Author Interviews, Eating Disorders, Weight Research / 17.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Stephan  Zipfel  MD Professor of Medicine & Dean of Medical Education Head Department of Internal Medicine VI (Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy) University Medical Hospital Tuebingen President of the German College of Psychosomatic Medicine (DKPM) Co-Director of the centre for nutritional Medicine Tuebingen-Hohenheim 72076 Tuebingen / Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Zipfel: Outpatient treatment of adults with anorexia nervosa by either enhanced cognitive-behaviour therapy, focal psychodynamic therapy, or optimised treatment as usual led to relevant weight gains and a decrease in general and eating disorder-specific psychopathology during the course of treatment. These positive effects continued beyond treatment until 12-month follow-up. Most patients completed treatment and the acceptance of both specific therapy approaches was high among both patients and therapists. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education / 17.10.2013

Eva Aagaard, MD Associate Professor of Medicine, Assistant Dean for Lifelong Learning, Director of the Academy of Medical Educators, Director of the Center for Advancing Professional Excellence, and Director of Faculty Development in General Internal Medicine at the University of ColoradoMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eva Aagaard, MD Associate Professor of Medicine, Assistant Dean for Lifelong Learning, Director of the Academy of Medical Educators, Director of the Center for Advancing Professional Excellence, and Director of Faculty Development in General Internal Medicine at the University of Colorado MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Aagaard: We obtained feedback on, and assessed the construct validity and perceived feasibility and utility of, draft Internal Medicine Milestones for Patient Care and Systems-Based Practice used a mixed methods  study involving competency committee members in Internal Medicine residency programs. An initial survey assessed participant and program demographics; focus groups obtained feedback on the draft milestones and explored their perceived utility in resident assessment, and an exit survey elicited input on the value of the draft milestones in resident assessment. Thirty-four participants from 17 programs completed surveys and participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Overall, the milestones were perceived as useful in formative and summative assessment of residents. Participants raised concerns about the length and complexity of some draft milestones and suggested specific changes. The focus groups also identified a need for faculty development. In the exit survey, most participants agreed that the Patient Care and Systems-Based Practice Milestones would help competency committees assess trainee progress toward independent practice. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia / 17.10.2013

Richard A. Oram, BMBCh, BA(hons), MRCP NIHR Exeter Clinical Research Facility University of Exeter Medical School, Barrack Road, Exeter, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Richard A. Oram, BMBCh, BA(hons), MRCP NIHR Exeter Clinical Research Facility University of Exeter Medical School, Barrack Road, Exeter, UK MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Historically people with Type 1 diabetes were thought to progress to make absolutely none of their own insulin. Modern assays allow us to measure very low levels of insulin, and using these we can find very tiny amounts of insulin production in most people with Type 1 diabetes even if they have had the disease for many years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks / 16.10.2013

 Kesava Reddy, PhD, MHA University Cancer and Diagnostic Centers, Houston, TexMedicalResearch.com  interview with: Kesava Reddy, PhD, MHA University Cancer and Diagnostic Centers, Houston, Tex     MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Reddy: Crude oil spills affect the human health through their exposure to the inherent hazardous chemicals such as para-phenols and volatile benzene. Evidence show that oil spill exposure is associated with multiple adverse health effects and increased cancer risk. In this study, we assessed the adverse health effects of the Gulf oil spill exposure in subjects participating in the clean-up operation along the coast of Louisiana. The findings were compared with those not exposed to the oil spill. We found that platelet counts were notably decreased in the oil spill exposed group. In addition, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were substantially lower in the exposed group, while hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were increased compared to the unexposed subjects. Furthermore, considered indicators of hepatic damage, the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), levels in the exposed subjects were also elevated. Participants  in the oil spill cleanup activity also reported somatic symptoms, with headache reported most frequently, followed by shortness of breath, skin rash, cough, dizzy spells, fatigue, painful joints, night sweats, and chest pain. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Heart Disease, Radiology / 16.10.2013

Prof. Dr. Gunnar Brix Division of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection Federal Office for Radiation Protection Institut für Med. Strahlenhygiene 85764 NeuherbergMedicalResearch.com: Prof. Dr. Gunnar Brix Division of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection Federal Office for Radiation Protection Institut für Med. Strahlenhygiene 85764 Neuherberg MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We investigated the cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk of more than 1200 patients with ischemic heart diseases (IHD) from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging procedures performed 3 month before and 12 month after the date of diagnosis. The major findings were:
  • ­    87% of patient exposure resulted from heart catheter procedures.
  • ­    The average cumulative effective dose was 13.3 mSv in males and 10.3 mSv in females. The highest dose was nearly 100 mSv.
  • ­    The estimated average attributable life-time risk of male and female patients to develop a radiation-induced cancer in their remaining life was 0.09 % and  0.07 %, respectively. This correspond to 1 excess cancer in about 1100 male and 1400 female IHD patients. The highest risk was 0.9 %.
  • ­ The effective dose is inadequate to characterize individual radiation risks, since neither the age nor the sex of the patient is taken into account. According to our results, cancer risks can vary by a factor of more than 10 for comparable values of the effective dose. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 16.10.2013

