]Kenneth S. Korach, Ph.D. Senior Principal Investigator Chief, Receptor Biology Section Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory NIEHS/NIH Dr. Kenneth Korach[/caption] Kenneth S. Korach, Ph.D. Senior Principal Investigator Chief, Receptor Biology Section Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory NIEHS/NIH MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Lavender oil is among the most popular essential oils used today. Our society deems essential oils and other homeopathic remedies as safe alternatives for medical treatment, personal hygiene commodities, aromatherapy, and cleaning products; however, there are many natural products that have effects on the human body, similar to potent synthetic drugs.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Thyroid Disease / 31.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48168" align="alignleft" width="133"]Terry Davies, MD, ProfessorMedicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone DiseaseIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiCo-Director, The Thyroid Center, Mount Sinai Union Square Dr. Davies[/caption] Terry Davies, MD, Professor Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Co-Director, The Thyroid Center, Mount Sinai Union Square MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The receptor for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is the major antigen for Graves' disease and patients have unique antibodies to the TSHR which stimulate excessive thyroid hormone secretion. We have characterized a variant TSHR called v1.3 which is a splicing variant which we find expressed in thyroid, bone marrow, thymus and adipose tissue and incorporates an intronic sequence which is fully translated. 
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Genetic Research / 24.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48099" align="alignleft" width="200"]Emily J. Gallagher, MDAssistant Professor of MedicineEndocrinology, Diabetes and Bone DiseaseIcahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai  Dr. Gallagher[/caption] Emily J. Gallagher, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome Type 2 (MEN2) is an inherited endocrine disorder characterized by the development of pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and parathyroid tumors. It occurs due to activating missense variants in the RET gene. The estimated prevalence of MEN2 is 1 per 30,000 in the general population. Through a collaboration between The Center for Genomic Health, the Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, and the Division of Endocrinology at Mount Sinai, our aim was to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of pathogenic RET variants in the multi-ethnic BioMe Biobank. The BioMe Biobank is an electronic health record-linked biobank with exome sequencing data available for more than 30,000 patients recruited across The Mount Sinai Health System.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Pediatrics / 03.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47745" align="alignleft" width="200"]Yehuda Limony, MD, MScPediatric Endocrinology UnitFaculty of Health SciencesBen-Gurion University of the NegevClalit Health ServicesBeer-Sheva, Israel  Dr. Limony[/caption] Yehuda Limony, MD, MSc Pediatric Endocrinology Unit Faculty of Health Sciences Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Clalit Health Services Beer-Sheva, Israel  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The variability of the onset age of puberty is the subject of many studies in numerous disciplines; nonetheless, the timing of puberty remains an enigma. The conventional paradigm is that the time of onset of puberty is genetically determined even though genome-wide association studies explain only a very low percentage of the physiologic variability. It is commonly believed, therefore, that many environmental factors interfere with the genetics of timing of puberty. On the other hand, children grow toward an adult height that is the standardized average of parents' height called "target height". That is why children are usually similar in height to parents. This targeted growth process is evident especially in children whose height percentile in childhood is different from their target height percentile (we called this difference the "height gap"). It is known that the timing of puberty is associated with adult height: earlier puberty causes shorter adult height and vice versa. We hypothesized that the targeted process of growth involves adaptation of the age of onset of puberty in accordance with the height gap.
