Author Interviews, Nutrition, Weight Research / 08.05.2014

Mireille Serlie, MD PhD Academic Medical Center University of Amsterdam Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism Amsterdam, The NetherlandsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mireille Serlie, MD PhD Academic Medical Center University of Amsterdam Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism Amsterdam, The Netherlands MedicalResearch What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Serlie: We studied the effects of hypercaloric high sugar or high fat/high sugar drinks consumed with the 3 main meals (representing an increase in meal size) or in between the 3 main meals (representing an increase in meal frequency or snacking). All subjects gained a similar amount of body weight but only the ones that snacked showed an increase in liver and abdominal fat. This suggests that besides caloric content and diet composition, eating pattern independently contributes to liver and abdominal fat accumulation. We also observed a trend for a decrease in hepatic insulin sensitivity in the high fat/high sugar frequency group only. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Geriatrics, Heart Disease / 08.05.2014

Luisa Soares-Miranda, PhD Research Center in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure Faculty of Sport, University of Porto Rua Dr. Plácido Costa, Porto PORTUGALMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Luisa Soares-Miranda, PhD Research Center in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure Faculty of Sport, University of Porto Rua Dr. Plácido Costa, Porto PORTUGAL MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Soares-Miranda: Modest physical activity, such as the distance and pace of walking, is important for the heart’s electrical well being of older adults. In our study, older adults that increased their walking pace or distance had a better heart rate variability when compared with those that decreased their walking pace or distance. Our results suggest not only that regular physical activity later in life is beneficial, but also that certain beneficial changes that occur may be reduced when physical activity is reduced. This supports the need to maintain modest physical activity throughout the aging process. Even small increases can lead to a better health, while reducing physical activity has the opposite effect. So, any physical activity is better than none, and more is better. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Prostate Cancer, Testosterone / 07.05.2014

dr_san_franciscoMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ignacio F. San Francisco Departamento de Urología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Increasingly, men with low-risk prostate cancer are undergoing a close monitoring regimen called active surveillance, instead of moving forward immediately with treatment. However it is still unclear which men will develop evidence for worsening or more aggressive disease during active surveillance. In this study of 154 men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer followed for 38 months, we found that low levels of free testosterone were significantly associated with increased risk of developing more aggressive disease. We found no significant association with total testosterone concentrations, although there was a general trend towards increased risk with lower levels. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Health Care Systems / 07.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Benjamin D. Sommers, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Health Policy & Economics Harvard School of Public Health / Brigham & Women's Hospital Boston, MA 02115MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Benjamin D. Sommers, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Health Policy & Economics Harvard School of Public Health / Brigham & Women's Hospital Boston, MA 02115   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sommers: We find that over the first four years since Massachusetts' 2006 comprehensive health reform law, all-cause mortality in the state fell by 2.9%, compared to a similar population of adults living in counties outside Massachusetts that did not expand insurance during this period.  We also found that the law reduced the number of adults in Massachusetts without insurance, reduced cost-related barriers to care, increased use of outpatient visits, and led to improvement in self-reported health.  Overall, we estimate that the health reform law prevented over 320 deaths per year in the state - or one life saved per 830 adults gaining health insurance.  Mortality rates declined primarily due to fewer deaths from causes amenable to health care, such as cancer, infections, and heart disease.  We also found that the health benefits were largest for people living in poor counties in the state, areas with higher percentage of uninsured adults before the law was passed, and for minorities. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, UT Southwestern / 07.05.2014

