Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Heart Disease, Kidney Disease / 11.03.2015

Dr. Borja Quiroga MD Ph.D. Nephrology Unit, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón Madrid, SpainMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Borja Quiroga MD Ph.D. Nephrology Unit, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón Madrid, Spain Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Quiroga: Chronic kidney disease patients are at high-risk for the development of cardiovascular events. Although several strategies have been tried for identifying those patients with poorer prognosis, no one has demonstrated by itself being the best one. This could be explained by the fact that several factors are implied in the cardiovascular profile of  chronic kidney disease patients. With this background, in our study we hypothesized if differences in the interarm systolic blood pressure could detect patients with enhanced cardiovascular risk early, and, consequently therapies could be initiated. Our results provide interesting data on this regard, as we have concluded that an interarm systolic blood pressure difference higher that 10 mmHg is an independent prognosis factor for cardiovascular events.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Cognitive Issues, Geriatrics, JAMA / 03.03.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Enrico Mossello Research Unit of Medicine of Ageing Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine University of Florence MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Mossello: In spite of the high prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and cognitive impairment in old age, their relationship is still controversial. While several (but not all) studies have identified high blood pressure as a risk factor for incident cognitive impairment, evidence regarding the prognostic role of blood pressure in cognitively impaired older subjects is scarce and inconsistent. To our knowledge, no longitudinal study has been published up to now regarding Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) in subjects with cognitive impairment. Moreover recent European and American guidelines on HBP leave decisions on antihypertensive therapy of frail elderly patients to the treating physician and do not provide treatment targets for cognitively impaired patients. In the present cohort study of subjects with dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) low values of day-time systolic blood pressure measured with ABPM were associated with greater progression of cognitive decline after a median 9-month follow-up. This association was limited to subjects treated with anti-hypertensive drugs and was independent of age, vascular comorbidity and baseline cognitive level, holding significant both in dementia and in Mild Cognitive Impairment subgroups. A similar trend of association was observed for office systolic blood pressure, although this was weaker and did not reach statistical significance in all analyses.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, BMJ, Brigham & Women's - Harvard / 17.02.2015

dr-alexander-turchinMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Alexander Turchin M.D.,M.S. Director of Informatics Research Division of Endocrinology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital Boston, MA Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Turchin: Hypertension is the most common risk factor for cardiovascular events. High blood pressure increases the risk for stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure and kidney failure. Treatment of high blood pressure reduces these risks. However, our understanding of optimal treatment of hypertension is incomplete. In particular, there is little information to guide clinicians on how quickly they should achieve blood pressure control in their patients. There have been no clinical trials focusing on this question. Current guidelines are sparse and are based only on expert opinion. Our study analyzed treatment of nearly 90,000 patients in primary care practices in the U.K. between 1986 and 2010. We found that patients whose blood pressure medications were adjusted within 1.4 months after systolic blood pressure reached over 150 mm Hg and whose blood pressure was re-assessed within 2.7 months after their treatment was adjusted had the lowest risk for acute cardiovascular events and death from any cause.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Diabetes, JAMA / 10.02.2015

Prof. KAZEM RAHIMI | DM MSc FESC Associate Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford Deputy Director, The George Institute for Global Health James Martin Fellow in Healthcare Innovation, Oxford Martin School Honorary Consultant Cardiologist, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust The George Institute for Global Health Oxford Martin School | University of Oxford Oxford United KingdomMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Kazem Rahimi  DM MSc FESC Associate Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford ;Deputy Director, The George Institute for Global Health; James Martin Fellow in Healthcare Innovation, Oxford Martin School; Honorary Consultant Cardiologist, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust The George Institute for Global Health Oxford Martin School United Kingdom Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Rahimi: Lowering blood pressure (BP) in individuals with diabetes is an area of current controversy. Although it is widely accepted that lowering blood pressure in people with diabetes and elevated blood pressure will reduce the risk of heart and circulatory problems, it is less certain whether diabetics whose blood pressure is not very high should be treated with blood pressure lowering drugs, and how far their blood pressure should be reduced. It is also less well known how blood pressure lowering affects a range of other potential health complications for diabetes patients, such as diabetic eye disease. We found that each 10-mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure led to a lower risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease events, coronary heart disease events, stroke, albuminuria (the presence of excessive protein in the urine), and retinopathy (loss of vision related to diabetes). Although proportional effects of blood pressure lowering treatment for most outcomes studied were diminished below a systolic BP level of 140 mm Hg, data indicated that further reduction below 140 mm Hg led to a lower risk of stroke, retinopathy, and albuminuria, potentially leading to net benefits for many individuals at high risk for those outcomes.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Cost of Health Care, NEJM / 29.01.2015

