Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology, Smoking / 14.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Birgitta Ejdervik Lindblad, MD PhD Department of Ophthalmology Örebro University Hospital Örebro, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We have investigated the association between smoking cessation and risk of having a cataract extraction among 44 371 Swedish men aged 45-79 years. During 12 years of follow up we identified 5713 incident cases of cataract extraction. Smoking cessation significantly decreased the risk with time. Men who currently smoked more than 15 cigarettes per day had a 42 % increased risk of cataract extraction compared with men who had never smoked. More than 20 years since quitting smoking, men who had smoked more than 15 cigarettes per day had a 21% increased risk of  having a cataract extraction compared with men who had never smoked. The effect of smoking cessation was observed earlier among men who smoked less than 15 cigarettes per day but more than 2 decades since smoking cessation the risk had not decreased to the level of never smokers. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Nutrition, Pediatrics, University of Michigan / 14.01.2014

Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath, MSA Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann ArborMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath, MSA Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This study examined 2007-2012 commercialism trends in schools attended by nationally representative samples of US elementary and secondary students. While some measures showed significant decreases over time (especially beverage vending measures), most students at both elementary and secondary school levels continued to be exposed to school-based commercialism. Commercialism increased significantly with grade level. The most frequent type of commercialism varied by school level:  food coupons used as incentives was most common at the elementary school level, while exclusive beverage contracts were the most prevalent type of commercialism for middle and high school students. (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 14.01.2014

David M. Albala, MD Associated Medical Professionals of NY, PLLC Syracuse, NY 13210MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David M. Albala, MD Associated Medical Professionals of NY, PLLC Syracuse, NY 13210 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Albala: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death and American man. Prostate cancer diagnosis and mortality differences between African American and Caucasian populations have been highlighted in the literature. Research has shown that African American males are at a biological predisposition for prostate cancer and that additional socioeconomic and physician-patient educational factors may contribute to a higher mortality rate among this group - over two times greater than that of Caucasian American males. At present the most commonly used to detection tools for prostate cancer are the serum prostatic specific antigen test (PSA) and a digital rectal examination (DRE). These complementary tests provide physicians with an indication of whether to proceed with biopsy for a definitive pathological diagnosis. Despite ongoing disputes regarding the effectiveness of PSA screening as an indicator for prostate cancer, a superior alternative test as yet to become available for men at risk. The American Urological Association (AUA) emphasizes the value of early detection and that sheared decision-making should not be overlooked and that shared decision making should be integral to screening decisions. The AUA urges individuals to personally assess, with their physicians, whether a PSA screen is necessary. Emphasis should be placed on the proper education of African American men who are at increased risk for the disease, as well as on their participation in repeated screening practices for the earliest possible detection of prostate cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Lancet / 14.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Jonathan Banks  Programme Manager: The Discovery Research Programme  Centre for Academic Primary Care  NIHR School for Primary Care Research  School of Social and Community Medicine  University of Bristol  Bristol BS8 2PSDr Jonathan Banks Programme Manager: The Discovery Research Programme Centre for Academic Primary Care NIHR School for Primary Care Research School of Social and Community Medicine University of Bristol  Bristol BS8 2PS MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Banks: We asked members of the public attending their local general practice or primary care centre to consider a series of hypothetical scenarios or vignettes which depicted cancer symptoms, their risk of cancer and the investigative processes involved in testing for cancer. We wanted to measure the point at which the risk of cancer outweighed the burden and inconvenience of testing in relation to lung, colorectal and pancreas cancers. Most people, around 88%, opted for testing even at the lowest risk of cancer which in our vignettes was 1%. Further analyses showed variation between cancers with fewer people opting for testing for colorectal cancer at a low (1%) risk and more people choosing to be tested for all cancers in the 60-69 age group. (more…)
Author Interviews, Geriatrics, MRSA / 11.01.2014