Amit Singal MD MS Assistant Professor of Medicine Medical Director, Liver Tumor Program Dedman Scholar of Clinical Care Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases University of Texas Southwestern Dallas TX 75201 - 8887MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amit Singal MD MS Assistant Professor of Medicine Medical Director, Liver Tumor Program Dedman Scholar of Clinical Care Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases University of Texas Southwestern Dallas TX 75201 - 8887 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Singal: We conducted a meta-analysis of current studies to characterize the association between hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance and early detection, curative treatment rates, and overall survival in patients with cirrhosis.  We identified 47 studies with 15,158 patients, of whom 6,284 (41.4%) had hepatocellular carcinoma  detected by surveillance. Hepatocellular carcinoma  surveillance was associated with improved early stage detection (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.80–2.37) and curative treatment rates (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.99–2.52). These associations were robust to several sensitivity analyses, including study design, study location, and study period. Hepatocellular carcinoma  surveillance was associated with significantly prolonged survival (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.67–2.17), which remained significant in the subset of studies adjusting for lead-time bias. Three-year survival rates were 50.8% among patients who underwent surveillance, compared to only 28.2% among hepatocellular carcinoma  patients with tumors detected outside of a surveillance program. (more…)
Breast Cancer, Mayo Clinic, Pain Research, Pharmacology / 06.05.2014

Judy C. Boughey, MD Chair, Division of Surgery Research Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Judy C. Boughey, MD Chair, Division of Surgery Research Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Boughey: Use of paravertebral block (a form of regional anesthesia) in women undergoing mastectomy results in less need for opioid medications and less frequent use of anti-nausea medication after surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mayo Clinic, Neurology, Stroke / 06.05.2014

Kejal Kantarci, M.D. M.S. Professor of Radiology Division of Neuroradiology Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kejal Kantarci, M.D. M.S. Professor of Radiology Division of Neuroradiology Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kantarci: Microinfarcts are one of the most common pathologies identified in the brains of older individuals and they impact cognition. However they are invisible lesions on MRI. We demonstrated that presence of microinfarcts in autopsied individuals are associated with the macroinfarcts identified on their MRI scans than they were alive. We also demonstrated that the presence of these invisible lesions are related to greater brain atrophy rates that are localized to watershed zones. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Pediatrics / 06.05.2014

Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD Professor and Associate Dean, Faculty Affairs Colorado School of Public Health University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO 80045MedicalResearch.com Interview with:  Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD Professor and Associate Dean, Faculty Affairs Colorado School of Public Health University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO 80045 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dabelea: We found that the proportion of US youth living with Type 1 Diabetes has increased by at least 21% over a period of only 8 years. This increase was seen in both boys and girls, most age-groups and race/ethnic groups.  While we do not completely understand the reasons for this increase, since the causes of Type 1 Diabetes are still unclear, it is likely that something has changed in our environment- both in the US and elsewhere in the world- causing more youth to develop the disease, maybe at increasingly younger ages. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, OBGYNE / 05.05.2014

Jessica A. Grieger (BSc(hons), R Nutr, PhD) Post-doctoral research fellow Robinson Research Institute, University of AdelaideMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jessica A. Grieger (BSc(hons), R Nutr, PhD) Post-doctoral research fellow Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide   MedicalResearch:  What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Grieger: The study aimed to identify associations between maternal dietary patterns in the 12 months before conception on fetal growth and preterm delivery. We report that a one standard deviation increase in the scores on the high-protein/fruit pattern was associated with decreased likelihood for preterm birth, whereas a one standard deviation increase on the high-fat/sugar/takeaway pattern was associated with increased likelihood for preterm birth as well as shorter gestation and birth length. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Cancer - Brain Tumors / 05.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Andrea Schuessler QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute Herston, Queensland 4006 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr . Schuessler: Recurrent glioblastoma is a very aggressive brain cancer and most patients do not survive much longer than 6 months. Our study has assessed a novel immunotherapy and treated 10 patients with late stage cancer. The treatment did not have any serious side effects and most of the patients have survived much longer than the expected 6 months. Importantly, four of the 10 patients have not shown signs of disease progression during the study period with one of them still being cancer free four years after the treatment. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, NEJM / 05.05.2014

