Author Interviews, Case Western, Chemotherapy, Genetic Research, Lung Cancer, UT Southwestern / 22.03.2014

Dr. Azi  Gazdar, MD UT Southwestern Medical Center W. Ray Wallace Distinguished Chair in Molecular Oncology Research Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology, PathologyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Azi  Gazdar, MD UT Southwestern Medical Center W. Ray Wallace Distinguished Chair in Molecular Oncology Research Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology, Pathology MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gazdar: We describe the characteristics of lung cancers arising in subjects who inherited a germline mutation that predisposes to lung cancer.  The mutation is rare in the general populations, and is inherited equally by both sexes.  However it is a potent predisposing gene, and one third of the never smoking carriers will develop lung cancer.  Thus, about 1% of patients who develop lung cancer carry the germline mutation.  This figure may rise as awareness of the condition and its link to lung cancer is raised among doctors diagnosing lung cancer. However, lung cancers mainly develop in women who are lifetime never smokers.  Lung cancer development is much less common among smokers and men, although accurate figures are not yet available. So the risk among carriers is somewhat similar to the BRCA genes predisposing to breast cancer, where a female carrier has about a 50% lifetime chance of developing breast cancer. The specific germline mutation (known as T790M) occurs in a gene known as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene.  Sporadic mutations in this gene usually predict for effective responses to a class of drugs known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which are widely used in the treatment of lung cancer.  However, the T790M mutation, when it occurs in sporadic tumors not associated with germline inheritance are resistant to TKI therapy.  Thus the prediction is that lung cancers arising in carriers with the germline mutation would also be resistant to TKI therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, Neurology, NIH / 22.03.2014

Hannes Devos, PhD Assistant Professor Assistant Director Georgia Regents University Driving Simulator Lab Department of Physical Therapy College of Allied Health Sciences Georgia Regents University Augusta, GA 30912MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hannes Devos, PhD Assistant Professor Assistant Director Georgia Regents University Driving Simulator Lab Department of Physical Therapy College of Allied Health Sciences Georgia Regents University Augusta, GA 30912 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Devos: We compared on-road driving performance between 30 active drivers with Huntington disease and 30 age- and gender- matched control drivers. We found that Huntington disease affects all levels of driving skill due to motor and cognitive deficits and leads to unsafe driving, even in the early stages of the disease. Fourteen (47%) drivers with Huntington disease failed the road test compared with none of the controls. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer, Endocrinology, Pediatrics, Thyroid / 20.03.2014

Melanie Goldfarb MD Assistant Professor of Surgery, Endocrine Surgery University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CaliforniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with Melanie Goldfarb MD Assistant Professor of Surgery, Endocrine Surgery University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Goldfarb: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who develop thyroid cancer as a secondary cancer are six times more likely to die than AYAs with primary thyroid cancer, though survival with treatment is excellent for both primary and secondary cancers at greater than 95 percent. Additionally, Hispanics, Males, and those of lower socioeconomic status have worse overall survival. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Mayo Clinic, Neurology / 20.03.2014

Rosebud O Roberts, M.B., Ch.B. Professor of Epidemiology Professor of Neurology Mayo ClinicMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rosebud O Roberts, M.B., Ch.B. Professor of Epidemiology Professor of Neurology Mayo Clinic   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Roberts: The onset of type two diabetes in midlife (before age 65 years)  is associated with brain pathology (subcortical brain infarctions, reduced hippocampal volume, reduced whole brain volume) in late-life. Early onset of diabetes also increases the risk of developing mild cognitive impairment  which is an intermediate stage between normal cognitive aging and dementia. Our findings suggest that loss of brain volumes may be an intermediate stage or a link between diabetes and cognitive impairment. We also found that diabetes onset in late-life (after age 65 years), is also associated with brain pathology (cortical infarctions, reduced whole brain volume). Finally, onset of hypertension in midlife, but not late-life, is associated with brain pathology in late- life. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, FDA, Pharmacology / 20.03.2014

