Author Interviews, Stroke / 22.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Saeid Shahidi, MD. Chief Consultant in supra-aortic surgery. Vascular Unit, Regional Hospital Slagelse, Region Zealand, Denmark. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background of your study? Answer: Our Prospective Population-based study showed, an expedited CEA can be performed in the subacute period ( >2 - <30 days) without significantly increasing the operative risk. The acute admission and urgent aggressive BMT with dual therapy in our cohort was associated with significant reduction P<0.00001 in the risk of early neurological recurrent (NR) in the CEA patient. It seems that in neurologically stable patients CEA can wait up to 30 days provided urgent BMT has been started in specialized stroke/ TIA clinics. Our study also adds to the data on the benefit of specialist TIA clinics. (more…)
HIV, Infections, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 21.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. H. Irene Hall, PhD Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC 1600 Clifton Road, MS E-47, Atlanta, GA 30333 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hall: Our research finds that, across all populations, far too few Americans with HIV receive the care they need to stay healthy and reduce risk of transmission. According to our research, gaps in care are the largest among African Americans and young people. Moving forward, improving care for all HIV-infected people will be critical to achieving the goal of an AIDS-free generation in America. More specifically, some of the key findings of the study include:
  • Overall, only a quarter of all Americans with HIV have a suppressed viral load – meaning the level of HIV in their bodies is low enough to stay healthy and dramatically reduce the chance of transmitting to others.
  • By race/ethnicity, African-Americans and Hispanics or Latinos are less likely to be aware of their infection compared to whites.
  • By age, younger Americans are less likely to be in ongoing care and have a suppressed viral load; HIV care and viral suppression generally improved with age. For example:
  • Fifteen percent of those aged 25-34 were virally suppressed, compared to 36 percent of those aged 55-64.
  • In terms of ongoing care, 28 percent of those 25-34 years old were retained in care, compared to 46 percent of those aged 55-64. (more…)
Brigham & Women's - Harvard, General Medicine, Medical Research Centers / 20.06.2013

Dr. Susan Redline M.D.,M.P.H. Peter C. Farrell Professor of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School Brigham and Women's Hospital 221 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Susan Redline M.D.,M.P.H. Peter C. Farrell Professor of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School Brigham and Women's Hospital 221 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Redline: Among children with sleep apnea, early adenotonsillectomy resulted in significant improvements in breathing during sleep, daytime behavior, sleep related symptoms, sleepiness and quality of life when we valuated 6 months after surgery. MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected? (more…)
Diabetes, JAMA, Pediatrics / 20.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ezio Bonifacio, Ph.D. Professor, Preclinical Stem Cells/Diabetes Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden Technische Universität Dresden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bonifacio: Children who develop multiple islet autoantibodies are destined to develop diabetes. Only a minority will be diabetes-free 15 years after developing islet autoantibodies. This is regardless of whether they have a family history of type 1 diabetes. Progression to diabetes after seroconversion varied from weeks to decades, and 20% of children had diabetes within 2 years from seroconverting. Progression was fastest in children who developed their islet autoantibodies before age 3 years. MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected? Dr. Bonifacio: Unexpected is probably not the right word. The Eisenbarth model of chronic disease proposes that diabetes will happen some time after autoimmunity and the findings show the reality of it. Perhaps the unexpected finding is that it is not always chronic and that for a number of children, intervention would need to be applied quickly. (more…)
Author Interviews, McGill, Nutrition, Probiotics, Vitamin D / 20.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Mitchell Jones, MD, PhD Faculty of Medicine at McGill University in Montreal Dr. Mitchell Jones, MD, PhD Faculty of Medicine at McGill University in Montreal MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jones: We had previously reported on the cholesterol lowering efficacy of bile salt hydrolase active L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 due to reduced intestinal sterol absorption. However, the effects of bile salt hydrolase active L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 on fat soluble vitamins was previously unknown and was the focus of the study. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Rheumatology, Vaccine Studies / 19.06.2013