Stefan Zeuzem, M.D. Professor of Medicine, Chief Department of Medicine JW Goethe University Hospital Frankfurt GermanyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Stefan Zeuzem, M.D. Professor of Medicine, Chief Department of Medicine JW Goethe University Hospital Frankfurt Germany   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Zeuzem: Main finding is that also patients infected with HCV 3 can be cured with an IFN-free regimen. However, duration of therapy must be prolonged to 24 weeks. (more…)
Author Interviews, Coffee, Diabetes, Diabetologia / 04.05.2014

Dr. Frank B. Hu MD MPH PhD Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology From the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Frank B. Hu MD MPH PhD Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology From the Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hu: We found that people who increased the amount of coffee they drank each day by more than one cup over a four-year period had a 11% lower risk for type 2 diabetes than those who made no changes to their coffee consumption, but those who decreased their coffee consumption by more than a cup per day increased their type 2 diabetes risk by 17%. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nature, Nutrition / 04.05.2014

Professor Gary Frost PhD RD Head of the Nutrition and Dietetic Research Group NIHR Senior Investigator Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism Faculty of Medicine Imperial College Hammersmith Campus London W12 ONNMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Gary Frost PhD RD Head of the Nutrition and Dietetic Research Group NIHR Senior Investigator Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism Faculty of Medicine Imperial College Hammersmith Campus London W12 ONN MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?  Prof. Frost: That acetate that is derived from the fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon by the microbiota is taken up by the hypothalamus in the brain.  In the hypothalamus the way the cells metabolize acetate creates a signal that suppresses appetite (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Emergency Care, Heart Disease / 03.05.2014

Dr. Richard Body Emergency Department Manchester Royal Infirmary Manchester UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with:  Dr. Richard Body Emergency Department Manchester Royal Infirmary Manchester UK   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Body: This paper actually reports the findings of two consecutive, separate studies.  We aimed to derive and then externally validate a clinical decision rule to risk stratify patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes in the Emergency Department (ED).  This rule could then be used to reduce unnecessary hospital admissions while also making judicious use of specialist high dependency resources. In the first study we derived a clinical decision rule that incorporates 8 variables: high sensitivity troponin T, heart-type fatty acid binding protein; ECG ischaemia; worsening angina; hypotension (systolic blood pressure <100mmHg on arrival); sweating observed in the ED; pain associated with vomiting; and pain radiating to the right arm or shoulder.  When we validated the rule at a different centre, we found that its use could have avoided hospital admission for over a quarter of patients while effectively risk stratifying others.  Of the 10% of patients who were identified as 'high risk', approximately 95% had a major adverse cardiac event within 30 days.  The findings suggest that the Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) decision rule could be used to 'rule in' and 'rule out' acute coronary syndromes immediately, using information gathered at the time of initial presentation to the ED.  Before clinical implementation, we recommend that effect of using the MACS rule in practice should first be evaluated in a trial setting.  This will enable us to determine: (a) whether physicians and patients are likely to comply with (and be satisfied with) the MACS rule; (b) the safety of the MACS rule when used in practice; and (c) whether use of the MACS rule leads to cost savings for the health service. (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer / 03.05.2014

dr_arturo_araujoMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arturo Araujo, PhD IMO Moffitt Cancer Center Tampa, FL 33612   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Araujo: Using in vivo approaches it is often challenging to study the multiple simultaneous interactions occurring at various time points in the setting of bone metastasis. However, integrating biological data with a powerful computational model allowed us to build a tool that could not only mimic the in vivo growth of cancer in bone but also to determine how the disease was behaving at any given time point. The key finding for us was that the computational model demonstrated the phasic or cyclical nature of how the prostate cancers grow in bone. For example, a wave of osteoclast mediated bone resorption would be followed by sustained bone formation by osteoblasts, followed again by bone reposition. We think these findings could provide novel insights into when the best time to apply therapies might be in order to obtain maximum efficiency. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Mental Health Research / 02.05.2014

