Antibiotics and Acid Suppressants May Be Risk Factor For Pediatric Obesity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"babies (365-222)" by Robert Couse-Baker is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr. Christopher M Stark
Department of Pediatrics
William Beaumont Army Medical Center
El Paso, Texas
Department of Pediatrics
Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Bethesda, Maryland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Rates of pediatric obesity have increased over the past decade, which has led researchers to search for modifiable risk factors that may explain this increase. Recent studies have identified an association between native gut bacteria alterations and the development of obesity. Several population-based studies have evaluated whether or not there is an association between antibiotic exposure and the development of obesity, with mixed results.

No studies have previously evaluated if acid suppressing medications are associated with developing obesity.

We found that young children prescribed antibiotics, acid suppressants, and combinations of these medications in the first two years of life are more likely to develop obesity after two years of age.

Our study represents the largest study to evaluate pediatric antibiotic prescriptions and obesity risk, with nearly ten times as many patients as the next largest study.

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Gut Microbiome Can Be Restored in Cancer Patients with Fecal Transplantation

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Joao Xavier PhD Associate Faculty Member | Computational & Systems Biology Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center New York, NY 10065

Dr. Joao Xavier

Joao Xavier PhD
Associate Faculty Member | Computational & Systems Biology
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
New York, NY 10065 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Our team at Memorial Sloan Kettering has been investigating the intestinal microbiota of patients receiving bone marrow transplantations for more than eight years now. We have found through several studies that these patients lose important healthy bacteria from their microbiota, and that these losses are mostly caused by the antibiotics given as prophylaxis or to treat infections.

We also found that the drastic changes in the microbiota composition, especially the intestinal dominations by bacteria such as Enterococcus, increase the risk of transplant-related complications and lowered patient survival.

We aimed to determine the feasibility of autologous microbiota transplant (auto-FMT) as a way to reconstitute lost bacteria. This randomized study found that indeed auto-FMT could reconstitute important microbial groups to patients.  Continue reading

Long Term Antibiotics May Harm Immune Cells of Gut and Mucous Membranes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Pushpa Pandiyan, PhD

Dr. Pandiyan

Pushpa Pandiyan, PhD
Assistant Professor, Biological Sciences
School of Dental Medicine
Case Western Reserve University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The objective was to find the role of the resident bacteria in the mouth in controlling oral immunity.

We examined this in a oral fungal infection model. How resident microbiome in the mouth maintains a healthy oral immune system was unknown before.

We found that antibiotics led to destruction of microbiome and some of the good fatty acids the bacteria produced. This created an immune imbalance in the local tissue, thus making the host more susceptible to the fungal infection.  Continue reading

Could Household Cleaners Be Making Children Overweight?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Kozyrskyj

Anita Kozyrskyj PhD
Professor in Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry
School of Public Health
University of Alberta

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Data for this study were collected in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) cohort of over 3,500 full-term infants born between 2009 and 2012. When infants were 3-4 months of age, parents provided a sample of their poop. At that time, parents checked-off responses to questions about their home, including type and frequency of cleaning product use. The infant poop was initially frozen, then thawed later to extract DNA from the sample and identify microbes on the basis of their DNA sequence.  Continue reading

Mouth Microbiome Linked to Childhood Obesity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Sarah J.Carnahan Craig PhD

Dr. Carnahan Craig

Dr. Sarah J.Carnahan Craig PhD
Postdoctoral Scholar
Makova Lab
Biology Department
Center for Medical Genomics
Penn State University