Courtney Reynolds, PhD Medical Scientist Training Program University of California Irvine, School of MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Courtney Reynolds, PhD Medical Scientist Training Program University of California Irvine, School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Reynolds: Our survey of factors influencing admission to 13 nursing homes in Orange County, California showed that MRSA carriers are denied admission more often than non-carriers, even after accounting for other important factors such as insurance status, required level of care and previous experience at the facility. In 80% of cases where MRSA carriage was responsible for denial of admission, nursing home administrators cited a lack of available single or cohort (MRSA only) rooms to accommodate these potential residents. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, Exercise - Fitness, Infections / 11.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anna-Christina Lauer, MD Department of Audiology and Phoniatrics Charité-University Medicine Berlin Berlin, Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gross: We could show that the injury rates depend on the undergraduate medical training the students attended. This demonstrates that medical undergraduatue education, especially a hands-on training, is critical in the prevention of needlestick- and sharps injuries. Also the use of safety devices has proven to reduce injury rates significantly. Given the large size of our study we could not only comfirm that needlestick and sharps injuries are still a common problem, looking at an injury rate of about 20% per year, we also learned a lot about the accident circumstances: Most accidents occur at bedside during venepuncture and intravenous cannulation. The second most common setting is the operating room, where suturing and instrument transfers can lead to injuries. Since we analyzed official reports and the anonymous surveys at the same time we could affirm an underreporting rate of more than 50%. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Pediatrics, Stanford / 11.01.2014

Naama Barnea-Goraly M.D. Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research Stanford UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Naama Barnea-Goraly M.D. Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research Stanford University MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our main findings showed that compared with age and sex matched controls, children with type 1 diabetes have significant differences in white matter structure in widespread brain regions. Within the type 1 diabetes group, earlier onset of diabetes and longer duration were associated with greater alterations in white matter structure. In addition, measures of hyperglycemia and glucose variability, but not hypoglycemia were associated with white matter structure; however, hypoglycemia exposure and the number of severe hypoglycemia events in our sample were too small to identify statistically meaningful differences. Finally, we observed a significant association between white matter structure and cognitive ability in children with type 1 diabetes, but not in controls. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Electronic Records / 10.01.2014

Robert S. Rudin, Ph.D. Associate Policy Researcher RAND Corporation 20 Park Plaza, Suite 920 Boston, MA 02116MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert S. Rudin, Ph.D. Associate Policy Researcher RAND Corporation Boston, MA 02116 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rudin: We found that most published health IT implementation studies report positive effects on quality, safety, and efficiency. Most evaluations focus on clinical decision support and computerized provider order entry. However, not all studies report equally positive results, and differences in context and implementation are one likely reason for these varying results, yet details of context and implementation are rarely reported in these studies. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, JAMA / 10.01.2014

Maurice Dysken, MD Professor, School of Medicine Department of Psychiatry Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MinnesotaMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Maurice Dysken, MD Professor, School of Medicine Department of Psychiatry Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dysken: In patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease who were taking an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, a dosage of 2000 IU/d of vitamin E significantly slowed functional decline compared to placebo by 6.2 months over the mean follow-up period of 2.27 years.  Over this period of time caregiver time increased least in the vitamin E group compared to the other three groups (memantine alone, vitamin E plus memantine, and placebo) although the only statistically significant difference was between vitamin E alone and memantine alone.  There were no significant safety concerns for vitamin E compared to placebo and mortality was lowest in the vitamin E alone group.  It should be noted that patients who were on warfarin were excluded from the study because of a possible interaction with vitamin E that could have possibly increased bleeding events. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Mediterranean Diet / 10.01.2014