Andrew Moran, MD, MPH Herbert Irving Assistant Professor of Medicine Columbia University Division of General Medicine Presbyterian Hospital 9th floor East room 105 New York, NY 10032MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andrew Moran, MD, MPH Herbert Irving Assistant Professor of Medicine Columbia University Division of General Medicine Presbyterian Hospital  New York, NY 10032 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In 2014, a panel appointed by the Eighth Joint National Committee on the Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 8) recommended new guidelines for high blood pressure (hypertension ) treatment in U.S. adults.  The guidelines made sweeping changes to the prior guidelines and stirred up controversy among hypertension and public health experts.  Essentially, the panel recommended more conservative treatment targets that narrowed the population eligible for treatment with blood pressure-lowering medications.  Nonetheless, about 28 million U.S. adults have uncontrolled hypertension even under the new more conservative guidelines.  We asked the question:  are the new guidelines cost-effective? That is, does treating this common condition with the available medicines add more health and reduce medical costs?  It is surprising that this question has rarely been answered before.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, BMJ, Heart Disease / 25.01.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Maria Guzman-Castillo Department of Public Health and Policy University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Guzman-Castillo: The UK has experienced a remarkable 60% reduction in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality since the 1970s. However CHD remains the leading cause of premature death. The aim of our study was to analyse the recent falls in coronary heart disease mortality and quantify the relative contributions from preventive medications and from population-wide changes in blood pressure and cholesterol levels, particularly exploring the potential effects on socioeconomic inequalities, an aspect not well explored in the past. Our study found that, approximately 22,500 fewer deaths were attributable to reductions in blood pressure and cholesterol in the English population between 2000-2007. The substantial decline in blood pressure was responsible for approximately 13,000 fewer deaths. Approximately 1,800 fewer deaths came from medications and some 11,200 fewer deaths from population-wide changes. Reduction in population blood pressure fewer deaths in the most deprived quintile compared with the most affluent. Reduction in cholesterol resulted in substantially smaller gains, approximately 7,400 fewer deaths; approximately 5,300 fewer deaths were attributable to statin use and approximately 2,100 DPPs to population-wide changes. Interestingly, statins prevented more deaths in the most affluent quintile compared with the most deprived. Conversely, population-wide changes in cholesterol prevented threefold more deaths in the most deprived quintile compared with the most affluent.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, McGill, Salt-Sodium / 22.01.2015

