MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Patricia W. Stone, PhD, FAAN
Columbia University School of Nursing
New York, NY 10032.
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Stone: Our study found variation in the presence of infection control policies directed at central-line bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Even when present, the policies were adhered to only about half of the time.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lisen Arnheim Dahlström
Associate Professor (Docent)
Institutionen för medicinsk epidemiologi och biostatistik
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Karolinska Institutet Sweden
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: The main finding, when studying HPV vaccine effectiveness against condyloma by dose level is that 3 doses offered the maximum protection, although 2 doses also offered a substantial protection.
MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with:Monica Morrow MD
Anne Burnett Windfohr Chair of Clinical Oncology
Chief Breast Service memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Morrow:The study is the report of a Consensus panel examining the question of whether more widely clear lumpectomy margins than no ink on tumor decrease local recurrence. A metaanalysis of published literature was used as the primary evidence base for the conclusion.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Matthew BumanPhD
School of Nutrition and Health Promotion, Arizona State University
Arizona State University, School of Nutrition and Health Promotion
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Buman: We found that that exercise at night (within 4 hours of bedtime) was not associated with poor sleep compared with individuals that did not exercise before bed. However, we also found that morning exercise appears to be associated with optimal sleep quality.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Masaaki Kawai MD, PhD
Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: Ever-smokers had a 1.3-fold increased risk of breast cancer. They also had a 1.4-fold increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer. Current/recent smokers with a 10 pack-year history of smoking had a 1.6-fold increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kirstie Bell
Diabetes Dietitian, CDE & PhD Candidate
Human Nutrition Unit
The University of Sydney
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: Overall, the evidence to support carbohydrate counting is limited, with current data showing a non-significant improvement in HbA1c. Pooled results from 7 quality randomised control trials studies showed carbohydrate counting had no significant effect on glycemic control (-0.35%, p = 0.096). There was a significant improvement in HbA1c of 0.64% points in studies in adults that were conducted in a parallel design.
This is the first meta-analysis of carbohydrate counting in type 1 diabetes. Up until now, it has not been known what improvement in glycemic control can be expected. Current international guidelines for diabetes management have been based merely on gradings of the available evidence. However, assessing the overall effectiveness of carbohydrate counting is critical in clinical practice to guide medical and dietary management decisions.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Holly Thomas, MD
General Internal Medicine Fellow, Women's Health and Clinical Research
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Thomas: We found that, despite popular perception, the majority of women (85%) who are sexually active at midlife will remain sexually active four years later. We also found that the majority of women score low on a measure of sexual function. However, low sexual function scores did not mean women stopped having sex. In fact, the score on the sexual function measure did not predict whether women maintained sexual activity. Finally, we found that importance of sex was a strong predictor of whether women remained sexually active. Women who felt sex was moderately to extremely important in their lives were 3 times more likely to maintain sexual activity.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Cameron Wolfe MBBS(Hons), MPH
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Clinical / Transplant Infectious Diseases
Duke University Medical Center
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Wolfe: The major findings of the study were that at least in our center, there was a significant burden of critical illness due to H1N1 influenza infection. The average age of the patients admitted to the hospital was just 28yrs, consistent with the younger patient age in 2009 when H1N1 emerged. Most critically, we also observed a significantly lower rate of influenza vaccine uptake in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Units at our center.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jim Tsung, MD, MPH
Department of Emergency Medicine
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
New York, NY 10029
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
1. Point-of-care ultrasound performed by clinicians was as accurate as ultrasound performed in the radiology department for evaluating appendicitis in children.
2. This led to significant reductions in emergency department stays when point-of-care ultrasound was able to contribute to the decision to send the patient to the operating room or to discharge home without further imaging studies. On average, a 2 hour (46%) reduction in ED LOS for patients only requiring radiology ultrasound and a 6 hour (68%) reduction in ED LOS for patients that needed CT scan.
