Author Interviews, General Medicine, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 29.12.2013

Aisha T. Langford, PhD, MPH Postdoctoral Fellow VA Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D & U-M Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine (CBSSM) 2800 Plymouth Road, NCRC Building 16, Room 400S-15 Ann Arbor, MI 48109MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aisha T. Langford, PhD, MPH Postdoctoral Fellow VA Health Services Research and Development Service & U-M Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine Ann Arbor, MI 48109 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Langford: The main and perhaps most interesting finding was that there were no racial/ethnic differences in cancer clinical trial enrollment, refusal rates, or "no desire to participate in research" as the reason given for clinical trial refusal; however, patients over the age of 65 had lower odds of being enrolled in a clinical trial. Additionally, higher odds of having physical/medical conditions were associated with older age, males, and non-Hispanic blacks. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, PLoS / 23.12.2013

Dr. Beate Wieseler
 Head of Department Dept. Drug Assessment Institute for Quality and Efficiency 
in Health Care (IQWiG)
Im Mediapark Köln GermanyMedical Research.com Interview with: Dr. Beate Wieseler
 Head of Department Dept. Drug Assessment Institute for Quality and Efficiency 
in Health Care (IQWiG)
Im Mediapark Köln Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wieseler: Our study shows that unpublished clinical study reports, i.e. reports submitted to regulatory authorities during the approval procedure for a drug, provide substantially more information on patient-relevant outcomes than publicly available sources, i.e. articles published in medical journals and reports published in online clinical trial registries. (A “patient-relevant outcome” is an outcome describing morbidity, mortality or health-related quality of life.) (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Hospital Readmissions, Sleep Disorders / 06.12.2013

Dr. Takatoshi Kasai, MD, PhD Department of Cardiology and Cardio-Respiratory Sleep Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Takatoshi Kasai, MD, PhD Department of Cardiology and Cardio-Respiratory Sleep Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kasai: Sleep disordered breathing, determined using predischarge nocturnal pulse oximetry, is prevalent and is an independent predictor of the combined end point of readmission and mortality in hospitalized patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction after acute decompensated heart failure. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Nursing / 03.12.2013

Dr. Lianne Jeffs 
PhD Nurse and researcher at St. Michael's Hospital University of TorontoMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Lianne Jeffs 
PhD Nurse and researcher at St. Michael's Hospital University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jeffs: The main findings of the study include: 1. Patients described the bedside nursing handover as engaging, personal and informative.  The bedside nursing handover created a a space to connect with their nurses in a more personal manner (e.g., provided an introduction between patient and nurse at the beginning of the shift) 2. Patients found the experience increased their engagement in their own care, and kept them informed about their health status and care plan. It also gave the patient an opportunity to identify important needs to the nurse (e.g., daily activities) 3. Not all patients wanted to participate in the bedside nursing handover. This was typically exemplified by long-term-stay patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, General Medicine, JAMA, OBGYNE / 26.11.2013

dr_Deanna-KepkaMedicalResearch.com Interview with Deanna Kepka, PhD, MPH   Assistant Professor College of Nursing & Huntsman Cancer Institute University of Utah MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kepka: Nearly two-thirds, 64.8% (95% CI: 62.2% - 67.3%) of women reporting a hysterectomy also reported a recent Pap test since their hysterectomy and more than half,  58.4% (95% CI: 55.3% - 61.4%)  of women age 65 years and older without a hysterectomy reported a Pap test in the past three years.  Together, this represents approximately 14 million in the United States. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, General Medicine, PLoS / 25.11.2013

Alize J. Ferrari University of Queensland School of Population Health Herston, Queensland, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alize J. Ferrari University of Queensland School of Population Health Herston, Queensland, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In our paper recently published in PloS Medicine, we report findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 for depression. We found that depression (defined as major depressive disorder and dysthymia) accounted fr 8% of the non fatal burden in 2010, making it the second leading cause of disability worldwide. Burden due to depression increased by 35% between 1990 and 2010, although this increase was entirely driven by population growth and ageing. Burden occurred across the entire lifespan, was higher in females compared to males, and there were differences between world regions.When depression was considered a risk factor for other health outcomes it explained 46% of the burden allocated to suicide and 3% of the burden allocated ischemic heart disease. (more…)
General Medicine, PLoS / 12.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jonas D. Finger and  Dr. Gert B.M. Mensink Jonas Finger, MPhil (Epidemiology) MA (Sports Sc) MA (Political Sc) Robert Koch-Institute - Department of Epidemiology and Health MonitoringDivision 24 - Interview surveys and European collaboration General-Pape-Straße 62-66, 12101 Berlin Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: People with a low level of education consume energy dense foods (sugar- and fat-rich foods) more frequently and low energy foods (fruit and vegetables) and alcohol less frequently compared to people with a high level of education. A new study aspect is that the role of physical activity level for the link between education and high energy food intake was also investigated. People with a low level of education have more frequently physically-demanding jobs leading to a higher level of total energy expenditure compared to sedentary office workers (mainly high educated). The latter are more active in their leisure time. The study provides some evidence to support the hypothesis that the low educated consumed more energy dense foods than the high educated because they expend more energy due to the physical work they do. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, General Medicine, Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition / 06.11.2013