 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This study stems from a long standing collaboration with pediatrician, Ian Paul at Penn State Hershey Medical School (and a co-author on this paper). Ian is very interested in understanding and preventing childhood obesity. It also is part of a much larger, collaborative study objective, lead by Ian and Leann Birch (another co-author), to understand social/behavioral contributors to childhood obesity, how a responsive parenting intervention can prevent childhood overweight/obesity, and the biological factors that contribute to the disease. This is an important research area as childhood obesity is a public health problem — one in three children are overweight or obese. A fuller understanding of factors that contribute to childhood obesity, how to identify children who are at risk for developing childhood obesity, and methods to prevent childhood obesity are of critical importance.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: The main finding from this paper is that the oral microbiota (the collection of bacteria that live in the mouth) are significantly related to young child growth patterns. The surprising part of this finding was that we observed this result with the oral microbiota and not the gut microbiota. The oral microbiota (in comparison to the gut microbiota, which has been associated with obesity in many previous studies) are largely understudied, especially in young children. The gut microbiome we found to be strongly influenced by diet; when the two are considered together, there is a significant relationship with child growth patterns.

Additionally, our team developed novel statistical methods to use child growth curves as a more comprehensive outcome rather than an outcome of weight at a single time point (i.e. it uses more of the information about how a child is growing). These methods allow us to better detect the relationship between child growth and the microbiota; they increase our power. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Readers should take away that there are many factors that contribute to obesity and obesity prevention – along with a healthy diet and exercise, biological factors, such as the microbiota for instance, could potentially be an important consideration. Additionally, we’re in the early stages of truly understanding how these microbes influence health. Importantly, we are unable to make any kind of causal conclusions – meaning we don’t know if the microbes are influencing the growth patterns, is health/environment influencing the microbes, or is it both directions.  

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: One of the limitations of this study is that it looks at the microbiota at a single time point, at two years after birth –  this is a dynamic community, so we are really only seeing a snapshot of what is happening. Additionally, the study is retrospective in that the microbiota is sampled at two years and the growth trajectory is made of measurements from birth through two years. Because of this, we might be missing important dynamics happening earlier in life. A more comprehensive study would be to sample the microbiota at all the time points you are sampling growth, health, and other information — this is a study we are currently doing. We hope that by building on this study and examining the microbiota (both oral and gut) longitudinally and in concert with the social, environmental, and health data that we will be closer to a fuller understanding, which could potentially identify children who are most at risk of developing childhood obesity and be prime candidates for obesity intervention programs.  

Citation: 

Sarah J. C. Craig, Daniel Blankenberg, Alice Carla Luisa Parodi, Ian M. Paul, Leann L. Birch, Jennifer S. Savage, Michele E. Marini, Jennifer L. Stokes, Anton Nekrutenko, Matthew Reimherr, Francesca Chiaromonte, Kateryna D. Makova. Child Weight Gain Trajectories Linked To Oral Microbiota Composition. Scientific Reports, 2018; 8 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-31866-9

Sep 19, 2018 @ 9:27 pm

 

 

 

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Antiinflammatory Probiotics Isolated From Baby Diapers

Hariom Yadav, PhD Assistant Professor, Molecular Medicine Comprehensive Cancer Center Center on Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism Redox Biology & Medicine Ctr Sticht Center on Aging

Dr. Yadav

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Hariom Yadav, PhD
Assistant Professor, Molecular Medicine
Comprehensive Cancer Center
Center on Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism
Redox Biology & Medicine Ctr
Sticht Center on Aging

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Currently, the use of probiotics is increasing for health benefits of consumers, however the source of probiotics available in the market remains scarcely known. According to scientific community and regulatory standpoint, human-origin probiotics are highly recommended. Hence, we isolated these probiotics from baby diapers, because infant microbiome carries large number of beneficial bacteria.

In addition, we optimized our probiotics to produce higher amount of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; beneficial metabolites produced by the gut microbiome), because the levels of SCFAs decreases in several human diseases like obesity, diabetes, cancer, autoimmune and inflammatory bowel diseases. Hence, our probiotics can be used to bring back SCFAs levels and may benefit people suffering from these diseases.

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Unique Oral Microbiome Signature Detected in Children With Autism

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
quadrant biosciencesSteven D. Hicks, MD PhD
Penn State College of Medicine
Department of Pediatrics
Division of Academic General Pediatrics
Hershey, PA, 17033‐0850

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: ​Previous studies have shown that disrupting the community of bacteria in the gut can lead to autism-like behavior in animals. In humans interventions aimed at improving the intestinal microbiome have also led to changes in autism behavior. Here, we examined whether autism-related changes in microbial activity extended to the mouth and throat. We were interested in this site because it provides the initial interface between host immunity and microbe exposure.