Charles Bourque PhD James McGill Professor Centre for Research in Neuroscience Montreal General Hospital Montreal QC, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Charles Bourque PhD James McGill Professor Centre for Research in Neuroscience Montreal General Hospital Montreal QC, Canada Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Bourque: Previous work has established that there is a link between a high level of dietary salt intake and the development of hypertension. In particular, so-called “salt-sensitive” individuals display increases in blood pressure that correlate with significantly increased levels of serum sodium concentration. Increased sodium levels are known to cause an excitation of vasopressin (VP)-releasing neurons of the hypothalamus. We therefore tested the hypothesis that this increase can contribute to the increase in blood pressure associated with high sodium intake in rats.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, CDC / 21.01.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Xuefeng (Chris) Liu, PhD Associate Professor, School of Nursing Ann Arbor, MI 48109 MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Liu: Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥ 140 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of < 90 mm Hg, is an important hypertension subtype. Isolated systolic hypertension is often characterized as a phenomenon of aging and becomes the major form of hypertension for people aged 50 or more. Elevated SBP has been thought to be more important than elevated DBP as a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes. When combined with other risk factors such as poor diet and lack of exercise, untreated Isolated systolic hypertension can lead to serious health problems (e.g. stroke, heart disease, and chronic kidney disease). The existing studies of pattern changes in rates of Isolated systolic hypertension in the US adult population focus on uncontrolled hypertension subtypes among individuals with uncontrolled blood pressure, and the prevalence and changes of untreated ISH in the general population was not the main focus. In addition, the studies were based on the data collected two decades ago. More recent prevalence estimates and long-term changes of ISH among US untreated adults are needed to fill the gap in the hypertension literature. In our study, we used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010, conducted by CDC National Center for Health Statistics. We found that the prevalence of untreated ISH significantly decreased from 1999-2004 to 2005-2010. Old persons, females, and non-Hispanic blacks had higher prevalence of untreated Isolated systolic hypertension. Compared with 1999-2004, the prevalence of untreated Isolated systolic hypertension in 2005-2010 declined among older and female individuals. Further stratification analyses showed that treated ISH improved over time for older non-Hispanic whites and blacks, non-Hispanic white females, older individuals with a college education or above and females with a high school education or below.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Ophthalmology / 12.01.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zheng He and Bang V. Bui Department of Optometry & Vision Sciences University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness in the world, is a condition that occurs when too much pressure builds up inside the eye. This excess pressure injures the optic nerve (the wire that transmits visual information to the brain) resulting in vision loss. Many risk factors for glaucoma are not well understood. High blood pressure (> 140/90 mmHg) is probably the most common comorbidity in patients presenting to optometry clinics. The overall prevalence of hypertension worldwide is over 26%, and increases dramatically with advancing age. Long-term hypertension leads to remodeling of the heart and blood vessels, promoting the risk of multiple end organ damage. Whilst chronic hypertension is a well-documented risk factor for stroke, the link between hypertension and glaucoma remains unclear. Previously, it was thought that high blood pressure could counteract high intraocular pressure, which is a clear risk factor for glaucoma. However, this issue may be more complicated than first thought. The Baltimore Eye Survey compared the prevalence of glaucoma in young and older patients with hypertension. They found that young patients with high blood pressure were at lower risk of glaucoma compared to the entire cohort. This outcome is consistent with the idea that higher blood pressure provides better perfusion pressure to the eye. Paradoxically systemic hypertension in older subjects actually increased the risk of glaucoma. Its seems that longer durations of systemic hypertension impact glaucoma risk negatively. One explanation for this is that any benefit from high blood pressure counteracting high eye pressure is lost as damage to blood vessels — a consequence of hypertension — becomes more dominant. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the effect of acute (one hour) and chronic (four weeks) hypertension in lab rats with elevated eye pressure. When blood pressure was raised for four weeks, there was less functional protection against eye pressure elevation compared with the one-hour case. This shows that having high blood pressure for a longer time compromises the eye's capacity to cope with high eye pressure. This impairment was associated with thicker and narrower blood vessels and a reduced capacity for the eye to maintain blood flow at normal levels in response to eye pressure elevation (this process is known as autoregulation). Thus in chronic hypertension, smaller reduction in ocular perfusion pressure can result in blood flow deficiency.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Nutrition, Salt-Sodium / 08.01.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zvonko Rumboldt, MD, PhD Professor emeritus Split University School of Medicine; Split, CroatiaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zvonko Rumboldt, MD, PhD Professor emeritus Split University School of Medicine; Split, Croatia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Rumboldt: Arterial hypertension is the major common denominator of a number of cardiovascular diseases and untoward outcomes including stroke, myocardial infarction, terminal renal insufficiency, heart failure and death. Excessive salt intake is the leading causative factor of blood pressure elevation across the world. It has been shown beyond any reasonable doubt that reduction in salt consumption decreases the prevalence of arterial hypertension and eases its management. Therefore many endeavors and campaigns aimed at moderation in salt ingestion have been launched with fair but less than expected results. The main source of ingested salt in developed countries is processed food, while in transitional and developing countries it is addition during food preparation (cooking), serving and salting at the table. This study, executed in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Split, Croatia, was designed to evaluate the effects of emphasized warning, consisting in self-adhesive stickers with clear, short message, put on household salt containers. Analyzed were 150 treated hypertensives, randomized in two groups, both receiving oral information and written leaflet concerning salt-hypertension relationship; the intervention group received in addition warning labels to be put on salt containers. In both groups measured were 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (natriuria), blood pressure, and several other parameters at inception of the trial, and one and two months later. In the intervention group observed was a marked decrease in sodium excretion (e.g. from 211 mmol/l at the beginning to 176 mmol/l at two months), much less (from some 207 to 200 mmol/l) in the control group. At the same time, the  mean blood pressure (already fairly well controlled) was reduced by additional 4 mm Hg in the intervention group (from 104 to 100 mm Hg), which was not the case in the control group (from 104 to 103 mm Hg).
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Case Western, Dermatology, JAMA, Weight Research / 26.12.2014