Jordi Salas-Salvadó, MD, PhD Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Healthy Sciences Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, 21, 43201 Reus, SpainMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jordi Salas-Salvadó, MD, PhD Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Healthy Sciences Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, 21, 43201 Reus, Spain MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Randomized trials have shown that lifestyle interventions promoting weight loss can reduce the incidence of type-2diabetes, however, whether dietary changes without calorie restriction or increased physical activity also protect from diabetes development has not been evaluated in the past. In our study, we found that a long-term adherence to a high-quality dietary pattern akin to the traditional MedDiet and rich in extra-virgin olive oil was able to reduce the incidence of new cases of diabetes in older individuals at high cardiovascular risk. We have demonstrated for the first time that a beneficial effect on diabetes prevention could be obtained witha healthy dietary pattern (without calorie restriction, increased physical activity or weight loss). These benefits have been observed in participants between 55 to 80 years-old at high cardiovascular risk; therefore,the message is that it is never too late to switch to a healthy diet like the Mediterranean. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research / 10.01.2014

Sarah M. Hartz, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Psychiatry Washington University in St. Louis, MissouriMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sarah M. Hartz, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Psychiatry Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Hartz: This is the first large-scale study to comprehensively evaluate substance use in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other severe mental illness.We found that people with severe mental illness have rates of smoking, alcohol use, and other substance use that are 3 to 5 times higher than people in the general population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Testosterone / 10.01.2014

J. Bradley Layton, PhD Postdoctoral Research Associate University of North Carolina at Chapel HillMedicalResearch.com Interview with: J. Bradley Layton, PhD Postdoctoral Research Associate University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Layton: Use of testosterone testing and treatment had greatly increased over the past decade, with more pronounced increases seen in the United States than in the United Kingdom. The increases in testing in the UK seem to be targeted, identifying more men with reduced testosterone levels, but the increases in the US seem to be identifying more and more men with normal levels. Many of the men who begin testosterone treatment in the US appear to have normal testosterone levels to begin with. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Hand Washing / 10.01.2014

Caroline Landelle, PharmD, PhD Infection Control Unit, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Albert Chenevier–Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris–Est Créteil, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Caroline Landelle, PharmD, PhD Infection Control Unit, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Albert Chenevier–Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris–Est Créteil, France MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Landelle: The main findings point to the fact that nearly one in four healthcare workers’ hands are contaminated with Clostridium difficile spores after routine care of patients infected with the bacteria, before performing hand hygiene. This is the first study focusing upon the carriage of viable C. difficile spores on healthcare workers’ hands. C. difficile exist in 2 possible forms: vegetative and spore. Vegetative forms of C. difficile are killed when exposed to air, whereas their spores are resistant to oxygen, desiccation, and most disinfectants, and may persist in the hospital environment for long periods of time; thus, bacterial spores could be the principal form of transmission. Furthermore, contamination of exposed healthcare workers’ hands is statistically associated with direct exposure to fecal soiling and contact without the use of gloves. (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, Biomarkers, CHEST / 10.01.2014

Dr. Lawrence M. Lewis, MD Professor, Emergency Medicine and Medicine Washington University School of Medicine in St. LouisMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Lawrence M. Lewis, MD Professor, Emergency Medicine and Medicine Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lewis: The main finding of the study is that there is a dose-dependent increase in serum lactate concentration with increasing amounts of nebulized albuterol administered. This hyperlactatemia did not portend a worse prognosis, and was not associated with worse FEV1 or dyspnea scores. (more…)
Author Interviews, MRSA, OBGYNE / 10.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Andrea Parriott MPH, PhD Department of Epidemiology Fielding School of Public Health University of California Los Angeles

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Parriott:  We wanted to know whether hospital and provider volume (i.e. the number of deliveries performed by each hospital and provider per quarter) and cesarean section rates were predictors of the risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection before discharge from the hospital (after delivering a baby). We did not find an association between any of these variables and risk of MRSA infection. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Stroke / 08.01.2014

Dr. James Sheppard MRC Research Fellow Department of Primary Care Health Sciences University of OxfordMedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. James Sheppard MRC Research Fellow Department of Primary Care Health Sciences University of Oxford MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sheppard: The aim of our study was to develop a decision-tree model which estimates the cost-effectiveness and potential implementation costs of a series of interventions which increase thrombolysis rates in acute stroke. The model examined all possible acute stroke patient pathways and was based on real life patient data. We found all proposed interventions to be cost saving whilst increasing patient quality of life after stroke. We estimate that, assuming a "willingness-to-pay"  of USD $30,000 per quality adjusted life year gained, the potential budget available to deliver interventions which improve acute stroke care range from USD $50,000 to USD $144,000. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, JAMA, Johns Hopkins, Mental Health Research, Pain Research / 07.01.2014