Author Interviews, Memory, OBGYNE / 06.12.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_46437" align="alignleft" width="200"]Heather A. Bimonte-Nelson, Ph.D. Professor, Barrett Honors Faculty Department of Psychology Arizona State University Dr. Bimonte-Nelson[/caption] Heather A. Bimonte-Nelson, Ph.D. Professor, Barrett Honors Faculty Department of Psychology Arizona State University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The dogma in the field is that the nonpregnant uterus is dormant, and therefore it has not necessarily been of interest to study. Textbooks have described the nonpregnant uterus as “quiescent,” “dormant,” and “useless.” When I was in graduate school studying endocrinology, I read statements in books saying that the sole purpose of the uterus is for gestation. However, all women aging into midlife will experience some type of menopause, and some of these women will undergo surgical menopause via removal of all, or a part of, their reproductive tracts. Research evaluating reproductive tract-brain connections has grown quite a bit in the last few decades. For example, the ovary-brain connection has been focused on quite a bit, and we now know that hormones coming from the ovaries (such as estrogens and progesterone) can affect more than reproduction, and can impact brain functioning. While the uterus-brain connection is not well understood, there is research indicating that the uterus and autonomic nervous system communicate directly. We also know that hormones released from the ovaries impact the uterus. Therefore, there is a uterus-ovary-brain triad system. This uterus-ovary-brain triad has undergone little scientific investigation for functions outside of reproduction. Given that by age 60 one in three women experience hysterectomy, thereby interrupting this uterus-ovary-brain triad system, we believe it is important to understand the effects of variants of surgical menopause including hysterectomy. This led to our current evaluation testing multiple variations in surgical menopause using a rat model, where we tested the effects of uterus removal alone (hysterectomy), ovarian removal alone, or uterus plus ovarian removal.
Author Interviews, Depression, JAMA, Testosterone / 16.11.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_45941" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dr. Andreas Walther Dr. Walther[/caption] Dr. Andreas Walther PhD Department of Biological Psychology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Task Force on Men’s Mental Health of the World Federation of the Societies of Biological Psychiatry MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The study situation with regard to endogenous testosterone level and depressive symptoms in men is currently very mixed. There are studies that show no association, but other studies show that low testosterone levels are associated with increased depressive symptoms. That is why several studies have tried to administer testosterone in men to treat depressive symptomatology among other conditions (e.g. erectile dysfunction, cognitive decline). However, no clear conclusions could be drawn from the studies to date, as some studies reported positive results, while others did not show any effects. Likewise, some studies showed better results in certain subgroups of men such as dysthymic men, treatment resistant, men with low testosterone, which raised the question of relevant moderators.
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Endocrinology, JCEM, OBGYNE, Yale / 25.10.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_45459" align="alignleft" width="150"]Valerie A. Flores, MD Clinical Instructor Division of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences Yale School of Medicine - Yale New Haven Hospital Dr. Flores[/caption] Valerie A. Flores, MD Clinical Instructor Division of Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences Yale School of Medicine - Yale New Haven Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Endometriosis is a debilitating gynecologic disease that affects 1 in 10 reproductive-aged women, causing pain and infertility.  It is a hormonally dependent disorder— estrogens promote growth of endometriosis, while progesterone inhibits estrogen-dependent proliferation. Although progestin-based therapies (including combined oral contraceptives) are first-line therapy in the management of endometriosis-associated pain, response to progestins is variable and currently unpredictable.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, NEJM / 01.08.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_43641" align="alignleft" width="196"]Prof. Dr. Mirjam Christ-Crain Professor of endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism Heads the Department of Clinical Research University and University Hospital of Basel  Prof. Christ-Crain[/caption] Prof. Dr. Mirjam Christ-Crain Professor of endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism Heads the Department of Clinical Research University and University Hospital of Basel   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly explain what is meant by Diabetes Insipidus? Response: Drinking more than three litres per day with the equivalent increase in urination is regarded as too much. This drinking by the liter – known as “polyuria polydipsia syndrome" – usually develops over time through habit, or can be a side effect of a mental illness. In rare cases, however, it may be caused by diabetes insipidus. This is when the pituitary gland lacks the hormone vasopressin, which regulates the water and salt content in our body. Patients have a decreased ability to concentrate the urine, therefore lose a lot of fluid and have to increase their fluid intake accordingly to prevent dehydration (= Diabetes insipidus). The distinction between what is considered a "harmless" primary polydipsia and a diabetes insipidus is crucial, as their therapy is fundamentally different. Diabetes insipidus must be treated with the hormone vasopressin, while patients with primary polydipsia require behavioural therapy to reduce their habitual drinking. A wrong therapy can have life-threatening consequences as treatment with vasopressin without indication can lead to water intoxication.