Christian Hampp PhD Senior Staff Fellow/Epidemiologist at FDA Division of Epidemiology-I, Office of Pharmacovigilance and Epidemiology, Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MDMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christian Hampp PhD Senior Staff Fellow/Epidemiologist at FDA Office of Pharmacovigilance and Epidemiology, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hampp: Our study described U.S. market trends for antidiabetic drugs, focusing on newly approved drugs, concomitant use of antidiabetic drugs, and effects of safety concerns and restrictions on thiazolidinedione use. We found that since 2003, the number of adult antidiabetic drug users increased by approximately 43% to 18.8 million in 2012.  During 2012, 154.5 million prescriptions for antidiabetic drugs were filled in outpatient retail pharmacies.  Since 2003, metformin use increased by 97% to 60.4 million prescriptions dispensed in 2012.  Among antidiabetic drugs newly approved for marketing between 2003 and 2012, the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin had the largest share with 10.5 million prescriptions in 2012. Possibly triggered by safety concerns, the use of pioglitazone declined in 2012 to approximately 52% of its peak in 2008, when 14.2 million prescriptions were dispensed in outpatient retail pharmacies and the use of rosiglitazone use decreased to fewer than 13,000 prescriptions dispensed in retail or mail-order pharmacies in 2012. (more…)
Breast Cancer, Exercise - Fitness / 20.03.2014

Professor Mathieu Boniol PhD International Prevention Research Institute Lyon, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Mathieu Boniol PhD International Prevention Research Institute Lyon, France MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Boniol: We conducted a meta-analysis of all prospective epidemiological studies on physical activity and risk of breast cancer. It includes 37 studies, so covers more than 4 million women among which more than 100,000 breast cancer were diagnosed. We showed that when comparing the most active women (about 20% of the population) to least active women (another 20% of the population), vigorous physical activity reduce the risk of breast cancer by 11%. And the good news is that this decline is irrespective of age, BMI, menopausal status, country,... It is also true for the most aggressive breast cancer (ER-/PR-). However, we also showed that this decline is not observed for women taking hormonal replacement therapies, as if these treatments (which are already infamous for poor efficacy and increasing the risk of breast cancer) would nullify any benefit from physical activity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, PTSD / 20.03.2014

Dr. Nancy Crum-Cianflone Deployment Health Research Department, Naval Health Research Center San Diego, CAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Nancy Crum-Cianflone MD Deployment Health Research Department, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Nancy Crum-Cianflone: There have been several studies examining the health outcomes of service members who recently deployed to the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.  However, none of these studies to date had examined the potential role of military deployment experiences and PTSD on coronary heart disease (CHD) among young US service members.  We believed that this would be an important study to undertake since these data would not only be useful to the US military, but may also have implications regarding job-related stressors on the health of young adults in the general population. After studying over 60,000 current and former US military personnel, we found that those who deployed and experienced combat were at a 60%-90% increased risk of subsequently developing CHD.  This finding was noted when we examined both self-reported CHD and medical record validated coronary heart disease.  These data suggest that experiences of intense stress may increase the risk for coronary heart disease over a relatively short period among young, previously healthy adults. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Emergency Care, Gender Differences, Heart Disease, McGill / 20.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Roxanne Pelletier, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Division of Clinical Epidemiology  McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) 687 Pine Avenue West, V Building, Room V2.17 Montreal, QcRoxanne Pelletier, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Division of Clinical Epidemiology McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) 687 Pine Avenue West, V Building, Room V2.17 Montreal, Qc MedicalResearch.com: What made you want to study this disparity between men and women and heart attacks?  Dr. Pelletier:  Despite enhanced medical treatment and decrease in the incidence of heart diseases, important sex disparities persist in the risk of mortality following a cardiac event: the risk of mortality is higher in women compared to men, and this sex difference is even more important in younger adults. Therefore, we aimed to investigate potential mechanisms underlying this sex difference in mortality. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews / 20.03.2014