Dr. Jonathan L. Silverberg MD PhD MPH Assistant Professor in Dermatology, Medical Social Sciences and Preventive Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago, IllinoisMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jonathan L. Silverberg MD PhD MPH Assistant Professor in Dermatology, Medical Social Sciences and Preventive Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Silverberg: Previous studies found associations between obesity and atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little was known about the association between AD and metabolic risk factors, such as central obesity and high blood pressure.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Stroke / 24.12.2014

Dr. Johan Sundström MD PhD Department of Medical Sciences & Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University Uppsala, Sweden.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Johan Sundström MD PhD Department of Medical Sciences & Uppsala Clinical Research Center Uppsala University Uppsala, Sweden.   Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Sundström: High blood pressure is the most important risk factor for premature death globally. The number of people with hypertension is increasing, with one billion people currently affected worldwide. Most of these have mild hypertension (a systolic blood pressure of 140 to 159 mm Hg and/or a diastolic blood pressure of 90 to 99 mm Hg) and no previous cardiovascular disease. The optimal management of this large group is uncertain, as no single trial of blood pressure lowering has provided clear evidence of treatment benefits for such persons. In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials including more than 15000 people with mild hypertension and without previous known cardiovascular disease, blood pressure-lowering drug therapy decreased strokes by 28%, cardiovascular deaths by 25%, and total deaths by 22%. Achieved blood pressure reduction and numbers of events were small.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Weight Research / 18.12.2014

Mohammed Elfaramawi , MD PhD MPH MSc Assistant Professor Epidemiology Department College of Public Health University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little rock, AR 72205 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mohammed Elfaramawi , MD PhD MPH MSc Assistant Professor Epidemiology Department College of Public Health University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little rock, AR 72205 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Elfaramawi: A substantial increase in prevalence of obesity has been documented globally. In the USA, overweight and obesity are the second leading cause of preventable death in the USA, affecting ∼97 million adults. Evidence has accumulated showing that visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This study is one of few studies which explored the relationship between obesity and visit-to-visit blood pressure variability.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Toxin Research / 10.12.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yun-Chul Hong MD, PhD Chair, Department of Preventive Medicine Director, Institute of Environmental Medicine College of Medicine Seoul National University MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Yun-Chul Hong: Because there are some reports showing Bisphenol-A exposure increase when we eat or drink canned food or beverage and at the same time it has been known that Bisphenol-A exposure is associated with blood pressure increase, we conducted this study to examine whether consuming canned beverage and consequent increase of Bisphenol-A exposure actually increase blood pressure. We found that drinking 2 canned beverages increase in 5 mmHg of systolic blood pressure.
Blood Pressure - Hypertension / 16.11.2014

Swapnil Hiremath, MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Swapnil Hiremath, MD, MPH Assistant Professor Nephrologist, The Ottawa Hospital Faculty of Medicine at University of Ottawa Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hiremath: Our study was a retrospective analysis of the data from the Nephrology Nurse BP assessment clinic at the Ottawa Hospital. Patients from the nephrology clinic were referred to this clinic not just for validation of their home BP machines, but also for lifestyle education and teaching the correct technique. We validated the monitors brought in by patients using a set protocol (including: confirming equal blood pressure in both arms, measuring BP simultaneously in both arms by an RN using proper technique, taking three resting readings and averaging them). Firstly, there was a statistically significant difference when we compared the average blood pressure measurement (both systolic and diastolic) values from the home monitor compared to the mercury monitor. Secondly, when we calculated the proportions of home BP machines that were accurate (using different thresholds of 3 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm Hg difference between home and mercury monitors) a significant proportion of home monitors were inaccurate. These findings have important implications – if clinicians are using data from home monitors to make therapeutic decisions, then some patients may be undertreated – or over treated needlessly.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension / 07.11.2014