Dr. Elizabeth V. Asztalos, MD, M.Sc., FRCPC Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre 2075 Bayview Ave., Room M4 230 Toronto, ON M4N 3M5MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Elizabeth V. Asztalos, MD, M.Sc., FRCPC Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre 2075 Bayview Ave., Room M4 230 Toronto, ON M4N 3M5   MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This study was focused to see if there were differences in the main neurodevelopmental outcomes of children whose mothers had participated in the original MACS trial. We found that there were no differences in the main outcomes of the trial as it related to the aspects of death and/or developmental. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 15.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ali Rowhani-Rahbar PhD, MD, MPH Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, California University of Washington Department of Epidemiology Health Sciences Seattle, WA 98195Dr. Ali Rowhani-Rahbar PhD, MD, MPH Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, California University of Washington Department of Epidemiology Health Sciences Seattle, WA 98195   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study? Answer: We found that the magnitude of increased risk of fever and seizures following immunization with the first dose of measles-containing vaccines during the second year of life depends on age.  Specifically, the risk of seizures attributable to the vaccine during the 7 to 10 days following vaccination was significantly greater among children 16-23 months of age (9.5 excess cases per 10,000 doses) than among children 12-15 months of age (4.0 excess cases per 10,000 doses). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 14.10.2013

Dr. Mitchell S. Roslin, MD Lenox Hill Hospital Manhattan Minimally Invasive & Bariatric Surgery 186 E 76th Street, 1st Floor New York, NY 10021.MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Mitchell S. Roslin, MD Lenox Hill Hospital Manhattan Minimally Invasive & Bariatric Surgery 186 E 76th Street, 1st Floor New York, NY 10021. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Roslin: The cornerstone of medical management for weight loss and to prevent weight gain is to regulate glucose and insulin and prevent wide fluctuation.  Yet, Gastric bypass, widely considered the gold standard operation, accentuates these fluctuations.  The purpose of our study was to compare glucose tolerance of gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and a modified version of duodenal switch that  preserves adequate intestine. We found that all operations improve insulin resistance, but that duodenal switch normalizes the curve, whereas gastric bypass causes wide spikes in insulin and glucose. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Heart Disease, Weight Research / 14.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christian K. Roberts Exercise and Metabolic Disease Research Laboratory, Translational Sciences Section, School of Nursing University of California, Los Angeles, CA MedicalResearch.com: How would you best summarize the main findings/results of this study? Answer: Our main finding was that HDL functioned better in its antioxidant role in subjects who participated in resistance exercise training (i.e. weight training) a minimum of 4 days a week, regardless of their weight—one group was lean (BMI <25) and the other overweight/obese (BMI >27) —than those who didn’t exercise (overweight, BMI >27, and untrained). In addition, HDL had similar effectiveness as an antioxidant in the overweight-trained group as in the as lean-trained group. Although indices of weight were associated with dysfunctional HDL, differences in fitness may be a better measure of who has healthier functioning HDL. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA / 14.10.2013

Professor Djillali Annane MD, PhD Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France CH d’Etampes, Etampes, FranceMedicalResearch.com with: Professor Djillali Annane MD, PhD Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France CH d’Etampes, Etampes, France   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The CRISTAL trial was designed in 2002 to clarify whether correction of acute hypovolemia in critically ill patients with colloids may increase the risk of death as compared to resuscitation with crystalloids. The trial has enrolled 2857 patients in 57 ICUs in France, Belgium, Canada and North Africa.  The relative risk of death was at 28 day of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.88 to 1.04; P=0.26), and at 90 day of 0.92 (95%CI: 0.86 to 0.99; P=0.03) in favor of colloids. Colloids-treated patients had  more days alive and off mechanical ventilation and off vasopressor both within 7 days and 28 days of randomization. There was no evidence for increased risk of kidney injury with colloids. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Mineral Metabolism, Stroke / 14.10.2013

Abhishek Sharma, M.B.B.S. Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, N.Y.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Abhishek Sharma, M.B.B.S. Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, N.Y.   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer:  Evidence from RCT's and observational studies suggests a significantly increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) requiring hospitalization, but no increase in risk of stroke or cardiovascular mortality with the use of bisphosphonate. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology / 14.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Liora Lazar The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes National Center for Childhood Diabetes Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel 14 Kaplan St., Petah Tikva 49202, Israel MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lazar: The study aims to assess the reproductive outcome and social adjustment of former Central precocious puberty (CPP) women between the 3rd and 5th decades of life. The main findings of this study are: 1.       Clinical hyperandrogenism was more prevalent among former CPP women, both treated and untreated, as compared to controls. 2.      Fertility problems were more prevalent only among untreated–CPP women. 3.       Educational achievements and marital status were similar in former CPP women and their controls. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ / 13.10.2013