Marianna Virtanen Finnish Institute of Occupational Health Helsinki, FinlandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marianna Virtanen PhD Finnish Institute of Occupational Health Helsinki, Finland MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Virtanen: We examined whether psychological distress predicts incident type 2 diabetes and if the association differs between populations at higher or lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We used a clinical type 2 diabetes risk score to assess future diabetes risk and in addition, participants’ prediabetes status. We found that psychological distress did not predict future type 2 diabetes among participants who were normoglycemic and among those with prediabetes combined with a low diabetes risk score. However, psychological distress doubled the risk of type 2 diabetes among participants with prediabetes and a high diabetes risk score. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Cancer Research, Surgical Research, Transplantation / 02.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rajeev Desai SpR Gastroenterology, City Hospital Birmingham Honorary Clinical Research Fellow University Hospital Birmingham / NHS Blood and Transplant, Bristol MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Desai: This study of a large national cohort of organ donors shows that, following careful assessment and selection, organs from some donors with a previous history of cancer can be used safely for transplantation. The risks of accepting such organs for transplantation should be balanced with risks of non-acceptance and its consequences including delayed transplantation or non-transplantation. (more…)
Annals Thoracic Surgery, Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Hospital Readmissions, Pharmacology / 02.05.2014

Michael H. Hall, MD North Shore-LIJ Health SystemMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael H. Hall, MD North Shore-LIJ Health System MedicalResearch: What are the key points of your research? Dr. Hall: Our study was designed to improve care transition from the hospital to home after coronary bypass surgery. The innovative program (Follow Your Heart), implemented at one of our system hospitals, involves sending cardiac surgery nurse practitioners (NPs) who cared for the patients in the hospital to the homes of discharged patients for at least two visits in the first two weeks after discharge. Their goal is to provide continuity of care for patients that they know from the hospital setting and to provide robust medication management, coordinate community services, and be a communications hub for hospital and community providers (primary care, cardiology, and community nurse home visit services). The  nurse practitioners interact with community resources to ensure understanding and satisfaction of the patients’ needs prior to hand-off to those resources after two weeks. Our  nurse practitioners utilize encrypted smart phones to provide reports to all appropriate providers and can even send pictures of incisions to the surgeon when necessary. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Mayo Clinic, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 02.05.2014

Tina Hieken, M.D. Associate Professor of Surgery Mayo Clinic,Rochester, MinnMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tina Hieken, M.D. Associate Professor of Surgery Mayo Clinic,Rochester, Minn   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hieken: Among more than 1,300 newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer patients, 36 percent of whom were obese (BMI ≥ 30), preoperative axillary ultrasound with fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lymph nodes identified metastasis to the lymph nodes in 36 percent of patients found to be node-positive at operation.  For all BMI categories (normal, overweight, obese) axillary ultrasound was predictive of pathologic nodal status (p<0.0001).  The sensitivity of axillary ultrasound did not differ across BMI categories while specificity and accuracy were better for overweight and obese patients, respectively, than for normal weight patients.  Furthermore, patients across all BMI categories who had suspicious axillary lymph nodes on ultrasound and had a positive fine needle aspiration biopsy had significantly more positive lymph nodes at operation, an average of five metastatic nodes, and an overall higher nodal disease burden at operation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Geriatrics, Memory, Sleep Disorders / 02.05.2014

dr_elizabeth_devoreMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elizabeth Devore, ScD Associate Epidemiologist Brigham and Women’s Hospital Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Devore: In this study, we examined sleep duration and memory performance in a group of ~15,000 women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study. We found that women with sleep durations of 5 or fewer hours/day or 9 or more hours/day, either in midlife or later life, had worse memory at older ages than those sleeping 7 hours/day. In addition, women with sleep durations that changed by two or more hours/day from midlife to later life performed worse on memory tests compared to those whose sleep duration did not change during that time period.The magnitude of these memory differences was approximately equivalent to being 1-2 years older in age. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Heart Disease, Nutrition / 02.05.2014