Judy A. Stevens PhD National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta GA 30341MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Judy A. Stevens PhD National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta GA 30341 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Stevens: The fall death rate among persons aged 65 and older has been increasing rapidly. We used vital statistics data to examine the circumstances and contributing conditions to fall deaths. We found that of 21,649 fall deaths in 2010, the largest proportion (35%) occurred from falling on the same level, followed by falling on stairs or steps (6.5%).  From 1999 to 2010, there was a trend toward more specific reporting of falls circumstances. However, information about the circumstances of 49% of the 2010 fall deaths was not available. In 2010, 49% of fall deaths involved a head injury and 30% involved a hip fracture. The most important contributing causes to fall deaths were circulatory diseases, especially hypertension, and respiratory diseases. Factors that may partially explain the rapid increase in the fall death rate include changing trends in the death rates for underlying chronic diseases strongly associated with falls, such as reductions in cardiovascular disease deaths, as well as better reporting on death certificates of falls as the underlying cause of death. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Macular Degeneration, Ophthalmology / 19.03.2014

Chung-Jung Chiu DDS PhD Scientist II, JM USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging Assistant Professor, School of Medicine Tufts University Boston MA 02111MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chung-Jung Chiu DDS PhD Scientist II, JM USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging Assistant Professor, School of Medicine Tufts University Boston MA 02111 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In this study, we found that advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is predictable by using clinically readily available information. We devised a simple algorithm to summarize the clinical predictors and showed the validity of our prediction model in both clinic-based and community-based cohorts. We also develop an application (App) for the iPhone and iPad as a practical tool for our prediction model. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, NIH, Omega-3 Fatty Acids / 19.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Denise Bonds, MD, MPH National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)  MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr.Bonds: We found no cardiovascular benefit to supplementation of the diet with either omega-3 fatty acids or with the macular xanthophyll’s lutein and zeaxanthin. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Colon Cancer, NEJM / 19.03.2014

Dr. Thomas Imperiale MD Professor of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine Research Scientist, Indiana University Center for Health Services and Outcomes Research Research Scientist, Center for Health Services Research, Regenstrief Institute, Inc. Core Investigator, VA HSR&D Center for Health Information and CommunicationMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Dr. Thomas Imperiale MD Professor of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine Research Scientist, Indiana University Center for Health Services and Outcomes Research Research Scientist, Center for Health Services Research, Regenstrief Institute, Inc. Core Investigator, VA HSR&D Center for Health Information and Communication MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Imperiale: The main findings are the performance characteristics of the multi-target test (sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 86.6%) and its performance as compared with the commercial FIT: more sensitive for colorectal cancer and advanced precancerous polyps, but less specific. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA, Pharmacology, Psychological Science / 19.03.2014

Dr. Christian Fynbo Christiansen Clinical Associate Professor Department of Clinical Epidemiology Aarhus University HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Dr. Christian Fynbo Christiansen Clinical Associate Professor Department of Clinical Epidemiology Aarhus University Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Christiansen:  We included 24,179 critically ill nonsurgical patients receiving mechanical ventilation in intensive care units in Denmark, and matched comparison groups of hospitalized patients and the general population. We assessed psychiatric diagnoses and medication prescriptions before and after critical illness. We found an increased prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses in the 5 year period before critical illness, compared to both other hospitalized patients and the general population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, OBGYNE / 19.03.2014

Shamez Ladhani, MRCPCH PhD Health Protection Services, Immunisation, Hepatitis, and Blood Safety Department, Public Health England, LondonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shamez Ladhani, MRCPCH PhD Health Protection Services, Immunisation, Hepatitis, and Blood Safety Department, Public Health England, London   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ladhani: Pregnancy was associated with an increased of serious infection by a bacterium called Haemophilus influenzae which is usually associated with respiratory tract infections. Nearly all the H. influenzae were unencapsulated; that is, they did not have an outer sugar capsule which is often required to make the bacterium more virulent. The encapsulated H. influenzae type b (Hib), for example, was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in your children prior to routine immunisation. We also found that infection with unencapsulated H. influenzae was associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, including miscarriages, stillbirth and premature birth. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, JAMA, Thromboembolism / 19.03.2014

