Weight Gain Early In Pregnancy Linked To Higher Birthweight Babies

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Leanne M. Redman MS, PhD LPFA Endowed Fellowship Associate Professor Pennington Biomedical Research Center Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Dr. Redman

Leanne M. Redman MS, PhD
LPFA Endowed Fellowship
Associate Professor
Pennington Biomedical Research Center
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Two well-documented risk factors for aberrant weight gain and obesity is whether your mother was obese when she was pregnant and the amount of weight she gained.

Up until now few studies have asked questions about whether the pattern of weight gain in pregnancy affect outcomes in offspring, such as birth weight.

In a cohort of over 16,000 pregnant women and infants, we found that regardless of the obesity status (BMI) of the mother at the time of pregnancy, weight gain that occurs up until week 24, had the strongest effect on infant birth weight. Infants born to mothers who had weight gain in excess of the 2009 IOM guidelines from conception until week 24, had a 2.5 times higher likelihood of being born large for gestational age. The weight gain that occurred after 24 weeks until delivery, did not attenuate this risk.

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Serotonin Receptors Tied To Weight Gain From Atypical Antipsychotic Medications

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Chen Liu, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Departments of Internal Medicine and Neuroscience Division of Hypothalamic Research The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, Texas 75390-9077

Dr. Chen Liu

Chen Liu, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Departments of Internal Medicine and Neuroscience
Division of Hypothalamic Research
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Dallas, Texas 75390-9077 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Atypical antipsychotics are second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) that have been increasingly used to treat a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, depression, and autism. Many patients taking these medications, however, are left in an agonizing dilemma.

On one hand, they rely on these drugs’ psychotropic effect for normal functioning in daily life. On the other, many SGAs, including the most widely prescribed olanzapine and clozapine, can cause a metabolic syndrome that is known for excessive weight gain, dyslipidemia, and type-2 diabetes_ENREF_2. Notably, while full-blown type 2 diabetes and morbid obesity typically take years to unfold in the general population, these conditions progress at a much faster pace (within months) following second-generation antipsychotics treatment. Other factors such as ethnicity, age, and sex can also aggravate SGA-induced metabolic syndrome. Together, these peculiar features strongly suggest a distinct etiology underlying SGA-induced metabolic syndrome that has yet been fully elucidated. Currently, there is no medication specifically targeting SGA-induced metabolic syndrome. For many youths and adults taking second-generation antipsychotics, metabolic complications are difficult to manage as lifestyle changes, nutritional consulting, and commonly used anti-diabetic medications only provide limited relief.

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Physical Activity Not Enough To Ward Off Weight Gain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lara Dugas, PhD, MPH, FTOS Public Health Sciences Loyola University Chica

Dr. Lara Dugas

Lara Dugas, PhD, MPH, FTOS
Public Health Sciences
Loyola University Chicago

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Our NIH-funded study is led by Dr. Amy Luke, Public Health Sciences, Loyola University Chicago, and is titled “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition study” or METS. It was initiated in 2010, and 2,500 young African-origin adults were recruited from 5 countries, spanning the Human Development Index (HDI), a WHO index used to rank countries according to 4 tiers of development. The 5 countries include the US, Seychelles, Jamaica, South Africa, and Ghana. Within each country 500 young adults, 25-45 yrs., and 50% male, were recruited and followed prospectively for 3 years. Each year, contactable participants completed a health screening, body composition, wore an activity monitor for 7 days, and told researchers everything they had eaten in the preceding 24hrs. Our main research questions we were trying to answer were to understand the impact of diet and physical activity on the development of obesity, and cardiovascular disease in young adults. It was important to have countries spanning the HDI, with differences in both country-level dietary intake and physical activity levels.

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Newly Identified Molecule Turns Fat Storage Gene Off

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof. Jamal Tazi Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier University of Montpellier Montpellier, Cedex, France

Prof. Jamal Tazi

Prof. Jamal Tazi
Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier
University of Montpellier
Montpellier, Cedex, France

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Intense drug discovery efforts in the metabolic field highlight the need for novel strategies for the treatment of obesity. In this study we have used a novel approach to uncover novel drugs to treat obesity. Our approach is based on the finding that in humans the energy expenditure balance can be controlled by a single gene LMNA gene that can produce two different proteins with opposing effect on energy expenditure. We identified a molecule ABX300 that targets the expression of LMNA gene and favors energy expenditure leading to fat loss.

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Healthy Eating in Adolescence Sets Pattern For Less Weight Gain As Young Adult

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

David R. Jacobs, Jr., PhD Mayo Professor of Public Health Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health University of Minnesota Minneapolis MN 55454-1075

Dr. David R. Jacobs, Jr.