Marloes Heijstek MD University Medical Center, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital Department of Pediatric Immunology and Rheumatology Room number KC 03.063.0 P.O. Box 85090 Lundlaan 6 3508 AB Utrecht MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marloes Heijstek MD University Medical Center, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital Department of Pediatric Immunology and Rheumatology Room number KC 03.063.0 P.O. Box 85090 Lundlaan 6 3508 AB Utrecht MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Heijstek: The main findings of our study are that MMR booster vaccination does not affect JIA disease, does not cause flares of arthritis and induces high rates of protective immunity. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Hospital Acquired, Infections, Outcomes & Safety / 19.06.2013

Marin L. Schweizer Ph.D. Assistant Professor University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marin L. Schweizer Ph.D. Assistant Professor University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine Iowa City, IA, USA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schweizer: A clinical bundle that includes nasally screening cardiac and orthopedic surgery patients for S. aureus (both methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus), decolonizing carriers, and changing antibiotic prophylaxis for MRSA carriers, can significantly reduce the number of gram-positive surgical site infections, S. aureus surgical site infections and MRSA surgical site infections. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Medical Research Centers, Sleep Disorders / 17.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Yanping Li, PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School Department of Medicine Channing Division of Network Medicine Boston, MA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: During 8 years of follow-up, we observed that men with RLS had a 30% increased risk of death. MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected? Answer: Based on our hypothesis, we would like to observed a higher risk of death from cardiovascular diseases, but we do not. (more…)
Author Interviews, Insomnia, Johns Hopkins, Sleep Disorders / 12.06.2013

Hemodialysis.com Interview with: Christopher Kaufmann, MHS Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Hampton House, Room 800 624 North Broadway Baltimore, MD 21205 email: ckaufman@jhsph.edu MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Mr. Kaufmann: The purpose of our study was to examine the association between insomnia and the use of a number of costly health services. We used data from the Health and Retirement Study, a large nationally representative longitudinal population-based study of US middle-aged and older adults. We found that individuals who reported a greater number of insomnia symptoms were more likely to report being hospitalized, using home healthcare services, and using nursing homes two years later. After we accounted for a number of demographic and clinical characteristics, the association between number of reported insomnia symptoms and hospitalization remained statistically significant. (more…)
Author Interviews / 12.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with: Michael Bang Petersen Associate Professor, PhD Department of Political Science Aarhus University, Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: While many think of politics as a modern phenomenon, politics has – in a sense – been with our species always. Our ancestors have been group living animals for millions of years and it would be surprising if natural selection had not shaped our ancestors’ psychology to navigate core political situations including how to manage resource conflicts. In this article, we applied this insight to the study of attitudes towards economic redistribution and theorized about the kinds of factors that an evolved psychology of conflict navigation would consider important. Given that we evolved in small-scale groups and many conflicts would have to be settled face-to-face, one such factor – at least, for males – would be physical strength. Essentially, stronger males should be more likely to escalate conflicts and pursuit their self-interest. On modern political issues of economic redistribution, self-interest is determined by socio-economic status (SES). Individuals with high SES have an interest in decreasing redistribution, whereas individuals with low SES have an interest in increasing redistribution. On this basis, an adaptationist perspective on the psychology of redistribution attitudes predicts that for rich males upper-body strength should decrease support for redistribution. For poor males, in contrast, upper-body strength should increase support for redistribution. This is what we found in three highly different countries: the United States, Denmark and Argentina. Cross countries, physically strong males opted for the self-interested political position. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Esophageal, Nutrition / 08.06.2013

DR. RAUL ZAMORA-ROS, PhD. POSDOCTORAL FELLOW UNIT OF NUTRITION, ENVIRONMENT AND CANCER CATALAN INSTITUTE OF ONCOLOGY (ICO) – BELLVITGE BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (IDIBELL) BARCELONA, SPAIN MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Zamora-Ros: Our study shows that diets rich on flavonoids (polyphenols ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom, such as in fruit, vegetables, tea, wine and chocolate), particularly flavonols, are associated with less esophageal cancer risk, especially in current smokers. Tobacco smoking causes oxidative stress, and both oxidative stress and smoking tobacco are related to increased esophageal cancer risk. Therefore, our data suggest that the possible protective mechanism of dietary flavonoids may be related to their antioxidant properties, which may not be attributed to the direct antioxidant action, but to the ability to modulate antioxidant enzymatic pathways. (more…)
Duke, Mental Health Research, Ophthalmology / 08.06.2013