3. Point-of-care ultrasound can also reduce the rate of CT scans obtained when used as a front-line test, 44% to 27%.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Stephanie Angione
Brown University School of Engineering
Center for Biomedical Engineering
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: This study demonstrates the application of a novel nucleic acid detection platform to detect Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)in subjects presenting with acute diarrheal symptoms. This method amplifies three genes associated with C. difficile infection as well as genes associated with virulence attributed to the NAP1/027/BI strain. The novel PCR assay allows for simple and rapid detection of three C. difficile genes: tcdB, cdtB, and tcdC, which code for C. difficile toxin B, C. difficile binary toxin, and a protein suspected to regulate toxin production, which includes the NAP1/027/BI tcdC variant. Amplification of DNA from the tcdB, tcdC and cdtB genes can be carried out using a droplet sandwich platform that performs real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in microliter droplets for the detection and identification of amplified fragments of DNA. Our technique of multiplex gene amplification provides a unique method that is both sensitive and specific to rapidly detect C. difficile in patient stool samples that can be adapted to point-of-care testing. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com with:Dr John Holmes PhD, MA, BA (Hons) (York)
Section of Public Health, ScHARR,
University of Sheffield,
Sheffield S1 4DA, UK
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Holmes:The study aimed to examine which groups in society would be affected by a 45p minimum unit price for alcohol. This was in response to concerns expressed by, among others, the UK Government that the policy may not tackle harmful drinking and may penalise responsible drinkers.
We found no support for these concerns. As the policy targets the cheap alcohol which is disproportionately purchased by those drinking at harmful levels, the effects are mainly felt by those at greatest risk of suffering harm from their drinking. On the other hand, moderate drinkers, including those on low incomes, buy very little of this cheap alcohol so are relatively unaffected.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Sharon Daniel MD, MPH
Physician, Intern in pediatrics at Soroka Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel
Prof. Amalia Levy (MPH, PhD
Epidemiologist, Head of the Department of Public Health
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Beer-Sheva, Israel,MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: We tested the risk for miscarriage following the use of NSAIDs (ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen, indomethacin, etodolac) on the first trimester of pregnancy. We did not find increased risk among women who took those drugs during the first trimester of pregnancy, although we did find increased risk after the use of indomethacin. We found higher risk after the use of specific NSAIDs (Celecoxib, Rofecoxib, Etoricoxib) which are usually used to treat inflammatory diseases, only the exposure group was very small.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:David Gozal, MD
The Herbert T. Abelson Professor and Chair
Department of Pediatrics
Physician-in-Chief, Comer Children's Hospital
The University of Chicago Chicago, IL 60637
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Gozal: Our study shows that in children with mild obstructive apnea, treatment with an anti-inflammatory combination of 2 medications, namely nasal corticosteroid and oral montelukast is associated with favorable outcomes in the vast majority of the children. Thus, rather than pursue treatment with adenotonsillectomy as is currently the case in most places, this study paves the way for non-surgical alternative therapies in pediatric OSA.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bríain ó Hartaigh, Ph.D.
Assistant Research Professor of Epidemiology
Dalio Institute of Cardiovascular Imaging
Weill Cornell Medical College
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: Sustained elevations in resting heart rate measured longitudinally over the course of 6 years were strongly and independently associated with a greater risk of death from all causes in adults aged 65 years or older.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with study leaders:Shalini Selvarajah MD, MPHPostdoctoral Research Fellow
Center for Surgical Trials and Outcomes Research
Department of Surgery
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Baltimore, MD 21287 and
Edward R. Hammond, MD, PhD, MPHResearchAssociate
International Center for Spinal Cord Injury
Hugo W. Moser Research Institute at Kennedy Krieger Institute
Baltimore, MD 21205.
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Researchers:
· Between 2007 and 2010, the number of serious traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) in the United States (U.S.) increased, doing so more rapidly among older adults (age ≥65 years) compared to younger adults (age <65 years). Injuries from falls have overtaken motor vehicle crashes as the main cause of adult TSCI.
· Older adults are more likely to experience worse outcomes compared to younger adults even after taking into account severity and mechanism of injury, as well as other co-morbid conditions. Older adults are 4 times more likely to die in the emergency room, and if admitted to inpatient care, they are 6 times more likely to die as inpatients compared to younger adults.