Marc Righini, MD Division of Angiology and Hemostasis Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, SwitzerlandMedical Research.com Interview with: Marc Righini, MD Division of Angiology and Hemostasis Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Righini: The study shows that when compared with a fixed D-Dimer cutoff of 500 ng/ml, the combination of pretest clinical probability assessment with age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off was associated  with a larger number of patients in whom Pulmonary Embolism  could be excluded, with a low likelihood of recurrent VTE. The benefit was the most important in patients  75 years or older, in whom using the age-adjusted cutoff instead of the 500 ng/ml cutoff increased five-fold the proportion of patients in whom PE could be excluded on the basis of D-dimer measurement. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Lipids, University of Michigan / 19.03.2014

dr_cristen_j_willerMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cristen J. Willer, PhD Assistant Professor Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Dept of Internal Medicine Dept of Human GeneticsDept of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5618 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Willer: We wanted to find new genes related to heart disease, so we examined the DNA of approximately 10,000 Norwegian individuals and found 10 genes that are important regulators of blood cholesterol levels. Nine of these were well known to be related to lipids, but one gene was new.  It turned out to be in a region we'd previously noticed to be related to cholesterol, but it was a big region and we hadn't been able to pinpoint the gene yet.  Using this new approach, focusing on DNA differences that result in slightly different proteins in people, we zeroed in on the gene.  We then altered this gene in mice, and saw the predicted changes in cholesterol levels in mice. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, PNAS, University of Michigan / 19.03.2014

Yanzhuang Wang, PhD Associate professor Dept. of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology and Dept. of Neurology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1048MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yanzhuang Wang, PhD Associate professor Dept. of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology and Dept. of Neurology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1048  MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wang: We learned how to repair a cellular structure called the Golgi apparatus that is broken in Alzheimer’s disease. This helps us understand how to reduce the formation of the toxic plaques that kill cells in the brain of Alzheimer's patients. The formation of amyloid plaques is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease; but exactly how much the plaques contribute to the disease is still not known. Our study found that the broken Golgi in the disease may be a major source of the toxicity of amyloid plaques. We showed in this study that repairing the Golgi can reduce the formation of the toxic plaques and thus may delay the disease development. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 19.03.2014

Dr Joe Brierley Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Joe Brierley Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH, UK   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Brierley: In the UK babies under 2-months of age cannot be verified as having died using ‘neurological criteria,’ due to national guidelines; whereas in North America, Australasia and other European countries his is possible. Because of this no organ donation from those under 2-months occurs in the UK contributing to the lack organs for small children who could benefit from such lifesaving interventions. Our study finds that if the rules were changed to be compatible with other countries their would be a significant yield of organs from one specialist children’s hospital, and likely to be many more nationally. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Genetic Research, Medical Research Centers, Nutrition, Weight Research / 19.03.2014

Prof. Lu Qi, Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health and Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Lu Qi, Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health and Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lu Qi: In this study, we for the first time provide reproducible evidence from three large cohort studies to show that the association between regular consumption of fried foods and higher BMI was particularly pronounced among people with a greater genetic predisposition to obesity. On the other hand, the adverse genetic effects on BMI were also amplified by consuming more fried foods, the effects among those who ate fried foods more than four times a week was about twice as large compared with those who ate them less than once a week. (more…)
Cognitive Issues, JAMA, Mayo Clinic, Medical Research Centers, Pulmonary Disease / 19.03.2014

Michelle M. Mielke, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Health Sciences Research, Division of Epidemiology Department of Neurology Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michelle M. Mielke, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Health Sciences Research, Division of Epidemiology Department of Neurology Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN 55905 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mielke: Using a population-based sample of cognitively normal individuals, aged 70-89 at baseline, we found that a medical-record confirmed diagnosis of COPD was associated with an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment, specifically non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment.  The risk of mild cognitive impairment increased with a longer duration of COPD such that individuals who had COPD for more than 5 years had a 2.5-fold increased risk of developing non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Vanderbilt, Weight Research / 19.03.2014