Cécilia Samieri, PhD Institut pour la Santé Publique et le Développement, Case 11, Université Bordeaux Segalen, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with Cécilia Samieri, PhD Institut pour la Santé Publique et le Développement, Case 11, Université Bordeaux Segalen, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Samieri: That women with healthier dietary patterns at midlife were 40% more likely to survive age 70 or over free of major chronic diseases and with no impairment in physical function, cognition or mental health. (more…)
Aging, General Medicine, McGill / 05.11.2013

Dr. Laurent Azoulay Project Leader, Lady Davis Institute Assistant Professor, Department of Oncology, McGill UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Laurent Azoulay Project Leader, Lady Davis Institute Assistant Professor, Department of Oncology, McGill University MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Azoulay: Using large population-based databases from the UK, we assembled a cohort of men newly-diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer. Within this group of men, the use of statins after prostate cancer diagnosis was associated with a 24% decreased risk in cancer-related mortality. We observed duration- as well as a dose-response relationships. Furthermore, in a secondary analysis, we observed that the benefits were greater among men who used also used statins before their diagnosis, with more modest yet significant benefits among men who initiated the treatment after their diagnosis. The latter result is one of the novelties of this study, as it provides an estimate of the potential benefits of statins, if used in the adjuvant setting. (more…)
General Medicine / 10.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cristiano Fava MD, PhD University of Verona Department of Medicine Division of Internal Medicine C Hospital “Policlinico G.B. Rossi” 37134 Verona Italy University of Lund Department of Clinical Sciences Division of Endocrinology CRC, Lund University S-205 02 Malmö Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Fava: The main finding of the meta-analysis is that cPAP usage for at least 2 weeks, with respect to either placebo or usual care is associated with a significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However the effect size of blood pressure reduction is modest. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Lung Cancer / 19.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jie He, PhD, MD Director, Laboratory of Thoracic Surgery President, Cancer Institute & Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100021 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jie He:  The main findings of the study is that we have identified IDH1 as an effective plasma biomarker for the diagnosis of NSCLCs, particularly with high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. (more…)
CMAJ, Cognitive Issues, General Medicine, Hospital Readmissions, Outcomes & Safety / 19.09.2013

Mark W. Ketterer, PhD, ABPP Senior Bioscientific Staff Henry Ford Hospital/A2 Detroit, MI 48202 Clinical Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences Department of Psychiatry Wayne State UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark W. Ketterer, PhD, ABPP Senior Bioscientific Staff Henry Ford Hospital/A2 Detroit, MI 48202 Clinical Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences Department of Psychiatry Wayne State University MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study: Dr. Ketterer:  A survey of 84 patients admitted to Henry Ford Hospital found 54% to have Moderate-Severe Cognitive Impairment (CI). (more…)
BMJ, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, General Medicine, Medical Research Centers / 30.08.2013