· Emergency room charges for treatment of acute TSCI among adults increased 20% from $3,342 per encounter in 2007 to $4,024 per encounter in 2010 even after accounting for the cost of inflation.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Scott L. Zuckerman, MD
Department of Neurological Surgery
Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Center
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Zuckerman: Our study evaluated 244 athletes who suffered sports-related concussion (SRC), 122 males and 122 females, and assessed for gender differences in number, severity, and resolution of post-concussive symptoms using reliable change index (RCI) methodology applied to days to return to symptom baseline. Both groups were matched on number of prior concussions, age, and days to first post-concussion assessment, which consisted of the 22 symptom Post Concussion Symptom Checklist from the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) evaluation tool.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jenifer I Fenton
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Fenton:This was a cross-sectional study, and thus, a snapshot in time. Although it cannot infer cause or temporality of obesity and colon polyp risk in men, it does show that obese men were more likely to have a polyp than their lean counterpart. In addition, there were serum biomarkers also associated with this risk. This could eventually lead to future blood tests to identify individuals at greater risk for polyps and inform screening recommendations.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Mariam El-Zein, PhD.
Associée de recherche/ Research associate
Unité d'épidémiologie et biostatistique / Epidemiology & Biostatistics Unit
Université du Québec
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer:The overall indication is that a prior history of allergic diseases (asthma, eczema or hay fever) might decrease lung cancer risk. There was a 36% (odds ratio= 0.64, 95% confidence intervals: 0.44-0.93) reduction in lung cancer risk among subjects who reported a history of asthma. Hay fever was associated with a 67% (odds ratio= 0.33, 95% confidence intervals: 0.19-0.59) reduction in lung cancer risk. Smoking was accounted for using a comprehensive smoking index that takes into account multiple dimensions of smoking behaviour (i.e., smoking status, intensity, duration, and time since cessation). A lower risk of lung cancer (reduction by 37%; odds ratio= 0.63, 95% confidence intervals: 0.38-1.07) was found among those having had eczema, but was not statistically significant.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Peter de Jonge
Interdisciplinary Center for Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Netherlands
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. de Jonge:The main findings were that depression and impulse control disorders, in particular binge eating and bulimia were associated with diabetes.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chih-Jen Chang, MD
Department of Family Medicine
National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Chang: Postmenopausal women without vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats) have poorer sleep quality than premenopausal women. In addition, menopause and snoring are associated with an increased risk of poor sleep quality independently of cardiometabolic factors and lifestyle.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Flora Lum, MD
Executive Director, The H. Dunbar Hoskins Jr., M.D. Center for Quality Eye Care,
American Academy of Ophthalmology
San Francisco, CA 94109-1336
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lum: This study anticipates the increased use of claims data for research.
The study recommends a checklist for authors to use in reporting claims data analyses, and discusses the advantages and limitations of using claims data.
MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected? Dr. Lum: There is variability in the methods and descriptions of claims data analyses, and as these increase in number and importance, its encouraged that researchers use rigorous methods.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Gabriela Schmajuk M.D. M.S.
Department of Medicine (Rheumatology)
University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco VA Medical Center
San Francisco, CA 94121
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
Dr. Schmajuk: Our main findings were that moderate LFT abnormalities were uncommon
in the first 7 months of methotrexate use among new users, and more
likely to occur in patients with obesity, untreated high cholesterol,
pre-methotrexate LFT elevations, biologic agent use, and lack of folic acid supplementation.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Kinesh Patel, Research Fellow
Wolfson Unit for Endoscopy
St Mark’s Hospital, Harrow HA1 3UJ, UK
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Patel: Most drugs prescribed in primary care have ingredients that come from
animals, but the animals they come from is not always clear and whether the
drugs are suitable for vegetarians is difficult to find out conclusively,
even after looking at information available on packets, information
leaflets and on the internet.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Sabina Illi, Dipl.-Stat., MPH
University Children's Hospital
80337 Munich Germany
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer:We observed that the offspring of atopic pregnant women that showed symptoms of atopy during pregnancy, i.e. atopic dermatitis or hay fever, had a higher risk of having the respective atopic disorder themselves. However, we do not know whether this is due to timing, i.e. pregnancy, or whether it merely mirrors the severity of maternal disease.