Madhav Goyal MD, MPH  Assistant Professor General Internal Medicine Johns Hopkins School of MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Madhav Goyal MD, MPH  Assistant Professor General Internal Medicine Johns Hopkins School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Goyal:
  • The evidence is moderately strong that there is a small but consistent benefit for mindfulness meditation programs to improve 3 symptoms: anxiety, depression, and pain.  We found low level evidence that mindfulness meditation helps with symptoms of stress and distress, as well as with the mental health dimension of quality of life.
  • For the symptoms of anxiety and depression for which we find moderate evidence of benefit, we need to keep in mind that most of the trials didn't study people with a clinical diagnosis of anxiety or depression (although a few did).  Most were studying diverse patient populations who may have had a low level of these symptoms, such as those with  breast cancer, fibromyalgia, organ transplant recipients, and caregivers of people with dementia.
  • We found about a 5-10% improvement in anxiety symptoms compared to placebo groups.  For depression, we found a roughly 10-20% improvement in depressive symptoms compared to the placebo groups. This is similar to the effects that other studies have found for the use of antidepressants in similar populations.
  • While we found that the evidence was moderately strong that mindfulness meditation programs may improve pain, there weren't as many trials evaluating chronic pain, and so we don't understand what kinds of pain this type of meditation may be most useful for.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Autism / 07.01.2014

Dr. Lisa Croen, PhD Senior Research Scientist Director, Autism Research Program Division of Research Kaiser Permanente Northern CaliforniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Lisa Croen, PhD Senior Research Scientist Director, Autism Research Program Division of Research Kaiser Permanente Northern California MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Croen: Researchers found that hospital-diagnosed maternal bacterial infections during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children. While infections are fairly common in pregnant women, this study only found increased risks in cases of bacterial infections. Women with bacterial infections diagnosed during a hospitalization (including of the genitals, urinary tract and amniotic fluid) had a 58 percent greater risk of having a child with ASD. Also of note, bacterial infections diagnosed during a hospitalization in the second trimester, while not very common in any of the mothers studied, were associated with children having more than a three-fold increased risk of developing ASD. These findings resulted from a study of 407 children with autism and 2,075 matched children who did not have autism. The study included infants born between January 1995 and June 1999 who remained members of the Kaiser Permanente health plan for at least two years following birth. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Pediatrics / 07.01.2014

William P. Meehan III, MD Director, Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention Director, Sports Concussion Clinic, Boston Children?s Hospital 9 Hope Avenue, Suite 100 Waltham, MA 02453MedicalResearch.com Interview with: William P. Meehan III, MD Director, Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention Director, Sports Concussion Clinic, Boston Children?s Hospital Waltham, MA 02453 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Meehan: The study has 2 findings that I believe are the most worthy of attention.  First, although cognitive rest has been recommended as a therapy for concussion for several years now, there has been little data showing its effect. This lack of data has led to variability in the recommendations for cognitive rest, with some experts not recommending it all, and others recommending athletes avoid all cognitive activity, lying alone in a dark room even, until they are completely recovered.  As you can imaging, this has generated controversy.  We believe this is the first study showing the independent, beneficial effect of limiting cognitive activity on recovery from concussion. (more…)
Author Interviews, Frailty / 06.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arun Kumar Research Fellow ,School of Medicine Division of Primary Care University of Nottingham University Park Nottingham NG7 2RD MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: A simpler model (socio-demographic + falls risk factors) correctly classified as many observations (82%) as a more complex model (socio-demographic + falls risk factors + functional measures) with similar values for sensitivity and specificity in both models. There were significantly raised odds of FOF in the simpler model in those unable to rise from a chair of knee height (OR 7.39 (CI 2.48-22.07)), with a lower household income (4.58 (CI 1.23-17.07)), use of a walking aid (OR 4.32 (CI 2.29-8.17)), difficulty in using public transport (OR 4.02 (CI 1.77-9.11)), poorer perceived physical health (OR 2.85 (CI 1.35-6.04)), from a black/ minority ethnic group (OR 2.42 (CI 1.29-4.52)), with self-reported balance problems (OR 2.17 (CI 1.29-3.64)), with lower educational level (OR 2.01 (CI 1.20-3.37)), and a higher BMI (OR 1.06 (CI 1.02-1.09)). (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Sleep Disorders / 05.01.2014