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Testosterone / 19.07.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_43285" align="alignleft" width="128"]Traver Wright, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor Department of Health and Kinesiology Texas A&M University College Station, TX Dr. Wright[/caption] Traver Wright, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor Department of Health and Kinesiology Texas A&M University College Station, TX MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: Many cancer patients suffer from a loss of body mass known as cachexia which results in not only a loss of fat, but a debilitating loss of muscle mass and function. This cachexia negatively impacts patient mobility and quality of life, and can also reduce their eligibility to undergo treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy.  Despite the profound negative consequences of cachexia, there are no established therapies to directly address this debilitating loss of body mass during treatment. In this National Cancer Institute funded double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined the effectiveness of 7 weeks of treatment with the muscle-building hormone testosterone to preserve the body condition of men and women with cervical or head and neck cancer.  Twenty-one patients received weekly injections of either placebo or testosterone.  Over the 7 weeks of treatment, patients were monitored for changes in body composition, activity level, physical ability, and questionnaires regarding quality of life and well-being.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Sleep Disorders, Testosterone, Urology / 23.05.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kristen L. Knutson, PhD Associate Professor Center for Circadian and Sleep Medicine Department of Neurology Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Chicago, IL  60611​Premal Patel, MD, PGY-5 Urology University of Manitoba MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? What should readers take away from your report? Response: Within the literature there has only been small experimental studies which looked at impaired sleep and testosterone. To our knowledge, there has been no study that has evaluated sleep and testosterone using a population dataset. We utilized the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess the association of sleep with serum testosterone. NHANES examines a nationally representative sample of about ~5000 persons each year. After performing a multivariate linear regression of numerous variables within the NHANES database (age, marital status, prior co-morbidities, number of hours of sleep, etc…) we found that a reduction in the number of hours slept, increasing body mass index and increasing age were associated with lower testosterone levels. Given that this is a cross-sectional analysis, we are unable to provide causality of this relationship but we do feel it is important to counsel patients with low testosterone about the importance of living a healthy lifestyle which includes a well-balanced diet, exercise and sufficient sleep.
Author Interviews, Depression, Endocrinology, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Thyroid Disease / 14.05.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Thyroid gland Wikipedia imageTeja Grömer PD Dr. med. Habil Facharzt für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie Lehrbefugter der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg im Fach Psychiatrie Bamberg  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? 1) I had seen hundreds of clinical cases with combined depression and anxiety and noted end of 2015 that most (far more than 50%) from the subjective clinical impression were associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) 2) Autoimmune thyroiditis on the mental side leads to specific symptoms, exhaustion, tachycardia, restlessness. 3) I thus decided to do a systematic review and meta-analysis. 
Author Interviews, Endocrinology / 04.05.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marcus M. Seldin PhD (Post-doc researcher) and Professor Aldons J. Lusis, PhD Department of Medicine, Department of Human Genetics Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics University of California, Los Angeles, CA,  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: There are thousands of proteins which circulate in the blood and relay signals between tissues, however many of their functions remain difficult to dissect.  We used a mouse population, termed the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) to ask if we can identify new factors which communicate between tissues.  Taking this approach, we uncover several proteins which relay signals between tissues.  These include Lipocalin-5, an adipose-expressed protein which can promote skeletal muscle respiration and liver-derived Notum which enhances thermogenesis in fat tissue.  The approach we developed can also be broadly applied to many mouse and human datasets.  As proof of this, we show that cross-tissue predictions are remarkably conserved between mice and humans
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Mental Health Research, OBGYNE / 12.04.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aled Rees, MD, PhD Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute Cardiff University School of Medicine, Health Park Cardiff United Kingdom MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: PCOS is a common condition, affecting 5-10% of women globally, in which elevated male hormone levels can cause a range of distressing and life-limiting symptoms, including reduced fertility, irregular periods, excessive facial and body hair, and acne. Previous studies have suggested a link between PCOS and poor mental health in women but the studies were small and did not adequately take other factors that can affect mental health into consideration. In addition, high levels of testosterone during pregnancy have been reported to increase the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as ADHD and autism, in children.