From: Duke University

Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy 2020 West Main Street, Suite 201 Box 104410 Durham, North Carolina 27708

TITLE: Retinal Vessel Caliber and Lifelong Neuropsychological Functioning An international research team from the USA, UK, Singapore and New Zealand reports that the size of the blood vessels in the back of the eye can indicate the health of the brain of people approaching midlife (age 38 years), years before age-related declines in brain functioning. PUBLICATION SOURCE: Psychological Science, advance online publication date, May 2013. BACKGROUND:
  • Young people who score low on IQ tests, tend to be at higher risk for diseases in later life, and even tend to die younger.
  • One plausible explanation for this link is that intelligence tests assess brain health.
  • Digital retinal imaging is a relatively new and non-invasive method to visualize the small blood vessels in the retina, at the back of the eye. The small vessels in the eye may reflect the conditions of the vessels inside the brain because both eye and brain vessels share similar size, structure and function. Thus, retinal imaging can provide a window to study the health of the brain in living humans.
  • We studied the link between retinal vessel width and intelligence tests scores in the representative Dunedin birth cohort of 1000 New Zealanders born in 1972-73, and followed for 38 years with repeated assessments.
  • Using a digital fundus camera, which can photograph the interior surface of the eye, we were able to assess the size of the small blood-vessels in the retina, namely, the arterioles and venules (the small branches of the arteries and veins). We also administered intelligence tests in childhood and adulthood.
THE FINDING:
  • We found that study members who presented with wider venules had poorer intelligence tests scores at midlife (age 38 years). This finding held up independently of potential factors that may explain this link, such as low socio-economic status, smoking, or diabetes.
  • Moreover, wider venules in the eye were linked with lower childhood IQ that had been tested 25 years earlier.
  • (more…)
Author Interviews, Sleep Disorders, University of Pennsylvania / 07.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Frederick M. Brown, Ph.D. Associate Professor The Pennsylvania State University Department of Psychology, Cognitive and Wellness Director, Human Performance Rhythms Laboratory MedicalResearch.com: What was the primary finding of your study? Dr. Brown: Time of day of an occupation, as well as a regular versus irregular routine, may influence whether a person wants to go into it or not. Most educational research has focused on academic major selection motivated by job aptitude, personality, and sociocultural factors. Our findings suggest that a person’s genetically determined built-in morning versus evening (M/E) preference for best time of day to work or sleep may influence career choice in two important ways: This M/E preference for work and sleep is related to 1) personality and to 2) the time of day the job is executed. These may interact with how much sleep a person thinks they need. In addition to the personality traits associated with M/E, such as morning people being more introverted and evening people more extroverted, an individual’s choice of major may be influenced by their preference for the typical work hours of a profession, such as a routine 9-to-5 schedule versus irregular evening and weekend work. (more…)
Author Interviews, C. difficile, Infections, Nutrition, Probiotics / 07.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with: Dr. Reena Pattani MD Department of Medicine St. Michael’s Hospital 30 Bond Street, Toronto ON M5B 1W8 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pattani: We performed a meta-analysis of 16 studies that assessed the effectiveness of probiotics administered concurrently with antibiotics compared to the use of antibiotics alone. The use of probiotics among patients in these trials reduced the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by almost 40% and decreased the rate of Clostridium difficile infection by 63%. On subgroup analysis, the reduction remained statistically significant for the subgroups of good quality trials, trials in which a primarily Lactobacillus-based regimen was used, and those studies which had a follow-up period of less than 4 weeks. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Nutrition, Outcomes & Safety, Vegetarians / 06.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with: Michael J. Orlich, M.D. Program Director Preventive Medicine Residency Loma Linda University www.lluprevmedres.org Research Fellow, Adventist Health Studies www.adventisthealthstudy.org MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Orlich: The main findings were these. Vegetarians, as we defined them, had reduced risk of death during the study period compared to non-vegetarians. This was true also for particular vegetarian diets including for vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and pesco-vegetarians. Reduced risk was seen in particular for deaths related to disease of the heart, kidneys, and diabetes. Findings were stronger in men than women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Social Issues / 05.06.2013