Shanshan Li, Doctoral candidate Department of Epidemiology Harvard School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue Boston, MA 02115, USAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shanshan Li, Doctoral candidate Department of Epidemiology Harvard School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue Boston, MA 02115, USA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This is the first study to show that greater intake of dietary fiber, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all-cause mortality. Participants increased their average dietary fiber intake after myocardial infarction (MI), and the greater the increase, the lower was the risk of subsequent all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Overall, the benefits for increased fiber intake were strongest for fiber from cereal and grain sources. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 02.05.2014

Yoshikazu Goto, MD, PhD Kanazawa University Hospital, Section of Emergency Medicine Takaramachi 13-1, Kanazawa 920-8640, JapMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yoshikazu Goto, MD, PhD Kanazawa University Hospital, Section of Emergency Medicine Takaramachi 13-1, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Goto: The main findings were as follows. Dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation for children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, increased bystander CPR provision rate, and was associated with improved favorable neurological outcomes compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional bystander CPR (chest compression plus rescue breathing) was associated with greater likelihood of neurologically intact survival, compared to chest-compression-only CPR irrespective of cardiac arrest etiology. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JCEM, Vitamin D / 01.05.2014

Hui Wang, M.D., Ph.D., Professor Principal Investigator Director, Food Safety Research Center Institute for Nutritional Sciences, SIBS, CASMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hui Wang, M.D., Ph.D., Professor Principal Investigator Director, Food Safety Research Center Institute for Nutritional Sciences, SIBS, CAS MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
 Dr. Wang: 
This meta-analysis has systematically reviewed 25 relevant studies composed of 17,332 cancer cases to give a comprehensive perspective on the relationship between vitamin D and cancer patient outcomes. Our result demonstrated that vitamin D levels are linked to better outcomes in several types of cancer patients. The strongest link was found in breast cancer, lymphoma and colorectal cancer. There was less evidence of a connection in people with lung cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, leukemia, melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma, but the available data were positive. We also found that a 10 nmol/L increase in vitamin D levels was tied to a 4 percent increase in survival among people with cancer. (more…)
Heart Disease, Vitamin D / 01.05.2014

Joshua Lewis, Ph.D Raine Foundation / Alan Robson Fellow Bone and Vascular Research Group School of Medicine and Pharmacology University of Western Australia Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Sir Charles Gairdner HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joshua Lewis, Ph.D Raine Foundation / Alan Robson Fellow Bone and Vascular Research Group School of Medicine and Pharmacology University of Western Australia Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lewis: We tested the hypothesis raised by others that calcium supplementation with or without vitamin D increases coronary heart disease and mortality risk in elderly women. To do this we undertook a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from patient level and cluster randomized controlled trials of calcium supplements with or without vitamin D in elderly women. Importantly all events included in this large meta-analysis were verified by clinical review, hospital record or death certificate. We did not observe any significant increase in all-cause mortality or coronary heart disease events that included myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and acute coronary syndromes and chronic coronary heart disease. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness / 01.05.2014

Lara McKenzie, Ph.D. MA Associate Professor of Pediatrics Center for Injury Research and Policy The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital Columbus, OhioMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lara McKenzie, Ph.D. MA Associate Professor of Pediatrics Center for Injury Research and Policy The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital Columbus, Ohio MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. McKenzie: Our study was the first to compare and describe epidemiological patterns of basketball-related injuries presenting for treatment to emergency departments and to the high school athletic training setting using surveillance data captured from large, nationally representative samples. Specifically, we compared estimated national incidence, rates of injury and body sites injured, and diagnoses. Nationally, an estimated 1,514,957 athletes with basketball-related injuries reported to the emergency department and 1,064,551 presented to the athletic training setting. Patterns of basketball-related injuries presenting to the emergency department differ from those presenting to the high school athletic training setting for treatment, with those presenting to the emergency department being more severe. In general, injuries that could be relatively quickly assessed and more easily diagnosed and treated, such as strains and/or sprains, presented more commonly to the athletic training setting, while injuries that required more extensive diagnostic or treatment procedures, such as fractures, were treated more commonly in the emergency department. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Stroke / 01.05.2014