Author Interviews, Thyroid Disease / 22.03.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_40735" align="alignleft" width="200"]Begoña Ruiz Núñez PhD (c) Laboratory Medicine UMC Groningen Co-directora de Healthy Institute President of the Asociación Española de Psico-Neuro-Inmunologí Begoña Ruiz Núñez[/caption] Begoña Ruiz Núñez PhD (c) Laboratory Medicine UMC Groningen Co-directora de Healthy Institute President of the Asociación Española de Psico-Neuro-Inmunologí MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The diagnosis of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (​CFS)​ is based on the Fukuda criteria, i.e. symptoms, disability, and exclusion of explanatory illnesses, and not by means of physical signs or abnormalities in laboratory test results​. CFS has been described as a ´allostatic overload condition´, where the physiological mechanisms employed to deal with stress contribute to the perpetuation of the disorder. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients are 1.9 times more likely to have a high allostatic load index than healthy controls. Thyroid allostasis-adaptive responses, presenting as ​non-thyroidal-illness syndrome, have been found in many conditions, ranging from critical illness, uremia and starvation to tumor​s​. Taken together, it is possible that, despite TSH and T4 levels within reference ranges, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome symptoms may be attributable in part to allostatic responses, i.e. lower thyroid hormone activity, secondary to chronic (low-grade) inflammation caused by e.g. a compromised gut microbiome and gut wall integrity.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, OBGYNE, Testosterone, UCSD / 24.01.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_39566" align="alignleft" width="133"]Varykina Thackray, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Reproductive Medicine University of California, San Diego Dr. Thackray[/caption] Varykina Thackray, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Reproductive Medicine University of California, San Diego MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previous studies have shown that changes in the composition of intestinal microbes (gut microbiome) are associated with metabolic diseases. Since many women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have metabolic dysregulation that increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, we wondered whether PCOS was associated with changes in the gut microbiome and if these changes were linked to any clinical features of PCOS. We collaborated with Beata Banaszewska and her colleagues at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, Poland to obtain clinical data and fecal samples from 163 premenopausal women recruited for the study. In collaboration with Scott Kelley at San Diego State University, we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to show that the diversity of the gut microbiome was reduced in Polish women with PCOS compared to healthy women and women with polycystic ovaries but no other symptoms of PCOS. The study confirmed findings reported in two other recent studies with smaller cohorts of Caucasian and Han Chinese women. Since many factors could affect the gut microbiome in women with PCOS, regression analysis was used to identify clinical hallmarks that correlated with changes in the gut microbiome. In contrast to body mass index or insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism was associated with changes in the gut microbiome in this cohort of women, suggesting that elevated testosterone may be an important factor in shaping the gut microbiome in women.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Fertility, JAMA, OBGYNE, Thyroid Disease / 13.12.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Tianpei Hong, MD, PhD Of behalf of Prof. Jie Qiao and all the coauthors, Director, Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism Director, Department of Laboratory Medicine Peking University Third Hospital Beijing, China MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
  • Ÿ           Women who test positive for thyroid autoantibodies have been reported to be at 2- to 3-fold higher risk of spontaneous miscarriage than those who test negative. However, the effect of levothyroxine on miscarriage among women with positive thyroid autoantibodies and normal thyroid function has been documented in limited studies with conflicting results.
  • Ÿ           Given the substantial difficulty achieving successful pregnancy among infertile women, identifying optimal treatment for infertile women who test positive for thyroid autoantibodies is particularly important. There are a few randomized clinical trials showing a beneficial effect of levothyroxine treatment on pregnancy outcomes among women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). However, the sample size of those trials was rather small which may weaken the quality of the evidence.