David R. Jacobs, Jr., PhD
Mayo Professor of Public Health
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis MN 55454-1075

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) is on ongoing longitudinal study which began by screening middle and secondary school students in the Minneapolis and St Paul Metropolitan are. Students were the 11-18 years old (average age 15), then followed up at average ages 20 and 25. We had devised an eating pattern in about 2006, which
a) predicts a lot of things in several different studies (including total mortality in the Iowa Women’s Health Study) and b) looks a great deal like the recently released 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA).

We call our diet pattern A Priori Diet Quality Score (APDQS) and think of it as close to or in the style of a Mediterranean/prudent/healthy diet.

We hypothesized that this pattern would be associated with lower weight (in general with better long term health, but the focus in Project EAT was weight and BMI), probably least so at age 15. The minimal hypothesized effect in adolescence relates to the very large energy expenditure in adolescent growth years; we thought that diet composition would be less important for body weight at that time than energy intake (and APDQS is about diet composition).

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Pre-pregnancy BMI And Gestational Weight Gain Linked To Childhood Obesity

Elizabeth M. Widen, PhD, RD Postdoctoral Fellow in the Institute of Human Nutrition & Department of Epidemiology Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health New York, NY 10032MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Elizabeth M. Widen, PhD, RD
Postdoctoral Fellow in the Institute of Human Nutrition & Department of Epidemiology
Columbia University
Mailman School of Public Health
New York, NY 10032

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Widen: The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health Mothers and Newborns Study was started in 1998 and is based in Northern Manhattan and the South Bronx. Pregnant African American and Dominican mothers were enrolled from 1998 to 2006, and mothers and their children have been followed since this time. Pregnancy weight gain and childhood size and body fat was measured, allowing us to examine the role of nutrition in pregnancy on long-term childhood health. We found that high pregnancy weight gain, above the Institute of Medicine 2009 guidelines, was associated with higher body fat and a 300% increased risk of childhood obesity at age seven. Prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) was also positively associated with childhood body fat and obesity. These findings suggest that prepregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain have long-term implications for weight-related health in children.

Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report?

Dr. Widen: We encourage pregnant women and women planning pregnancy to talk to their health care provider about the recommended guidelines for pregnancy weight gain and strategies to gain within the guidelines. We encourage clinicians to talk to their patients about the recommended guidelines and how gaining too much weight in pregnancy can have long-term implications for childhood body weight and health.

Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Dr. Widen:: We found that high pregnancy weight gain was associated with childhood obesity and higher body fat. Given that women with the same amount of total weight gain may have a different pattern of weight gain across pregnancy, future studies should examine the role of the pattern of weight gain in childhood health. Future research is also needed to determine how to support women to gain within the guidelines, which is important for maternal and child health.

Citation:

Gestational weight gain and obesity, adiposity and body size in African–American and Dominican children in the Bronx and Northern Manhattan. Elizabeth M. Widen, Robin M. Whyatt, Lori A. Hoepner, Noel T. Mueller, Judyth Ramirez-Carvey, Sharon E. Oberfield, Abeer Hassoun, Frederica P. Perera, Dympna Gallagher and Andrew G. Rundle. Maternal & Child Nutrition 2015, published ahead of print March 5, 2015, doi: 10.1111/mcn.12174.

 

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elizabeth M. Widen, PhD, RD (2015). Pre-pregnancy BMI And Gestational Weight Gain Linked To Childhood Obesity 

Addictions May Predispose To Excessive Gestational Weight Gain

Michele D. Levine Ph.D. Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic Department of Statistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PAMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Michele D. Levine Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
Department of Statistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Levine: Many women quit smoking as a result of pregnancy.  However, psychiatric disorders, which are prevalent among smokers can contribute to weight gain.  Thus, we sought to examine the relationship between maternal psychiatric disorders and gestational weight gain in a sample of pregnant former smokers. Results from the present study demonstrate that the rates of psychiatric disorders were high among pregnant former smokers and that more than half of women gained more weight than recommended by the IOM.  Although a history of having had any psychiatric disorder was not associated with gestational weight gain, a history of alcohol use disorder specifically was positively related to gestational weight gain.

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Action Packed Shows May Make You Eat More

Aner Tal, PhD Food and Brand Lab Department of Applied Economics and Management Cornell University, Ithaca, New YorkMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Aner Tal, PhD
Food and Brand Lab
Department of Applied Economics and Management
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Tal: Some TV programs might lead people to eat twice as much as other programs.