By examining nearly 350 children with autism, typical development, or developmental delay (without autism) we identified 12 groups of oral bacteria with unique activity patterns in children with autism. Interestingly, microbial activity (measured by RNA sequencing) also differed between children with autism and gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances and peers with autism but no GI disturbance. Levels of several microbes also displayed correlations with measures of autism behaviors. We utilized microbial activity patterns to create diagnostic panels that displayed accuracy for distinguishing children with autism from peers with typical development (79.5% accuracy) or developmental delay (76.5% accuracy). 

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Specific Microbial Signatures Differentiate Chronic Coughs in Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Mikhail Kazachkov MD Director of Pediatric Pulmonology Hassenfeld Children’s Hospital NYU Langone Medical Center

Dr. Kazachkov

Dr. Mikhail Kazachkov MD
Director of Pediatric Pulmonology
Hassenfeld Children’s Hospital
NYU Langone Medical Center 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How common is the problem of chronic cough in children?  Is it more common in children with allergies, asthma or reflux?

Response: Chronic cough is one of the leading causes of pediatric referrals to subspecialty physicians.  Its prevalence in the general pediatric population may approach 3% (Galassi et al, Epidemiol. Prev. 2005;29,Suppl.:9–13).

It is important to recognize that the main causes of chronic cough in children are completely different for those in adults.  Specifically, gastroesophageal reflux and postnasal drip are not considered to be important causes of cough in children.  Cough variant asthma, although is a common cause of cough in adults, does not seem to be frequently diagnosed and a cause of chronic cough in children.

The main cause of chronic wet cough in children is protracted bacterial bronchitis (Chang et al, Chest. 2017 Apr;151:884-890).  It is important to recognize that neurologically impaired children have completely different pathogenesis of chronic cough, which is mostly related to aspiration into the lower airway and development of aspiration-related lung disease.

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Changing One Gene in One Gut Bacteria Altered Metabolism and Weight Gain (in mice)

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

A. Sloan Devlin, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Harvard Medical School

Dr. Devlin

A. Sloan Devlin, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology
Harvard Medical School

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: It is known that the microbiome, the collection of bacteria that live in and on our bodies, influences the development of metabolic diseases including diabetes and obesity. The ways in which the microbiome affects host metabolism, however, are poorly understood. One reason for this lack of understanding is because the gastrointestinal tract contains hundreds of species of bacteria producing many different kinds of metabolites. Untangling the effects of these bacteria and the molecules they make is a significant challenge.

In this study, we decided to concentrate on a group of metabolites found in the human gut called bile acids. When we eat a meal, these compounds are released into the gastrointestinal tract where they act as detergents that aid in digestion. Once these molecules reach the lower gastrointestinal tract, the gut bacteria residing there chemically modify these compounds, producing a pool of over 50 different bile acids total.

Imbalances in this bile acid pool are thought to influence the progression of diet-induced obesity. However, it is unclear which specific bile acids are responsible for either beneficial or detrimental effects on host metabolism. We set out to address this question by first identifying a selective type of bacterial enzyme called a bile salt hydrolase, then by genetically deleting this enzyme from a common gut bacterium and investigating how this change affected host metabolism.

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How Fit You Are May Depend On The Bacteria in Your Gut

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

James R. Bagley, PhD Assistant Professor of Kinesiology Director, Muscle Physiology Lab Co-Director, Exercise Physiology Lab Research Director, Strength & Conditioning Lab San Francisco State University

Dr. Bagley

James R. Bagley, PhD
Assistant Professor of Kinesiology
Director, Muscle Physiology Lab
Co-Director, Exercise Physiology Lab
Research Director, Strength & Conditioning Lab
San Francisco State University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The human body contains many billions of bacteria cells, and the type of bacteria in your gastrointestinal tract (termed gut microbiota) has been linked to certain diseases.