Professor Stuart Allan Faculty of Life Sciences, AV Hill Building The University of Manchester Manchester, M13 9PTMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Stuart Allan Faculty of Life Sciences, AV Hill Building The University of Manchester Manchester, M13 9PT MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Allan: Using an experimental model of stroke it was found that animals with preceding Streptococcus pneumoniae infection had a worse outcome than uninfected animals. This confirms and extends previous data, both clinical and preclinical, that systemic inflammation is a key contributor to stroke outcome. Importantly, effects of infection were also demonstrated in animals with co-morbidities associated with stroke (atherosclerosis and age), with outcomes worse than observed in healthy young subjects. Exacerbating effects of infection on stroke are mediated via the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), shown by reversal of the increased ischaemic brain damage and functional impairments by treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). Infection also leads to increased platelet activation and microvascular coagulation after stroke, which contributes to the increased injury. Collectively, these data are the first to show, how systemic inflammatory mechanisms induced by one of the most common non-invasive, human S.pneumoniae isolates, lead to critical illness after stroke in different rodent species and strains, and how common stroke comorbidities interact with infection to worsen outcome after stroke. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Lancet / 30.04.2014

Prof. Paul E O'Brien Centre for Obesity Research and Education Monash University Melbourne, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Paul E O'Brien Centre for Obesity Research and Education Monash University Melbourne, Australia   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. O'Brien: Using a randomised trial format we compared the diabetes status at two years after a program of multidisciplinary diabetes care (MDC) alone or with the addition of a Lap-Band procedure in 50 people who were overweight (BMI 25-30) and with diabetes. 52% of the Lap-Band group had remission of their diabetes as measured by glucose tolerance testing compared to 8% in the multidisciplinary diabetes care group. The Lap-Band procedures were performed as outpatients with a 2-3 hr length of stay. There were no perioperative adverse events. The surgical group had lost a mean of 11.5kg in weight. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) for remission of diabetes was AUD $20,700. (more…)
General Medicine / 30.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com: Egle Avizienyte, PhD Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Cancer Sciences Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences The University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4BX MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Avizienyte: Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, has been validated as a target in ovarian cancer. However, the benefit from anti-angiogenic therapies, e.g. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) pathway inhibitors that are currently used in the clinic for the treatment of ovarian cancer has been modest, largely because of redundancy in angiogenic cytokines that regulate tumour angiogenesis. In this study we validated heparan sulphate 6-O-sulfotranferases 1 and 2 (HS6ST-1 and -2) as targets for developing new therapeutic anti-angiogenic agents for the treatment of ovarian cancer. The data generated in our laboratory show that HS6STs induce the angiogenic programme in ovarian cancer cells and has a major effect on tumour angiogenesis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 30.04.2014

Mr. David Bowrey, MD FRCS (Gen Surg) MMedEd FHEA  Consultant General / Oesophagogastric Surgeon & Honorary Senior Lecturer, Dept Cancer Studies, Training Programme Director for Core Surgery, East Midlands South  University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester Royal InfirmaryMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mr. David Bowrey, MD FRCS (Gen Surg) MMedEd FHEA  Consultant General / Oesophagogastric Surgeon & Honorary Senior Lecturer, Dept Cancer Studies, Training Programme Director for Core Surgery, East Midlands South University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester Royal Infirmary MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Bowrey: Of 103 patients who had undergone Roux en Y gastric bypass surgery, changes in appetite, taste and smell were noted in 97%, 73% and 42% respectively. Seventy-three percent of patients developed aversions to certain types of foods, most frequently meat, starch and dairy produce. The change in taste sensation for the three common modalities of "sweet", "salt" and "sour" was decreased in some patients and increased in other patients. Patients who experienced food aversions typically experienced more weight loss than patients not developing aversions. (more…)