Peter Muennig, MD, MPH Associate Professor of Health Policy and Management Columbia University School of Public Health NY City, NY MedicalResearch.com eInterview with: Peter Muennig, MD, MPH Associate Professor of Health Policy and Management Columbia University School of Public Health NY City, NY     MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We find that one of the welfare time limit experiments that led to welfare reform in the United States in 1996 led to increases in mortality rates among experimental group participants over 14-15 years of follow up. MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected? Answer: Yes. Welfare reform led to increases in employment among the experimental group participants. Employment has long been hypothesized to reduce mortality. We examined this experiment to explore whether increases in employment among those exposed to time limits on welfare reduced mortality. We found instead they increased mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Outcomes & Safety / 04.06.2013

James D. Chambers, PhD, MPharm Assistant Professor The Center for the Evaluation of Value and Risk in Health Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies TuftsMedicalCenter www.cearegistry.org MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Epstein: Using cost-effectiveness evidence to help inform the allocation of expenditures for medical interventions in Medicare has the potential to generate substantial aggregate health gains for the Medicare population with no increases in spending. Reallocating expenditures for interventions in Medicare using cost-effectiveness evidence led to an estimated aggregate health gain of 1.8 million quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), a measure of health gain that accounts for both quality and quantity of life. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Depression, Mental Health Research, UT Southwestern / 04.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with: John Hart, M.D. Medical Science Director at the Center for BrainHealth Jane and Bud Smith Distinguished Chair Cecil Green Distinguished Chair The University of Texas at Dallas John Hart, M.D. Medical Science Director at the Center for BrainHealth Jane and Bud Smith Distinguished Chair Cecil Green Distinguished Chair The University of Texas at Dallas MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hart: Football players often sustain numerous concussive and subconcussive impacts—head impacts that do not elicit neurologic symptoms that may lead to white matter damage. We evaluated a population of retired NFL players in order to study the relationship between white matter integrity and the manifestation of depressive symptoms. We identified, for the first time, a correlation between depression and white matter abnormalities in former players with a remote history of concussion using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Our data demonstrated a significant association between white matter integrity, as measured by DTI Fractional Anisotropy (FA), and the presence as well as severity of depressive symptoms in retired NFL athletes with a history of concussive or subconcussive impacts. We also found that dysfunction of the anterior aspect of the corpus callosum (forceps minor) and its projections to the frontal lobe can identify those with depression with 100% sensitivity and 95% specificity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Lifestyle & Health / 04.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with: Haitham Ahmed, MD, MPH The Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease Johns Hopkins Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What were the main findings of the study? Dr. Ahmed: Everyone knows that healthy lifestyle habits are major factors that protect you from heart disease. What we don’t know is which habits are most important, and how exactly these habits prevent disease progression along the causal biological pathway over years and years. So we followed 6,200 men and women of various ethnic backgrounds from 6 university locations across the US. We looked at their eating habits, exercise, weight, and smoking history. We did CT scans on them at the start of the study and then a few years later (mean 3 years) and found that healthier people had lower calcium deposition in their coronaries. We then kept following them and found that these same healthy people had a trend towards less cardiovascular events. We then kept following them further and found that these same healthy people died less, by an 80% lower rate, compared to people that were unhealthy, which was incredible. So what we took away from this is that you have enormous power in changing your risk of atherosclerosis, heart disease, and death by changing your lifestyle behaviors. (more…)
Author Interviews, Memory, Mental Health Research / 04.06.2013

Dr Sunjeev Kamboj Lecturer in Clinical Psychology Co-ordinator for International DClinPsy Trainees http://www.ucl.ac.uk/clinical-psychology/index.htm MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kamboj: Using a fairly standard approach for this type of research, we measured the frequency of intrusive memories in normal, healthy women after they watched a series of video clips containing distressing scenes. We also measured baseline levels of progesterone and estrogen. We tested three groups of women who, while similar in all respects such age, education level, as well as how they responded to the film, differed in terms of the stage of the menstrual cycle they were in. Our key finding was that women in the 'early luteal phase' - which occurs in the third week of the cycle - had three times as many intrusive memories about the video than women in the first two weeks or fourth week of the cycle. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes / 03.06.2013