Most of your gut microbiota falls into two categories: Firmicutes (F) or Bacteroidetes (B). The relative gut F/B ratio has been used to assess microbiota health. Our study was the first to examine potential relationships among F/B ratio and cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and diet in healthy young men and women

We recruited 37 healthy adults to undergo a battery of physiological tests and collected stool samples to analyze their gut F/B ratio using qPCR.

We found that F/B ratio was significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness, but with no other variables. In fact, this correlation was so strong that a person’s fitness level explained ~22% of the variance in their gut bacteria composition. Continue reading

Human Skin Microbiome Differs From Other Mammals

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Josh D. Neufeld PhD
Professor; Department of Biology
Ashley A. Ross MSc
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Given important implications for skin health and our relationship to the microbial world, we are curious about the microorganisms on human skin, how these microbial communities are formed and passed on from generation to generation, and how these communities differ between mammalian species.

Our main finding is that human skin microbial communities are distinct from nearly all of the other animals that we sampled, in terms of both diversity and composition.

We also found initial evidence that animals and their skin microbial communities have co-evolved over time.  Continue reading

Some Antibiotics Linked To Increased Risk of Kidney Stones

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

A kidney stone (yellow) composed of calcium oxalate: Wikipedia Image

A kidney stone (yellow) composed of calcium oxalate: Wikipedia Image

Gregory Tasian MD, MSc, MSCE
Assistant Professor of Urology and Epidemiology
University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Division of Urology and Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness
The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response:  We found that five classes of commonly prescribed antibiotics were associated with an increased risk of kidney stones. These classes were sulfa drugs (e.g. Bactrim), fluoroquinolones (e.g. Cipro), cephalosporins (e.g. cephalexin), nitrofurantoin, and broad-spectrum penicillins (e.g. augmentin).  For those five classes of antibiotics, the greatest risk was found among younger patients. However, the increased risk was still significant across all ages, including for older adults with the exception of broad-spectrum penicillins, which were not associated with an increased risk of kidney stones among patients >75 years of age.

We conducted this study because:

1) Prior investigations have demonstrated that changes in the gut microbiome were associated with kidney stones,

2) Antibiotics are prescribed frequently, and

3) The number of people affected by kidney stone disease has increased 70% over the last 30 years and the greatest increases have been found among children and adolescents.

Our results were consistent with these previous studies, so we were not surprised with the findings although we did not know which specific classes of antibiotics would be associated with an increased risk of stones and which ones would not.

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Middle Eastern Diet Linked To Improved Microbiome in Liver Patients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

“Turkish Food” by Garry Knight is licensed under CC BY 2.0Jasmohan S. Bajaj, M.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Internal Medicine
Division of Gastroenterology
Virginia Commonwealth University 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Altered gut microbiota composition can occur due to diseases and due to changes in the dietary practices. The interaction between these two and their linkage with clinical outcomes in liver diseases, such as cirrhosis is not clear from an international standpoint.

In this study we enrolled healthy subjects, and patients with cirrhosis who were either early or advanced in their process from USA and Turkey. We found that the Turkish subjects, who followed a Middle-eastern diet rich in vegetables and fermented milk products, had high microbial diversity, which was in turn associated with lower hospitalizations over 3 months. There was also an additional beneficial effect of coffee and tea intake. This protection persisted even when the clinical factors were accounted for. Continue reading

Small Intestinal Microbiome Adjusts To Dietary Fats and Sugar

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Eugene B. Chang, MD Martin Boyer Professor of Medicine Knapp Center for Biomedical Discovery University of Chicago Chicago, IL  60637

Dr. Chang

Eugene B. Chang, MD
Martin Boyer Professor of Medicine
Knapp Center for Biomedical Discovery
University of Chicago
Chicago, IL  60637 and

Kristina Martinez-Guryn, Ph.D., R.D. Assistant Professor  Biomedical Sciences Program Midwestern University Downers Grove, IL.