“We find that if you’re watching an action movie while snacking your mouth will see more action too!” says Aner Tal, Ph.D. lead author on the new article just published in the Journal of the American Medical Association: Internal Medicine. “In other words, the more distracting the program is the more you will eat.” In the study 94 undergraduates snacked on M&Ms, cookies, carrots and grapes while watching 20 minutes of television programming. A third of the participants watched a segment of the action movie The Island, a third watched a segment from the talk show, the Charlie Rose Show, and a third watched the same segment from The Island without sound. “People who were watching The Island ate almost twice as many snacks – 98% more than those watching the talk show!” says co-author Brian Wansink, author of Slim by Design (forthcoming) and Professor and Director of the Cornell Food and Brand Lab. “Even those watching “The Island” without sound ate 36% more.” People watching the more distracting content also consumed more calories, with 354 calories consumed by those watching The Island (314 calories with no sound) compared to 215 calories consumed by those watching the Charlie Rose Show. “More stimulating programs that are fast paced, include many camera cuts, really draw you in and distract you from what you are eating. They can make you eat more because you’re paying less attention to how much you are putting in your mouth,” explains Tal. Because of this, programs that engage viewers more might wind up being worse for their diets.
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Obese Adolescents May Have Heightened Vulnerability To Food Commercials

Dr. Sonja Yokum Ph.D. Oregon Research Institute Eugene Oregon, 97403MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Sonja Yokum Ph.D.
Oregon Research Institute
Eugene Oregon, 97403

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Yokum: We found that adolescents showing elevated responses in reward regions to food commercials gained more weight over 1-year follow-up compared to those with less activation in these brain regions. This suggests that there are individual differences in neural vulnerability to food commercials that appear to identify youth at risk for excess weight gain.
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Sports Drinks Linked To Weight Gain in Adolescents

Alison E. Field, ScD Professor of Pediatrics Boston Children's Hospital Division of Adolescent Medicine Boston, MA  02115MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Alison E. Field, ScD
Professor of Pediatrics
Boston Children’s Hospital
Division of Adolescent Medicine
Boston, MA  02115

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: We found that intake of regular soda is decreasing, whereas, sports drink consumption is increasing. More importantly, we found that intake of sports drinks predicted greater weight gain among adolescent boys and girls.
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Calorie Labeling As a Tool To Reduce Weight Gain

Dr. Charoula Nikolaou University of Glasgow Graduate StudentMedicalResearch. com Interview with
Dr. Charoula Nikolaou
University of Glasgow Graduate Student

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Obese people gain most of their excess weight during young adulthood. This study describes how regular, daily, exposure to prominent calorie labeling of main meals, in a residential catered setting, abolished the expected weight gain usually seen in young adults. The mean weight gain observed in 120 residents the year before (without calorie-labeling) was similar to that found in other studies of young adults at 3.5 kg. In a second year with calorie labeling, there was no weight gain at all. In addition, catering costs were 33% lower during the year with calorie labeling so the intervention could be sustainable as well as easy to implement.
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Intermittent Fasting: Effects on Hunger and Weight Gain

MedicalResearch Interview with:
Alicia J. Kowaltowski, MD, PhD
Professor of Biochemistry Departamento de Bioquímica, IQ,
Universidade de São Paulo
São Paulo, SP, Brazil

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Kowaltowski: Intermittent fasting (24 hour cycles of all-you-can-eat followed by 24 fasting) is often used as a way to control excessive weight gain in laboratory animals, despite the fact that these animals overeat on the days they get food, and end up ingesting total quantities of food very similar to animals that eat every day. We show here that although lower weight gain occurs with intermittent fasting and there are some health benefits in adopting this diet, there are also some undesirable consequences. One such consequence is that this diet changes the control of hunger in the hypothalamus within the brain, making the rats hungry all the time, even when they are eating.
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Recent Statin Users Likely to Eat More and Gain Weight

Takehiro Sugiyama, MD, MSHS, PhD Project Director, Diabetes Policy Planning Office Management and Planning Bureau Fellow, Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism National Center for Global Health and Medicine Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo JapanMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Takehiro Sugiyama, MD, MSHS, PhD
Project Director, Diabetes Policy Planning Office
Management and Planning Bureau
Fellow, Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism
National Center for Global Health and Medicine
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo Japan

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Sugiyama: In the US nationally representative sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010, we found that statin users in 2009-2010 eat 9.6% more calories and 14.4% more fat than statin users in 1999-2000. These increases were not observed in statin non-users; the trends of caloric and fat intake were statistically different between statin users and non-users. In 1999-2000, caloric and fat intake was significantly less for statin users compared with non-users, but the difference between the groups because smaller as time went by and there was no statistical difference in 2009-2010. Body mass index increased more rapidly for statin users compared to non-users.