Furthermore, in our study pregnant mothers with repeated colds during pregnancy were at increased risk of having a child that wheezed at pre-school age, this was statistically independent of the intake of medication.
MedicalReseach.com Interview with: Quanhe Yang, PhD
Division for Heart Disease
and Stroke Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
Atlanta, GA 30341
MedicalReseach.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Yang: The majority of US adults consume more added sugar than is recommended for a healthy diet. On average, Americans consume about 15% of daily calories from added sugar. About 70% of adults consume more than 10%of calories from added sugar and another 10% consume more than 25% of calories from added sugar. When you compare those who consume 7.5% (lowest quintile) of calories from added sugar with participants who consume between 17%-21% (quintile 4) of calories from added sugar, the latter group has a 38% higher risk of CVD mortality. But the risk of CVD death more than doubles for those who consume ≥21% (highest quintile) of calories from added sugar.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joanne E. Brady SM
Senior Staff Associate
Department of Anesthesiology
Doctoral Candidate in Epidemiology
Columbia University Medical Center
New York, NY 10032
Department of Epidemiology,
Columbia’s Mailman School of Public HealthMedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer:The prevalence of non-alcohol drugs detected in fatally injured drivers in the U.S. increased from 17% in 1999 to 28% in 2010. The increases are largely driven by the tripling in the prevalence of cannabis.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Carsten Juhl, PhD, MPH
Forskningsenheden for Muskuloskeletal Funktion og Fysioterapi (FoF)
Institut for idræt og biomekanik
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Juhi: The main findings of this study including 48 RCTs with more than 4000 patients were that
 exercise therapy programs focusing on a single type of exercise were more efficacious in reducing pain and patient-reported disability than those mixing several types of exercise with different goals within the same session;
 the number of supervised sessions enhances the benefits of the aerobic exercise;
 exercise focusing on the knee extensor muscle strength only, may increase the benefits of resistance training and
 exercise seems to be effective therapy for knee osteoarthritis, regardless of age, sex, BMI, radiographic status or baseline pain.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rachelle S. Doody, M.D.,Ph.D.
Effie Marie Cain Chair in Alzheimer's Disease Research
Director, Alzheimer's Disease and Memory Disorders Center
Baylor College of Medicine-Department of Neurology
Houston, Texas 77030: MedicalResearch.com
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Doody: The study set out to see whether the antibody infusion treatment, Solanezumab, would improve the course of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease in the ways necessary to gain drug approval. Unfortunately, the results did not support an approvable treatment for this purpose.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Roberto Fernández Galán, PhD
Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, OH, USA
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Galán: The main finding is that autistic brains create more information at rest than non-autistic brains. This is consistent with the classical view on autism as withdrawal into self. It is also consistent with a recent theory on autism, the “Intense World Theory”, which claims that autism results from hyper-functioning neural circuitry, leading to a state of excessive arousal. From both perspectives, the classical and the IWT, communication and social deficits associated with autism result from having a more intense inner life and a higher level of introspection.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Fengmin Zhao, MS,PhD Biostatistician
Department of Biostatistics & Computational Biology Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Boston, MA 02215
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Zhao: We analyzed 2,761 patients in this study. We found that at initial assessment, 53.0% of patients had no pain, 23.5% had mild pain, 10.3% had moderate pain, and 13.2% had severe pain. Overall, one third of patients with initial pain had pain reduction within 1 month of follow-up, and one fifth had an increase. Inadequate pain management was significantly associated with pain deterioration in these patients, as were lower baseline pain level, younger age, and poor health status. Of the patients without pain at initial assessment, 28.4% reported pain at the follow-up assessment (8.9% of them were moderate to severe pain), and more than half of them received inadequate pain management.
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