Dr. Martinez-Guryn

Kristina Martinez-Guryn, Ph.D., R.D.
Assistant Professor 
Biomedical Sciences Program
Midwestern University
Downers Grove IL

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Martinez-Guryn: The original goal of this study was to understand why mice devoid of all microorganisms (germ free mice) are protected from diet-induced obesity. We demonstrate that these mice display severely impaired lipid absorption even when fed a high fat diet.

Dr. Chang: We found that many of the processes of dietary lipid digestion and absorption are dependent on and modulated by the gut microbiome which itself responds to dietary cues to adjust the small intestine’s ability and capacity to handle dietary lipids appropriately. This interplay is important for general health, but the findings are also relevant to conditions of overnutrition (obesity, metabolic syndrome) and undernutrition (starvation, environmental enteropathy).  In conditions of overnutrition, high fat, simple sugar, low fiber foods typical of western diets promote small intestinal microbes (which have been largely neglected by the scientific community) that promote fat digestion and absorption. This increases our capacity to assimilate dietary fats which can contribute to the overnutrition problem.  In conditions of undernutrition, these types of gut microbes are lost or minimally represented.  Thus, when nutritional repletion is started, the gut’s ability to upregulate its capacity for dietary lipid digestion and absorption is compromised.

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Gut and Pancreatic Microbiome Drive Pancreatic Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mautin Hundeyin MD Post-doctoral Research Fellow

Dr. Hundeyin

Mautin Hundeyin MD
Post-doctoral Research Fellow

George Miller, MD is Principal Investigator and Director of the S. Arthur Localio Laboratory in the Department of Surgery at NYU School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the devastating disease with grim prognosis. The microbiome has emerged as a contributor to oncogenesis in a number of intestinal tract malignancies. We found that PDA is associated with a distinct stage-specific gut and pancreatic microbiome that drives disease progression by inducing intra-tumoral immune suppression. Targeting the microbiome protects against oncogenesis, reverses intra-tumoral immune-tolerance, and enables efficacy for check-point based immunotherapy. These data have implications for understanding immune-suppression in pancreatic cancer and its reversal in the clinic.  Continue reading

Dietary Fiber Promotes Beneficial Bacteria, Improving Glucose Control in Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Liping Zhao PhD, Professor Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers University-New Brunswick NJ

Dr. Zhao

Liping Zhao PhD, Professor
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology
School of Environmental and Biological Sciences
Rutgers University-New Brunswick NJ

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Microbes in the human gut (collectively known as the gut microbiota) provide many functions that are important for human health. A notable example is that some gut bacteria are able to ferment non-digestible carbohydrates in our diet, e.g. dietary fibers, to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These SCFAs nourish our gut epithelial cells, reduce inflammation, and play a role in appetite control. Deficiency of SCFAs has been associated with many diseases including type 2 diabetes. Many gut bacteria have the genes (and therefore the capacity) to produce SCFAs from carbohydrate fermentation. However, we know little about how these bacteria, as individual strains and as a group, actually respond to an increased supply of carbohydrates. This is key to improve clinical efficacy of dietary fiber interventions to improve human health. Continue reading

PCOS: Hyperandrogenism Associated With Changes in Gut Microbiome

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Varykina Thackray, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Reproductive Medicine University of California, San Diego

Dr. Thackray

Varykina Thackray, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Reproductive Medicine
University of California, San Diego

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous studies have shown that changes in the composition of intestinal microbes (gut microbiome) are associated with metabolic diseases. Since many women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have metabolic dysregulation that increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, we wondered whether PCOS was associated with changes in the gut microbiome and if these changes were linked to any clinical features of PCOS.

We collaborated with Beata Banaszewska and her colleagues at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, Poland to obtain clinical data and fecal samples from 163 premenopausal women recruited for the study. In collaboration with Scott Kelley at San Diego State University, we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to show that the diversity of the gut microbiome was reduced in Polish women with PCOS compared to healthy women and women with polycystic ovaries but no other symptoms of PCOS.