Dr. Eliana M. Perrin, MD, MPH Associate Vice Chancellor for Research, and Director, Office of Research Development University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill  and Associate Professor Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7225MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Dr. Eliana M. Perrin, MD, MPH Associate Vice Chancellor for Research, and Director, Office of Research Development University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill  and Associate Professor Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7225 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Perrin: The study included a large, diverse sample of 863 low-income parents of two-month-olds participating in Greenlight, an obesity prevention trial taking place at four medical centers: UNC, New York University, Vanderbilt University and the University of Miami.  Among all of the parents, behaviors that are thought to be related to later obesity were highly prevalent. Exclusive formula feeding was more than twice as common (45 percent) as exclusive breastfeeding (19 percent). Twelve percent had already introduced solid food, 43 percent put infants to bed with bottles, 23 percent propped bottles instead of holding the bottle by hand (which can result in overfeeding), 20 percent always fed when the infant cried, and 38 percent always tried to get their children to finish their milk.  In addition, 90 percent of the infants were exposed to television and 50 percent actively watched TV (meaning parents put their children in front of the television in order to watch).  There were differences in these behaviors by race and ethnicity, and study results show that culturally-tailored counseling should be offered to parents of different backgrounds who may feed and play with their children differently. (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer, Radiology / 18.03.2014

Dr. Maarten de Rooij MD, PhD Candidate Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Gelderland 6525 GA, The NetherlaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Maarten de Rooij MD, PhD Candidate Department of Radiology Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre Nijmegen, Gelderland 6525 GA, The Netherlands   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. de Rooij : Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer related death. The current diagnosis is based on ‘random or blind’ systematic transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies in men with an elevated PSA. This can lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment of prostate cancer, but can also miss important tumors. The role of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) to improve the diagnosis of prostate cancer is evolving. In this meta-analysis we determined the diagnostic accuracy of mpMRI for the detection of prostate cancer. Our analysis included 7 studies using mpMRI which showed high overall specificity (0.88; 95% CI 0.82-0.92), with variable but high negative predictive values (0.65 - 0.95) and sensitivities (0.74; 95% CI 0.66-0.81). (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Cancer Research, Medical Research Centers, Outcomes & Safety / 18.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Atul Shinagare MD Department of Radiology and Center for Evidence-Based Imaging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115Dr. Atul Shinagare MD Department of Radiology and Center for Evidence-Based Imaging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We evaluated 100 randomly selected patients from a cohort of 1771 patients evaluated for asymptomatic hematuria in 2004 at our institution in order to assess physician adherence to the 2001 American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines for evaluating patients and its impact on the diagnosis of urologic cancer. We found that most (64%) patients were not evaluated according to the guidelines, that there was substantial variation in the evaluation, and that the evaluation depended largely on the type of hematuria and physician specialty. Only 5% of patients were found to have urologic cancer, and all of them were evaluated according to the guidelines. No additional urologic cancers were diagnosed in patients in whom guidelines were not followed; however, since not all patients were tested thoroughly, occult malignancies may have been present. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, HPV, Vaccine Studies / 18.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Rachel J Sacks Jefferiss Wing,  St Mary's Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background of this study? Dr. Sacks: 2247 anonymous questionnaires were completed by young women, aged 13-19 years old, attending sexual health services across England, looking at their HPV vaccination outcomes and prevalence of risk factors associated with HPV acquisition and cervical cancer development, and comparing the survey results with national data where available. Known HPV acquisition and cervical cancer development risk factors include cigarette smoking, early age at first intercourse, increasing number of lifetime partners, co-infection with other sexually transmitted infections. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study Dr. Sacks:
  •          Young women, aged 13  to 19 years old attending sexual health services across England had higher prevalence of known risk factors associated with HPV acquisition and cervical cancer development, compared with national data.
  •          Survey respondents had lower HPV vaccination offer and lower HPV vaccination completion rates than nationally.
  •          Subgroups within the survey respondents were identified as having a significantly lower offer and significantly lower completion rate of the HPV vaccination. These subgroups included respondents from London, those of non-white ethnicities, 17 to 19 year olds, smokers and those not in education, employment or training (NEETs).
  •          The highest risk individuals, in terms of HPV related risk factors, were the least likely to be offered and additional the least likely to complete the HPV vaccination course.
  •          Currently sexual health services in England are not involved in the delivery of the HPV vaccination programme and this is felt to be a huge missed opportunity for the primary prevention of HPV acquisition and its potential sequelae. Sexual health services should be included as a supplementary HPV vaccination delivery site in order to target these particularly vulnerable young women and to increase the success of the HPV vaccination programme in England.
(more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, OBGYNE / 18.03.2014