  • Ÿ           Therefore, the Pregnancy Outcomes Study in euthyroid women with Thyroid Autoimmunity after Levothyroxine (POSTAL) study was conducted in Peking University Third Hospital to evaluate whether levothyroxine treatment initiated before IVF-ET could decrease the miscarriage rate and improve the live birth rate in infertile women who tested positive for antithyroperoxidase antibody but had normal thyroid function.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Hormone Therapy, JCEM / 04.11.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_37876" align="alignleft" width="112"]Alexandra Ycaza Herrera, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Scholar Leonard Davis School of Gerontology Department of Psychology University of Southern California Los Angeles, Ca 90089 Dr. Herrera[/caption] Alexandra Ycaza Herrera, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Scholar Leonard Davis School of Gerontology Department of Psychology University of Southern California Los Angeles, Ca 90089  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: ​Previous research has shown that estradiol treatment after menopause can reduce the stress response when exposed to a stressor, including the cortisol response to stress. Other work has shown that stress can impair certain types of memory​. We wanted to test whether post-menopause estradiol treatment would not only attenuate the cortisol response to stress, but if it could also reduce the negative effects of stress on memory. In particular, we tested the effects on a type of memory called working memory. Working memory allows us to maintain and update information we need to readily access in short-term memory. For example, imagine you stop at the grocery store after work and only have a mental list of the items you need to make dinner. Working memory is the memory type engaged in helping you maintain and update your mental list of items as you grab items off the shelves and check them off your list. We recruited women through the Early versus Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Women who participated in our study had received nearly 5 years of either estradiol or placebo. We found that women receiving estradiol showed significantly smaller cortisol responses to stress and less of an effect of stress on working memory than women that had been receiving placebo.
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Hormone Therapy, Sexual Health, Testosterone / 27.07.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_34884" align="alignleft" width="160"]Carl G Streed Jr. M.D. Pronouns: he, him, his, himself Fellow, Division General Internal Medicine & Primary Care Brigham & Women’s Hospital Dr. Streed[/caption] Carl G Streed Jr. M.D. Pronouns: he, him, his, himself Fellow, Division General Internal Medicine & Primary Care Brigham & Women’s Hospital  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Recent reports estimate that 0.6% of adults in the United States, or approximately 1.4 million persons, identify as transgender. Despite gains in rights and media attention, the reality is that transgender persons experience health disparities, and a dearth of research and evidence-based guidelines remains regarding their specific health needs. The lack of research to characterize cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors in transgender populations receiving cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT) limits appropriate primary and specialty care. As with hormone therapy in cisgender persons (that is, those whose sex assigned at birth aligns with their gender identity), existing research in transgender populations suggests that CVD risk factors are altered by CSHT.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Genetic Research, NYU / 19.06.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_35437" align="alignleft" width="150"]Constantine A. Stratakis, MD, DMSci Section on Endocrinology and Genetics Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development National Institutes of Health, Bethesda Dr. Stratakis[/caption] Constantine A. Stratakis, MD, DMSci Section on Endocrinology and Genetics Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development National Institutes of Health, Bethesda  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The pituitary and adrenal glands operate on a kind of feedback loop.  In response to stress, the pituitary release ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone), which signals the adrenal glands to release cortisol.  Rising cortisol levels then act on the pituitary, to shut down ACTH production. In a previous study, Jacque Drouin of the Institute for Clinical Research in Montreal and colleagues had determined that the CABLES1 protein was a key player in this feedback mechanism, switching off pituitary cell division in cultures exposed to cortisol. Since this feedback mechanism appears to be impaired in many corticotropinomas, we investigated the presence of Cables1 gene mutations and copy number variations in a large group of patients with Cushing’s disease.