Heather M. Johnson, MD, MS Assistant Professor of Medicine Co-Director, UW Advanced Hypertension Program Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine Division University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Madison, WI 53792MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Heather M. Johnson, MD, MS Assistant Professor of Medicine Co-Director, UW Advanced Hypertension Program Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine Division University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Madison, WI 53792 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Johnson: Our study addresses the public health burden that young adults have significantly lower hypertension control rates compared to middle-aged and older adults. The development of incident (new) hypertension is an important “teachable moment” to educate young adults about necessary lifestyle changes to lower blood pressure.
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Duke, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 29.10.2014

Kevin L Thomas, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology Duke Clinical Research InstituteMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kevin L Thomas, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology Duke Clinical Research Institute   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Thomas: The number of participants with controlled blood pressure (readings of less than 140/90) increased by 12 percent in the six months between the first and last readings. Mean systolic blood pressure for the population decrease by 4.7mmHg. The number of participants who had high blood pressure in the range of 140-149/90-99 decreased systolic blood pressure by a mean of  8.8mmHg and those with readings in the higher range of 150/100 or above decreased systolic blood pressure by 23.7percent. The study concluded that a program that followed this type of approach was associated with improved blood pressures across a diverse  high-risk community.”
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension / 20.10.2014

Dr. Brent M. Egan MD Adjunct Professor Medical University of South CarolinaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Brent M. Egan MD Professor of Medicine University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville Senior medical director of the Care Coordination Institute Greenville, South Carolina Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Egan: The study was undertaken to determine progress toward the Healthy People 2020 goals of controlling hypertension or high blood pressure in 61.2% of all adults with the condition. What we found is that hypertension control has changed very little from 2007 through 2012. In 2011-2012, an estimated 51.2% of all hypertensive adults were controlled, which is 10% below the 2020 goal.  The analysis indicated that healthcare insurance and at least two healthcare visits yearly were related to both the likelihood that hypertension would be treated and controlled.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, BMC / 29.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Dr. med. Alain Nordmann Innere Medizin FMH Basel, Switzerland Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Nordmann: Based on available randomised controlled trials, garlic preparations seem to lower blood pressure in individuals with hypertension in the short term. However, the quality of the studies and the lack of long-term data preclude the routine use of garlic preparations to lower blood pressure in individuals qualifying for antihypertensive drug therapy.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, General Medicine, JAMA, Kidney Disease / 22.09.2014

Dr. Csaba P. Kovesdy, MD Professor of Medicine University of Tennessee Health Science Center Chief of Nephrology Memphis Veterans Affairs Medical CentMedicalResearch.com: Interview Invitation Dr. Csaba P. Kovesdy, MD Professor of Medicine University of Tennessee Health Science Center Chief of Nephrology Memphis Veterans Affairs Medical Center Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kovesdy: We applied the structure of a clinical trial of hypertension management to our cohort of >600,000 patients with prevalent Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). We first identified patients with baseline uncontrolled hypertension (using the definition applied by the SPRINT trial), then isolated the ones who had a decline in their baseline systolic blood pressure to two different levels (<120 and 120-139 mmHg) in response to a concomitant increase in prescribed antihypertensives, similar to what would happen in a trial examining two different systolic blood pressure targets. We then matched patients in the two groups to end up with identical baseline characteristics, similar to a randomized trial. When we examined the all-cause mortality of these two groups, we found that the group with follow-up systolic blood pressure of <120 had a 70% higher mortality.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Protein / 20.09.2014

Lynn L. Moore, DSc, MPH Co-Director, Nutrition and Metabolism Assoc Prof of Medicine Preventive Medicine & Epidemiology Department of Medicine Boston University School of Medicine Boston, MA 02118MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lynn L. Moore, DSc, MPH Co-Director, Nutrition and Metabolism Assoc Prof of Medicine Preventive Medicine & Epidemiology Department of Medicine Boston University School of Medicine Boston, MA 02118 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: Our data were derived from 1,361 adults (aged 30-54 years) enrolled in the Framingham Offspring Study and showed that men and women who consumed higher amounts of protein had lower blood pressures (both systolic and diastolic blood pressures) after four years of follow-up. We then followed them for an average of about 11 years and found that those who consumed the most protein (approximately 103 g/day) had about a 40% lower risk of developing high blood pressure than those consuming about half that amount. These beneficial effects were even more pronounced when higher protein intakes were combined with high fiber intakes.
Aging, Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension / 20.09.2014