Qi Sun, MD ScD Assistant Professor of Medicine Channing Division of Network Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School Assistant Professor Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115MEDICALRESEARCH.COM: INTERVIEW WITH: Qi Sun, MD ScD Assistant Professor of Medicine Channing Division of Network Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Assistant Professor Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 MEDICALRESEARCH.COM: What are the main findings of the study? Response: We have three major findings.
  • First, we found that total fruit consumption was consistently associated with lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes in these large scale studies among U.S. men and women.
  • Second, we found that different individual fruits were differentially associated with diabetes risk. For example, higher intakes of blueberries, grapes or raisins, apples or pears are particularly associated with a lower diabetes risk.
  • Last, we found that fruit juice was associated with a higher diabetes risk, and replacing fruit juices with whole fruits will likely lead to reduced diabetes risk. (more…)
General Medicine, Urology / 26.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kirill Kosilov Far Eastern Federal University Department of Neurourology-Urodynamics, Primorsky Regional Diagnostic Center, Vladivostok, Russian Federation MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our study in a group of elderly patients showed that the combination of antimuscarinic drugs in a dosage which is higher than the usual recommended one is an effective treatment option for patients with OAB in those cases where treatment with one antimuscarinic drug was poorly effective. Side effects occurred almost equally in patients treated with only one antimuscarinic drug compared to the combined dosage. (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, General Medicine, JAMA / 20.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com:  Interview with: Therese Koops Grønborg PhD student/ph.d.-studerende, MSc Section of Biostatistics/Sektion for Biostatistisk Department of Public Health/Institut for Folkesundhed Aarhus University Bartholins Allé 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: There are three important findings in our study. We estimated a population-based Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) sibling recurrence risk relative to the background population and found an almost seven-fold increase. While this indeed is an increased risk, it is also lower than what other recent studies have suggested. We also compared the relative recurrence risk for full and maternal/paternal half siblings and found a lower relative recurrence risk in half siblings than in full siblings, which supports the genetic pathway to ASD. The recurrence risk for maternal half siblings is still higher than for the background population suggesting that factors unique to the mother, such as the intrauterine environment and perinatal history, may contribute to ASD. Last, but not least, we estimated the time trends in the relative recurrence risk. While the ASD prevalence has been increasing for several years, we found no time trends in the relative recurrence risk, suggesting that the factors contributing to the risk for ASDs recurrence in siblings (perhaps a combination of genes and environment) have not changed over time. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Heart Disease, Mayo Clinic, Surgical Research / 16.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rakesh M. Suri MD, D.Phil. Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What might clinicians “take home” from this study? Answers: a. The contemporary outcomes of surgical correction of mitral regurgitation are excellent based upon results observed in this large multinational, multi-institutional study, Mitral valve surgery now has a low peri-operative risk of death or complications, and a very high likelihood of saving a patient’s own heart valve (>90% - repair); thereby avoiding the need for replacement with an artificial valve substitute. b. All patients with severe degenerative mitral regurgitation are at risk for heart failure and/or death when surgical correction is delayed.  A safe period of “watchful waiting” in those with severe mitral regurgitation due to flail leaflets, even in the absence of traditional Class I triggers for surgery (symptoms or left ventricular dilation/dysfunction) does not exist. c. Prompt mitral valve surgery within months following the diagnosis of severe degenerative mitral regurgitation, even in those without symptoms, is associated with important and sustained long term benefits including a 40% decrease in death and 60% less heart failure risk, sustained many years following surgical intervention (more…)
Author Interviews, Fish, General Medicine, Rheumatology / 16.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniela Di Giuseppe Division of Nutritional Epidemiology Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm 171 77, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Women whose long-term intake of omega 3 PUFAs exceeded 0.21 g a day, equivalent to at least one serving of fatty fish or four servings of lean fish a week, had half the risk (52% lower) of rheumatoid arthritis of women who consumed less. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, McGill, Sugar, Weight Research / 09.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com  Interview with: Caroline Franck, MSc Dvisions of Cardiology and Clinical Epidemiology McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that, although subsidies are needed to protect farmers from production risks, the current allocation of payments encourages the sustained overproduction of a handful of grains and oilseeds. Overproduction contributes to making the end products cheaper, which are then processed into energy-dense and high-fat/sugar foods. Obesity should be treated as a systems problem, in which farm production plays an important role. (more…)
General Medicine, JAMA, University of Pennsylvania / 08.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Edna B. Foa, PhD Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Foa: Naltrexone was effective in decreasing the percentage of days drinking in people with alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder during active treatment.  Six months after treatment discontinuation, participants who received prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD drank less than those who did not receive prolonged exposure.  Participants who received a combined treatment of prolonged exposure and naltrexone had the lowest drinking level after six-month treatment discontinuation. The main message of the study is that simultaneous treatment of alcohol dependence and PTSD yield superior outcome than each treatment alone. Importantly, the findings indicated that prolonged exposure therapy was not associated with increased drinking or alcohol craving, a concern that has been voiced by some investigators. In fact, reduction in PTSD severity and drinking was evident for all four treatment groups. This finding contradicts that common view that trauma-focuses therapy is contraindicated for individuals with alcohol dependence and PTSD, because it may exacerbate PTSD symptoms and thereby lead to increased alcohol use. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, General Medicine / 28.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com:  Interview with Christina Ellervik Associate Professor Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences University of Copenhagen , Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Early measurement of transferrin saturation leading to early intervention in patients with late-onset type 1 diabetes improves life expectancy. Excess death is mainly due to cancer-specific death. (more…)
Brigham & Women's - Harvard, General Medicine, Medical Research Centers / 20.06.2013

Dr. Susan Redline M.D.,M.P.H. Peter C. Farrell Professor of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School Brigham and Women's Hospital 221 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Susan Redline M.D.,M.P.H. Peter C. Farrell Professor of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School Brigham and Women's Hospital 221 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Redline: Among children with sleep apnea, early adenotonsillectomy  resulted in significant improvements in breathing during sleep, daytime behavior, sleep related symptoms, sleepiness and quality of life when we valuated 6 months after surgery. MedicalResearch.com:  Were any of the findings unexpected? (more…)