Author Interviews, JCEM, Surgical Research, Thyroid, University of Michigan / 18.05.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_34701" align="alignleft" width="125"]Megan Rist Haymart MD Assistant Professor University of Michigan Dr. Haymart[/caption] Megan Rist Haymart MD Assistant Professor University of Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Thyroid cancer is typically treated with thyroid surgery. It is common practice for physicians to inform patients that the risk of vocal cord paralysis or hypoparathyroidism with thyroid surgery is 1-3%. However, most of these estimates are based on single institution studies with high volume surgeons. In our study we evaluated surgical risks in a population-based cohort. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, we found that 6.5% of thyroid cancer patients developed general post-operative complications (fever, infection, hematoma, cardiopulmonary and thromboembolic events) and 12.3% developed thyroid surgery specific complications (hypoparathyroidism/hypocalcemia, vocal cord/fold paralysis). Older patient age, presence of comorbidities, and advanced stage disease were associated with the greatest risks of surgical complications.
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Endocrinology, NIH / 10.02.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mihail Zilbermint, M.D. Endocrinologist, Office of the Scientific Director Mihail Zilbermint, M.D. Endocrinologist, Office of the Scientific Director Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development National Institutes of Health  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Diagnosing Cushing Syndrome is often difficult and challenging.  Diagnosing hypercortisolemia, could require the use of a combination of any of these tests: 24-hour free urine cortisol monitoring, an overnight dexamethasone suppression test, and measurement of late night salivary cortisol.  Cortisol levels may change daily, requiring that testing be repeated.  Undiagnosed and untreated Cushing Syndrome greatly increases morbidity and mortality risk. Cortisol levels can be detected in hair samples.  Much like hemoglobin A1C is a long-term indicator of blood glucose levels, efforts have been made to determine if hair cortisol could serve as a long-term measure of the body’s glucocorticoid levels.  We sought to compare the results of cortisol levels for Cushing Syndrome patients with data from data on cortisol in hair segments, to gain further information on the role of sampling hair cortisol as an initial or supportive method for diagnosing Cushing Syndrome.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Gender Differences, JCEM / 13.01.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Caroline J. Davidge-Pitts, M.B., Ch.B Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minn. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The awareness of transgender healthcare issues has increased, leading to improved coverage of both hormonal and non-hormonal therapies. In endocrinology practices, there is an increased demand for providers who are competent in these areas. We wanted to assess the current status of knowledge and practice in transgender health amongst our current and future endocrinologists.
Author Interviews, BMJ, Clots - Coagulation, Testosterone, Thromboembolism / 03.12.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Carlos Martinez Institute for Epidemiology, Statistics and Informatics GmbH Frankfurt, Germany, MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: A 10-fold increase in testosterone prescriptions per capita in the United States and a 40-fold increase in Canada in men has occurred over the first decade of this century, mainly for sexual dysfunction and/or decreased energy. Recognised pathological disorders of the male reproductive system remain the sole unequivocal indication for testosterone treatment but there has been increasing use in men without pathological hypogonadism. A variety of studies and meta-analyses have provided conflicting evidence as to the magnitude of the risk of cardiovascular events including venous thromboembolism in men on testosterone treatment. In June 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration and Health Canada required a warning about the risk of venous thromboembolism to be displayed on all approved testosterone products. Studies have reported contradictory results on an association between testosterone use and the risk of venous thromboembolism. The effect of timing and duration of testosterone use on the risk of venous thromboembolism was not studied and may explain some of these contradictory findings.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Menopause, Osteoporosis / 27.10.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_29173" align="alignleft" width="165"]Pauline Camacho, MD, FACE Professor, Endocrinology Director, Loyola University Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Disease Center, Fellowship Program Director, Endocrinology, Medical Director, Osteoporosis Center Dr. Pauline Camacho[/caption] Pauline Camacho, MD, FACE Professor, Endocrinology Director, Loyola University Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Disease Center, Fellowship Program Director, Endocrinology, Medical Director, Osteoporosis Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this report? What is the prevalence and significance of osteoporosis in US women? Response: Osteoporosis is widely prevalent and is increasing in prevalence not only in the US but also around the world. 10.2 million Americans have osteoporosis and that an additional 43.4 million have low bone mass. More than 2 million osteoporosis-related fractures occur annually in the US, more than 70% of these occur in women ( from National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) estimates).