Erica P. Gunderson, PhD, MS, MPH Senior Research Scientist, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Section Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California Oakland, CA 94612-2304MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Erica P. Gunderson, PhD, MS, MPH Senior Research Scientist, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Section Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California Oakland, CA 94612-2304 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gunderson: The study found that: -   Gestational diabetes is a pregnancy complication that reveals a woman’s greater risk of future heart disease. -   Women who experience gestational diabetes face an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis (early heart disease) even if they do not develop type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome years after pregnancy. -   Study participants with a history of gestational diabetes who did not develop diabetes or metabolic syndrome showed a greater carotid artery wall thickness (marker of early atherosclerosis) compared to those who never experienced gestational diabetes.  The vessel narrowing also could not be attributed to obesity or other risk factors for heart disease that were measured before pregnancy. -   Weight gain and blood pressure elevations in women with gestational diabetes were responsible for these differences in the artery wall thickness. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Lipids, Nutrition / 17.03.2014

Rajiv Chowdhury MD, PhD Cardiovascular Epidemiologist Department of Public Health and Primary Care University of CambridgeMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rajiv Chowdhury MD, PhD Cardiovascular Epidemiologist Department of Public Health and Primary Care University of Cambridge MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chowdhury: Total saturated fatty acid, whether measured as a dietary intake variable or in the bloodstream as a biomarker, was not associated with coronary disease risk in combining all available prospective observational studies. Similarly, there were non-significant overall associations in the prospective studies that involved assessments of total monounsaturated fatty acids, long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, we found diversity in the observational associations between specific circulating long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with coronary risk, with some evidence that circulating levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (ie, the two main types of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids), and arachidonic acid are each associated with lower coronary risk. Similarly, within saturated fatty acids, there were positive, however, non-significant associations observed for circulating blood composition of palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively), whereas circulating margaric acid (a milk fat) had a significant inverse association. Additionally, when we investigated the randomised controlled trials that reported on the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on reducing coronary outcomes, there was no significant overall association observed. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Pain Research, Pharmacology, Radiology, University of Michigan / 17.03.2014

Dr. Brian C. Callaghan MD Department of Neurology University of Michigan Health System, Ann ArborMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Dr. Brian C. Callaghan MD Department of Neurology University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Callaghan:  The main findings are that we order headache neuroimaging (MRIs and CTs) frequently, this accounts for approximately $1 billion dollars annually, and the number of tests ordered is only increasing with time. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Heart Disease, Outcomes & Safety, Surgical Research / 17.03.2014

Dr Tahir Hamid MRCP (UK), FESC Department of Cardiology, Royal Albert Edward Infirmary NHS Trust,  Wigan, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Tahir Hamid MRCP (UK), FESC Department of Cardiology, Royal Albert Edward Infirmary NHS Trust,  Wigan, UK MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hamid: Traditionally patients undergoing diagnostic and interventional coronary artery procedures are kept Nil-by-mouth, but until yet there exists neither evidence nor clear guidance about the benefits of this practice in such patients. In our study performed at two National Health Services (NHS) institutes, we demonstrated in our 1916 patients, that such procedures could be undertaken without the need for being 4-6 hours fasting. None of our patients had major complications leading to pulmonary aspiration or emergency cardiac surgery. (more…)
Heart Disease, Orthopedics / 16.03.2014

Bheeshma Ravi, MDMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bheeshma Ravi, MD Orthopedic Surgery University of Toronto Medical Center   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ravi:  This study suggests that in persons with moderate-severe osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, total joint replacement is associated with a significant reduction in the risks for serious cardiovascular events. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Emergency Care, Pain Research, Pharmacology / 16.03.2014

Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi PharmD, MD1MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi PharmD, MD The Department of Emergency Medicine, The George Washington University The Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found a significant increase in the prescribing of opioid pain medications in the emergency department. At the same time, this was not accounted for by a similar increase in pain-related visits and prescribing patterns of non-opioid analgesics did not change. (more…)