Jonathan Cedernaes PhD Department of Neuroscience Uppsala University  SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jonathan Cedernaes PhD Department of Neuroscience Uppsala University  Sweden   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Cedernaes:  We found that two peripheral blood markers were modestly but significantly increased in healthy young participants after a single night of sleep deprivation, as compared with a normal night of sleep. These two markers, S-100B and NSE, are for example used as markers of acute ischemic injury in the brain, and are also increased following concussions. S-100B is produced mainly by glial cells and also increases after injury to the blood brain barrier. NSE is instead produced by neurons and is regarded as being more specific for neuronal damage, although it can also be produced by peripheral cells. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Pulmonary Disease / 05.01.2014

Prof Sirpa Jalkanen MD, PhD MediCity Research Laboratory and Department of Medical Microbiology University of Turku Turku, FinlandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Sirpa Jalkanen MD, PhD MediCity Research Laboratory and Department of Medical Microbiology University of Turku Turku, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Pulmonary vascular leakage occurs early in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Mortality is high (35-45%), but no effective pharmacotherapy exists. Production of anti-inflammatory adenosine by ecto-5’-nucleotidase (CD73) maintains endothelial barrier function. Interferon-beta-1a (IFN-beta) increases CD73 synthesis and might thus reduce vascular leakage and mortality in ALI/ARDS. We tested this hypothesis and the findings were as follows: 1.IFN-beta increased the number of CD73-positive vessels in human lung culture (4- and 14.3-fold on days 1 and 4 respectively, p=0.04 and 0.004). 2. The optimal tolerated FP-1201 dose (a unique intravenous formulation of interferon-beta 10 μg /day for six days) caused a significant rise in serum MxA (a marker for interferon response) and CD73 levels and a fall in interleukin-6 (an inflammatory cytokine) concentration. 3. Most importantly, odds of 28-day mortality was 81% lower in the treated than untreated subjects (8% vs 32%, OR[95% CI]0.19[0.03 to 0.72], p=0.01). (more…)
Author Interviews, Menopause, NEJM, Osteoporosis / 04.01.2014

Michael McClung, MD Founding Director, Oregon Osteoporosis Center 5050 NE Hoyt Street, Suite 626 Portland, OR 97213MedicalResearch.com Interview with Michael McClung, MD Founding Director, Oregon Osteoporosis Center 5050 NE Hoyt Street, Suite 626 Portland, OR 97213 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. McClung: In this Phase 2 trial, each of five romosozumab dose regimens significantly increased BMD compared with pooled placebo groups at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck regions (all p<0.001). The largest increases were observed with the romosozumab 210 mg once-monthly dose, with mean increases, compared with baseline, of 11.3 percent at the lumbar spine, 4.1 percent at the total hip and 3.7 percent at the femoral neck. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Heart Disease / 02.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Laura Maclagan, MSc. Epidemiologist, Cardiovascular Program ICES Central Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We developed the CANHEART health index in order to measure the cardiovascular health of the Canadian population. The index is based on the prevalence of six health factors and behaviours known to be associated with cardiovascular health; being a non-smoker, being physically active, consuming at least 5 fruits and vegetables per day, having a low body mass index (BMI <25 kg/m²) and being free of diabetes and hypertension. The factors were summed to create an index ranging from 0 (worst) to 6 (best/ideal). We found that only 9.4% of Canadian adults age 20 and older met our definition of ideal cardiovascular health. 53.3% of adults were in intermediate cardiovascular health (4-5 healthy behaviours/factors) and 37.3% were in poor cardiovascular health (0-3 healthy behaviours). We found that the cardiovascular health of Canadians was stable over the 2003-2011 study period. (more…)
Author Interviews, CHEST, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Respiratory / 02.01.2014