Xuemei Sui, MD, MPH, PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Exercise Science Division of Health Aspects of Physical Activity Arnold School of Public Health University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208Xuemei Sui, MD, MPH, PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Exercise Science Division of Health Aspects of Physical Activity Arnold School of Public Health University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sui: First, blood pressure is inversely associated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels among men. People in higher fitness categories had lower blood pressure than those in lower fitness categories. Second, fitness is a strong effect modifier for the systolic blood pressure aging trajectory. A higher fitness level can significantly delay the natural age-associated increase in blood pressure.
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension / 14.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sourabh Aggarwal, MD University College of Medical Sciences Western Michigan University School of Medicine in Kalamazoo. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Aggarwal: The main findings were that from 2006 to 2011:
  • ER visits for essential hypertension increased by 25 percent, while the admission percentage for these patients fell by 15 percent.
  • ER visits for hypertension with complication and secondary hypertension increased by 19 percent, while the admission percentage for these patients fell by 12 percent
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Heart Disease, JAMA / 27.08.2014

Prof Richard McManus MA PhD FRCGP NIHR School for Primary Care Research, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire United KingdomMedicalResearch.com Interview with Prof Richard McManus MA PhD FRCGP NIHR School for Primary Care Research, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire United Kingdom Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. McManus: The TASMIN-SR clinical trial followed 552 patients with an average age of 70 and high blood pressure with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, diabetes or chronic kidney disease. After training in how to self-monitor blood pressuring using a readily available device, patients took readings twice each morning for the first week of each month, and following an individualised management plan were able to request additional medication from their general practitioner without the need for consultation. At the end of the study, patients who self-managed had significantly lower blood pressure (by 9.2 / 3.4 mmHg) than those who were visiting their GP for blood pressure monitoring, which would be expected to lower stroke risk by around 30% if sustained.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Diabetes, Disability Research / 20.08.2014

Karen Margolis, M.D., M.P.H. Senior Investigator (Director of Clinical Research) HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research Minneapolis, MN, 55440-1524MedicalResearch.com Interview with Karen Margolis, M.D., M.P.H. Senior Investigator (Director of Clinical Research) HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research Minneapolis, MN, 55440-1524 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Margolis: The study compared falls and fractures in patients aged 40-79 with diabetes who were treated for high blood pressure.  One group received treatment that aimed at getting systolic blood pressure under 120, while the other group received treatment to achieve systolic blood pressure under 140. The results show that patients who received intensive blood pressure treatment did not fall more than less intensively treated patients, nor did they incur more fractures over an average follow-up of about five years.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension / 18.08.2014

Dr. Rodrigo Modolo Department of Pharmacology Faculty of Medical Sciences University of Campinas–UNICAMP Campinas, SP, Brazil;MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Rodrigo Modolo Department of Pharmacology Faculty of Medical Sciences University of Campinas–UNICAMP Campinas, SP, Brazil; Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Modolo: The main findings of this study are the encounter of a high prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia (assessed by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy) in resistant hypertension and the identification of predictors of this alteration in this population.
Blood Pressure - Hypertension, JACC, JAMA, Kidney Disease / 05.08.2014

Dr. John J. Sim Division of Nephrology and Hypertension Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles,MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. John J. Sim Division of Nephrology and Hypertension Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sim: Among a large diverse population of treated hypertensive people, those who achieved systolic blood pressures (SBP) in the ranges of 130-139mm Hg had the lowest risk for death and end stage renal disease (kidney failure).  Not surprisingly, those with SBP above 139 had incrementally greater risk, but somewhat surprising was that those with SBP under 130 also had a greater risk for death and kidney failure.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Cost of Health Care / 15.07.2014

Alejandro Arrieta, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Health Policy and Management Florida International UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alejandro Arrieta, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Health Policy and Management Florida International University Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Arrieta: We found that it makes business sense for insurance companies to reimburse patients for the cost of blood pressure monitors that they can use at home. In just the first year, we estimate that insurance companies can produce returns that range from $0.85 to $3.75 per dollar invested in blood pressure monitors provided to their members.