The study confirmed findings reported in two other recent studies with smaller cohorts of Caucasian and Han Chinese women. Since many factors could affect the gut microbiome in women with PCOS, regression analysis was used to identify clinical hallmarks that correlated with changes in the gut microbiome. In contrast to body mass index or insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism was associated with changes in the gut microbiome in this cohort of women, suggesting that elevated testosterone may be an important factor in shaping the gut microbiome in women.

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C-Section and Formula-Fed Babies Have Different Microbiome From Breastfed or Vaginal Births

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD, Professor Dept Pediatrics Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta Edmonton, AB   

Dr. Kozyrskyj

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD, Professor
Dept Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta
Edmonton, AB   

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The first year of an infant’s life is a critical time for the development of his or her gut microbiome. Gut microbes not only help infants digest food, but they also “train” their developing immune system. An infant’s environment, from the type of birth and infant diet to use of antibiotics, has a large impact in determining which microbes are present. Frequently these early life exposures occur together. Using data from AllerGen’s CHILD birth cohort and a new analytical approach —called Significance Analysis of Microarrays—we quantified changes to gut microbiota throughout the first year of life according to common combinations of early life exposures.

We found that, compared to vaginally-born and breastfed infants, formula-fed or cesarean-delivered infants had different trajectories of microbial colonization in later infancy, which could have implications for their future health.

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Intestinal Microbiome Linked To Pediatric Asthma

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD, Professor, Dept Pediatrics Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta Edmonton, AB 

Dr. Kozyrskyj

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD, Professor, Dept Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta
Edmonton, AB  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: I was motivated to study the maternal asthma-infant microbiome link by the well-established fact that maternal asthma affects infant birth weight in a sex-specific manner. Based on data from AllerGen’s CHILD birth cohort, Caucasian baby boys born to pregnant moms with asthma—putting them at the highest risk for developing asthma in early childhood—were one-third as likely to have high levels of the microbe, Lactobacillus, in their gut microbiome at 3-4 months after birth.

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Intestinal Microbiome Alterations May Trigger Immune Reactions Inducing Multiple Sclerosis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kouichi Ito, PhD Associate Professor Department of Neurology Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Rutgers

Dr. Kouichi Ito

Kouichi Ito, PhD
Associate Professor
Department of Neurology
Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
Rutgers

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), and breakdown of immune tolerance to CNS proteins has been suggested to initiate CNS autoimmunity. Although the mechanism underlying the breakdown of immune tolerance to CNS proteins is still unknown, gut microbiota has been suggested to be involved in disease initiation and progression.

To investigate the etiology of Multiple Sclerosis, we have created humanized transgenic mice expressing MHC class II and T cell receptor genes isolated from an Multiple Sclerosis patient and showed that gut dysbiosis, alteration in intestinal microbial composition, can induce gut leakiness and subsequently trigger the development of neurological deficits through activation of complement C3 and reduction of CBLB and Foxp3 genes.

This study suggests that gut dysbiosis is one of the possible etiological factors for Multiple Sclerosis.

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Prebiotin™ Fiber Supplement Tested in NIH/NIDDK Pilot Study In End-Stage Kidney Disease Patients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ron Walborn Jr. Prebiotin CEO

Ron Walborn Jr.

Ron Walborn Jr.
Prebiotin CEO 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The product Prebiotin™ Prebiotic Fiber was brought to market in 2007 by Dr. Frank Jackson, a gastroenterologist out of Harrisburg, PA. He found through 40 years of experience with his patients that a variety of digestive issues benefitted from daily supplementation with a soluble prebiotic fiber, specifically, oligofructose-enriched inulin (OEI) derived from chicory root.

In the late summer of 2012, Prebiotin caught the attention of Dr. Dominic Raj at the Internal Medicine Department of George Washington University. Dr. Raj’s laboratory showed that patients with kidney disease may have a higher level of release of endotoxins like p-Cresol sulfate and indole from the bacteria in the gut, which can move into the bloodstream and promote inflammation.