Dr. Peter Lindenauer MD MS Director, Center for Quality of Care Research Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA, USMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Dr. Peter Lindenauer MD MS Director, Center for Quality of Care Research Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA, US MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Among a cohort of 250,000 patients hospitalized for pneumonia at 347 US hospitals, those with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea were twice as likely to be intubated at the time of hospital admission than patients without sleep apnea.  In addition, patients with sleep apnea had approximately 50% higher risk of needing to be transferred to the ICU after initial admission to a regular bed, and a 70% increased risk of requiring intubation later in the hospital stay.  Patients with sleep apnea stayed longer in the hospital and incurred higher costs than those without sleep apnea. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Gender Differences, Wake Forest / 02.01.2014

Carlos M Ferrario, MD, FAHA, FASH, FACC Dewitt-Cordelll Professor of Surgical Sciences Professor, Internal Medicine-Nephrology Professor, Physiology-Pharmacology Wake Forest University School of Medicine Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1032 Vice-President, Consortium Southeastern Hypertension Control Editor-in-Chief Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular DiseaseMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carlos M Ferrario, MD, FAHA, FASH, FACC Dewitt-Cordelll Professor of Surgical Sciences Professor, Internal Medicine-Nephrology Professor, Physiology-Pharmacology Wake Forest University School of Medicine Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1032 Vice-President, Consortium Southeastern Hypertension Control Editor-in-Chief, Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ferrario: A significant and unexpected difference in the hemodynamic mechanisms that account for the elevated blood pressure between untreated hypertensive men and women. The main findings were: "Despite there being no differences between women and men in terms of office blood pressure, heart rate and body mass index, men demonstrated lower values of pulse pressure, systemic vascular resistance, brachial artery pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. In each of the three hypertension categories, the increased blood pressure in men was associated with significant augmentations in stroke volume and cardiac output compared with women. Sex-related hemodynamic differences were associated in women with higher plasma levels of leptin, hs-CRP, plasma angiotensin II and serum aldosterone. In women but not men, hs-CRP correlated with plasma concentrations of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and body weight; in addition, plasma TGFβ1 correlated with levels of serum vascular cell adhesion molecule 1." (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, NEJM / 02.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sheila G. Klauer, Ph.D Virginia Tech Transportation Institute MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr.Klauer: We found that novice drivers are especially at risk of crash/near-crash involvement when engaging in secondary tasks that take their eyes off of the forward roadway.  This includes tasks with wireless devices such as texting, dialing, and reaching for the device as well as reaching for any object, eating, and looking at objects along the roadway.  We also found that the prevalence of engaging in these high risk tasks increases over time which concerns traffic safety researchers.  This is particularly concerning with the proliferation of highly capable smart phones where teens can do not only texting but also sending pictures, watching video, skype, etc. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, Nutrition, Sugar / 02.01.2014

Sohyun Park, PhD, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA 30341MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sohyun Park, PhD, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA 30341 MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Park: Nearly 1 out of 3 U.S. adults (30.5%) consumed sugar-sweetened beverages at least 1 time per day; 20% consumed sugar-sweetened beverages at least 2 times per day. About 8 out of 10 adults agreed that drinking sugar-sweetened beverages can contribute to weight gain. However, 8 of 10 adults also did not know the actual calorie content of a 24-oz fountain soda. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, adults who were neutral (neither agreed nor disagreed) that drinking sugar-sweetened beverages can contribute to weight gain were more than 1-and-a-half times more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages at least 2 times per day. Conversely, knowledge about the calorie content of a 24-oz fountain soda was not associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake. (more…)