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, Thyroid Disease / 14.10.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28881" align="alignleft" width="120"]Antonio C. Bianco, MD, PhD Rush University Medical Center Dr. Antonio C. Bianco[/caption] Antonio C. Bianco, MD, PhD Rush University Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The standard of care for patients with hypothyroidism is treatment with levothyroxine. The dosage of levothyroxine is adjusted for each patient with the goal of normalizing blood levels of TSH. About 15% of the patients treated this way exhibit variable degrees of residual symptoms, despite having a normal TSH level. These symptoms include difficulty losing weight, low energy and depression. However, given the subjective nature of these complains and that the blood levels of TSH are normal, many times such symptoms are dismissed by physicians as non-thyroid related.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, Kidney Disease, Mineral Metabolism / 03.10.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jonas Esche Dipl.-Mol. Biomed University of Bonn Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences DONALD Study MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Modern western diets increase diet-dependent acid load and net acid excretion which are suggested to have adverse long-term effects on bone. Urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) is an established parameter to assess nutritional acid load. Urinary citrate, on the other hand, integrates nutritional and also systemic influences on acid-base homeostasis with high citrate indicating prevailing alkalization. Against this background urinary citrate excretion was used as a new index of acid-base status and its relationship with bone strength and long-term fracture risk was examined.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Endocrinology, Hormone Therapy / 19.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jon Rasmussen, MD, PhD fellow Department of Internal Medicine Herlev Hospital, Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids has become highly prevalent among young men involved in recreational strength training. A recent meta-analysis estimated that approximately 18% of young men involved recreational strength training abuse anabolic steroids. Well-known adverse effects following abuse of anabolic steroids include hypogonadism (For those who have interest, we have recently published a paper concerning this issue, it can be read and downloaded at: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161208). Yet, we have a poor understanding on the adverse effects these compounds might have on the metabolism and insulin sensitivity.
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Endocrinology, OBGYNE / 13.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27856" align="alignleft" width="120"]Leena Hilakivi-Clarke, PhD Professor of Oncology Georgetown University Washington, DC 20057 Dr. Leena Hilakivi-Clarke[/caption] Leena Hilakivi-Clarke, PhD Professor of Oncology Georgetown University Washington, DC 20057 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: About 70% of women who develop breast cancer express estrogen receptors in their cancer. These patients are treated with endocrine therapies that target estrogen receptors. Endocrine therapies are effective in half of the patients, but the other half are resistant to the treatment and recur. Prior to the start of endocrine therapy, there is no way to predict who will respond to it and who will have recurrence of breast cancer. Therefore, it is not known which patients might benefit from an additional therapy to prevent recurrence, and what that additional therapy would entail. We wondered if resistance to endocrine therapy (we used tamoxifen) is pre-programmed by maternal exposure to the estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical ethinyl estradiol (EE2). Previously, we and others have found that EE2 and other estrogenic compounds, when given during pregnancy, increase breast cancer risk in the female offspring in animal studies and among humans. The current study was done using a preclinical animal model that was used 50 years ago to discover that tamoxifen is an effective endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients.
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Endocrinology, Fertility / 03.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anders Rehfeld MD, PhD Student Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine University of Copenhagen Copenhagen Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Human fertility is declining in many areas of the world and the reason is largely unknown. Our study shows that 44% of the tested chemical UV filters can induce calcium signals in human sperm cells, thereby mimicking the effect of progesterone. Progesterone-induced calcium signals, and the sperm functions it triggers, is absolutely essential for the human sperm cell to normally fertilise the human egg.