This early work was the basis of a successful grant application. Researchers were interested in investigating the therapeutic potential of altering the composition and/or function of the gut microbiome in this patient population, based on the understanding that by building up the levels of healthy bacteria in the gut, undesirable bacteria is eventually crowded out, thereby reducing the release of harmful endotoxins into the system.

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Gut Microbiome of Health Very Old Similar To Younger Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Greg Gloor, PhD
Principal investigator
Professor at Western’s Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry and
Scientist at Lawson Health Research Institute.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We sampled the bacteria in the gut (stool) in over 1000 members of a super healthy population in China across the age ranges of 3 to over 100. Exclusion criteria included a history of genetic or chronic disease (intergenerational in the case of people younger than 30), no smoking, drinking or drug use (including no prescription drugs).

Our goal was to identify what, if any changes in the makeup of the gut microbiota occurred in this population so that we could define “what is associated with health”.

We found three things.

  • First, that the expected differences between the very young and everyone else were found in this population. This indicates that we could observe the standards signatures of a maturing gut microbiota.
  • Second, that the gut microbiota of very healthy very elderly group (over 95 yo) was very similar to that of any very healthy person over the age of 30.
  • Third, we found that the gut microbiota of 20yo people (in three distinct groups) was different from all other age groups. The reason for the differences observed in the 20 yo groups from all the others is unknown, but is not methodological in origin.

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Organic Compounds In Bowel Responsible For Longer Healthier Lives in Variety of Species

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Daniel Kalman, Ph.D. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Emory University

Dr. Kalman

Daniel Kalman, Ph.D.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Emory University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

  1. We think a lot about living longer, but that means we will also have a longer period of frailty and infirmity, which isn’t optimal. Moreover, with geriatric populations projected to expand by 350 fold over the next 40 years, healthcare costs will be unsustainable.
  2. We were interested in understanding how health span of animals is regulated, and whether the microbiota plays a role. The microbiota, which is composed of bacteria inside and on us, when dysregulated (called dysbiosis) contributes to disease; the question we asked was whether it could also contribute to healthy aging, and how.
  3. We showed that animals of widely divergent phyla and separated by hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary time, all utilize indoles to regulate how well they age; in short indoles  make older animals look younger by various metrics, including motility, and fecundity.

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Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Lower In Rural Households

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Eric I. Benchimol, MD, PhD, FRCPC Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, University of Ottawa Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Ottawa, ON Canada

Dr. Benchimol

Eric I. Benchimol, MD, PhD, FRCPC
Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Epidemiology, University of Ottawa
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario
Ottawa, ON Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We found that living in a rural household (compared to urban households) was protective against developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). People living in a rural household were around 10% less likely to get IBD (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis).

While our finding that IBD was more common in people living in urban households was similar to other studies from around the world, there were a number of new, interesting findings:

  1. Living in a rural household was most protective against pediatric-onset IBD. In fact, it was not protective in IBD with onset between ages 18-39, 40-64, or 65 and older at diagnosis.
  2. Living in a rural household in the first 5 years of life was highly protective against IBD later in life.

These findings indicate the importance of early life environmental exposures in the subsequent development of IBD. This effect has been seen in the inflammatory bowel disease literature when examining other environmental risk factors, particularly early-life antibiotic use and air pollution. These risk factors seem to have the strongest effect of increasing the risk of childhood-onset IBD, and not adult-onset disease.

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Diabetes Alters Oral Microbiome Leading to Periodontal Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dana T. Graves DDS Department of Periodontics School of Dental Medicine University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA

Dr. Graves

Dana T. Graves DDS
Department of Periodontics
School of Dental Medicine
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It was previously thought that diabetes did not have a significant effect on oral bacteria. We found that diabetes caused a change in the composition of the oral bacteria. This change caused resulted in a bacterial composition that was more pathogenic and stimulated more inflammation in the gums and greater loss of bone around the teeth.

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