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Obesity Regulating Protein May Prevent Weight Gain from High Fat Diet

Shanthi Srinivasan, M.D. Associate Professor of Medicine Division of Digestive Diseases Department of Medicine Emory University Atlanta, GA 30322MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Shanthi Srinivasan, M.D.
Associate Professor of Medicine
Division of Digestive Diseases Department of Medicine
Emory University
Atlanta, GA 30322

 

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Srinivasan: The main findings of this study are that the neurotrophic factor GDNF is was able to protect against the weight gain induced by mice on a high fat diet. The mice that had overexpression of GDNF showed less weight gain while eating the same high fat diet as the control mice. GDNF seems to have effects on the genes regulating fat metabolism and energy expenditure and this could be the mechanism of prevention of weight gain.
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Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children : Role of Sugar Sweetened Drinks

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark D. DeBoer, MD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics
Division of Pediatric Endocrinology
University of Virginia Health System
P.O. Box 800386
Charlottesville, VA 22908

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. DeBoer: Preschool and kindergarten children drinking SSB (compared to infrequent/non-drinkers)  were more likely to be obese and among 2 year-olds had more unhealthy weight gain over the next 2 years.  SSB consumption is thus linked to higher weight status in children age 2-5 years.

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Diet Sodas: Adverse Effects of Altered Metabolism, Weight Gain

Professor, Behavioral Neuroscience Department of Psychological Sciences and Ingestive Behavior Research Center Purdue University, 703 Third Street West Lafayette, IN 47907, USAMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Susan E. Swithers PhD
Professor, Behavioral Neuroscience
Department of Psychological Sciences and Ingestive Behavior Research Center
Purdue University, 703 Third Street
West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Swithers: The paper examined the last 5 years of studies that looked at risks associated with consuming artificially sweetened beverages like diet soda. These studies indicated that those who consume diet soda were at significantly greater risk for a variety of negative health outcomes like type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke, along with being more likely to gain excess weight. These effects might be due to a disruption of basic learned response.  The idea is that normally things when things that taste sweet are consumed, the body receives calories and sugar. Our bodies can learn to prepare to deal with these calories and this sugar by starting up our digestive processes as soon as the sweet taste hits our mouth, for example by releasing hormones that not only help us regulate blood sugar, but also can contribute to feelings of fullness. When we consume diet sodas, the mouth gets the sweet taste, but the body doesn’t get the calories or the sugar. The body may then learn that a sweet taste in the mouth doesn’t always predict sugar and calories, so it makes adjustments in how many hormones it releases. So when we actually consume real sugar, the body doesn’t produce the same kinds of physiological responses, which can lead to overeating, higher blood sugar, and over the long term could contribute to diseases like diabetes and stroke.

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Estrogen Effects on Metabolism & Weight Gain in Women Studied

It’s no secret that women often gain weight as they get older. The sex hormone estrogen has an important, if underappreciated, role to play in those burgeoning waistlines.

Now, researchers reporting in the October Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication, have traced those hormonal effects on metabolism to different parts of the brain. The findings may lead to the development of highly selective hormone replacement therapies that could be used to combat obesity or infertility in women without the risks for heart disease and breast cancer, the researchers say.

“When women approach menopause, they gain weight in fat and their energy expenditure goes down,” says Deborah Clegg of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Estrogen levels decline and women grow increasingly susceptible to obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Estrogen acts on receptors found throughout the body, in fat, on ovaries and in muscle. But when it comes to the hormone’s influence on metabolism, Clegg suspected receptors in the brain.

Others had traced the effects of estrogen on energy balance specifically to estrogen receptor-α (ERα). When her team deleted those receptors from the entire brains of mice, “we got very, very fat mice,” Clegg said. The animals consumed more calories and burned less.

The researchers showed female mice lacking ERα in one part of the brain (the hypothalamic steroidogenic factor-1 or SF1 neurons) gained weight without eating any more. Loss of ERα from another brain area (the hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin or POMC neurons) had the opposite effect: animals ate more without gaining weight. Loss of ERα receptors in those same neurons also led to various problems in ovulation and fertility.

The findings suggest that drugs developed to specifically target estrogen receptors in the brain might offer a useful alternative to hormone replacement therapies that hit receptors throughout the body. The researchers say they would like to continue to isolate other estrogen-related effects and symptoms, for instance, on hot flashes and cognition.

“The more we know about estrogen’s sites of action, the more likely it is we could develop designer hormone replacement therapies targeting tissue X, Y or Z,” Clegg said.