Dr. Fumiaki Imamura, Ph.D. Research Fellow Harvard School of Public Heath Department of Epidemiology 677 Huntington Ave, Kresge-913C Boston, MA

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Imamura: Among older adults, risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were differentially associated with DM preceded predominantly by IR or β-cell dysfunction. MedicalResearch.com:Were any of the findings unexpected? Dr. Imamura: For subsets of incident DM, some conventional DM risk factors, including body-mass index and HDL-cholesterol, could not predict incident DM. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Exercise - Fitness, Weight Research / 31.05.2013

Martin Sénéchal, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Researcher The Manitoba Institute of Child Health University of Manitoba 511E- 715 McDermot Ave Winnipeg, Manitoba MedicalResearch.com eInterview with Martin Sénéchal, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Researcher The Manitoba Institute of Child Health University of Manitoba 511E- 715 McDermot Ave Winnipeg, Manitoba MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding of this study is that reducing central adiposity and increasing fitness in men and women with Type 2 diabetes are key components for successfully improving glycemic control. A secondary finding of the study is that improvement in both central adiposity (reduction) and fitness (increasing) simultaneously; increase the likelihood of reducing HbA1c, one of the most widely used indicators of glucose control, and/or Type 2 diabetes medications. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Lancet, Vaccine Studies / 31.05.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with: Fengcai Zhu Deputy Director of the Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Jiangsu provincial center for disease prevention and control

Fengcai Zhu

Deputy Director of the Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Jiangsu provincial center for disease prevention and control

MedicalResearch.com Editor's Note: HFMD = Hand Foot and Mouth Disease Hand Foot and Mouth Disease

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: From this trial, the inactivated alum-adjuvant EV71 vaccine showed a good protection for both the EV71-associated HFMD and EV71-associated disease. The vaccine gave 90% protection against clinical EV71-associated HFMD and 80.4% against EV71-associated disease (including neurological complications) for at least 12 months. The safety profile and immunogenicity of this vaccine is proved to be clinical acceptable. We also proposed a titre (1:32) of neutralization antibody as surrogate of protection against EV71-associated disease.

(more…)

Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Thyroid Disease / 31.05.2013

 Pauline Mendola, PhD Investigator Epidemiology Branch Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Rockville, MD 20852 MedicalResearch.com eInterview with Pauline Mendola, PhD Investigator Epidemiology Branch Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Rockville, MD 20852 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mendola: Women with thyroid disease during pregnancy had more obstetric complications including preeclampsia and preterm birth. They were also more likely to be admitted to an intensive care unit during their delivery admission. (more…)
Author Interviews, Emergency Care, NEJM / 30.05.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with: Adam Z. Tobias, MD, MPH Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Pittsburgh, PA 15261 Adam Z. Tobias, MD, MPH Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Pittsburgh, PA 15261 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We reviewed records of 11,920 in-flight medical emergency calls from five domestic and international commercial airlines to a physician-staffed medical communications center at the University of Pittsburgh. We found that during the study period, there was one medical emergency per 604 flights (16 per 1 million passengers). The most common problems were syncope or pre-syncope, respiratory symptoms, and nausea and vomiting. Aircraft diversion to an alternative landing site occurred just over 7% of the time. About one quarter of patients were transported to a hospital and only 8.6% were admitted. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Stanford / 30.05.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with Ronald Levy, M.D. Professor and Chief Division of Oncology Stanford University, 269 Campus Drive Stanford, California 94305, USA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Levy: Injection of antibodies that deplete Treg cells directly into a tumor can evoke an immune response that cures the animal of distant, untreated tumors. This effect eliminates cancer even in the brain. The dose of antibodies locally injected can be as low as 1/100 the dose used for systemic injection and therefore should avoid the usual autoimmune side effects of these antibodies. The antibodies used are directed against CTLA4 and OX40 antigens. (more…)