Marieke de Groot, PhD Senior Researcher University of Groningen/University Medical Center Groningen VU University Amsterdam, department of Clinical Psychology The EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research (EMGO+)MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marieke de Groot, PhD Senior Researcher University of Groningen/University Medical Center Groningen VU University Amsterdam, department of Clinical Psychology The EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research (EMGO+) MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We investigated the long term course of bereavement through suicide in a community-based sample of 153 first-degree relatives and spouses of 74 suicide cases. Outcome measures were complicated grief, depression and suicide ideation. We found that outcomes are mutually strongly associated over the 8-10 years course. A history of attempted suicide predicts a increased risk of suicide ideation during the bereavement course. Depression is more likely predicted by factors generally associated with a increased risk of depression such as female gender and low mastery, whereas complicated grief is more likely predicted by the trauma of losing a child due to suicide. No significant associations were found between outcomes and the use of help resources except for mutual (or peer) support, which is associated with a increased risk of complicated grief. Time is the only factor (included in this study) predicting decrease of the risk of depression and complicated grief. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Clots, JAMA / 13.10.2013

Mila Ju, MD Resident, Division of Vascular Surgery Northwestern University 676 N. Saint Clair St., Ste 650 Chicago, IL  60611MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mila Ju, MD Resident, Division of Vascular Surgery Northwestern University 676 N. Saint Clair St., Ste 650 Chicago, IL  60611 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ju: By using combined data from Hospital Compare, American Hospital Association, and Medicare claims databases, we found that better hospital venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis adherence rates were weakly associated with worse risk-adjusted VTE event rates. Moreover, hospitals with higher intensity of detecting VTE with imaging studies (such as venous duplex, chest computer tomography, etc.) had more VTE events (13.5 in highest VTE imaging quartile vs 5.0 in lowest VTE imaging quartile) per 1000 discharges. Our study suggests that VTE rates might be influenced by surveillance bias and not reflecting the true quality of care provided by the hospitals. (more…)
Author Interviews, HPV, Vaccine Studies / 12.10.2013

Lisen Arnheim Dahlström, Associate Professor (Docent) Institutionen för medicinsk epidemiologi och biostatistik Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet 171 77 Stockholm, SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lisen Arnheim Dahlström, Associate Professor (Docent) Institutionen för medicinsk epidemiologi och biostatistik Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This is a Swedish/Danish population-based study comparing serious disease outcomes in girls immunized with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine against the unvaccinated population. The main finding of this study was that none of the 53 outcomes included in the study were more common in the vaccinated population compared to the non-vaccinated population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Heart Disease / 11.10.2013

Ankur Pandya PhD Assistant Professor of Public Health in the Division of Health Policy Department of Public Health at Weill Cornell Medical CollegeMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ankur Pandya PhD Assistant Professor of Public Health in the Division of Health Policy Department of Public Health at Weill Cornell Medical College MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pandya: Our study looked at the impact of some of the future risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the United States.  Using nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves from 1973 to 2010 we forecasted disease risk and prevalence from 2015 to 2030. We found that despite continued improvements in the disease’s treatment and declining smoking rates, increasing obesity rates, the aging population, and declining mortality from the disease should cause a rise in health care costs, disability, and reductions in the quality of life associated with increased disease prevalence. (more…)
Author Interviews, Thyroid, University of Pennsylvania / 11.10.2013

David Goldenberg MD, FACS Professor of Surgery and Oncology Director of Head and Neck Surgery Associate Director of Surgical Services- Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery The Pennsylvania State UniversityThe Milton S. Hershey Medical Center 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850 H091 Hershey, PA  17033MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Goldenberg MD, FACS Professor of Surgery and Oncology Director of Head and Neck Surgery Associate Director of Surgical Services- Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery The Pennsylvania State UniversityThe Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA  17033 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Goldenberg: The incidence of thyroid cancer is on the rise and has nearly tripled in the last thirty years. Some authors have attributed this increase in incidence to improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques and imaging allowing for diagnosis of small insignificant thyroid cancers. Others do not agree and state that is a real rise in this disease. Many patients have their cancer discovered by accident when they undergo a diagnostic study for some other reason- such as trauma, neck pain, or carotid artery studies (for clogged arteries). We aimed to compare incidentally discovered versus non incidentally discovered thyroid cancers to determine whether the thyroid cancers in both groups harbor different characteristics. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Memory / 11.10.2013

Prof. Timothy Salthouse Brown-Forman Professor of Psychology Department of Psychology University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904-4400MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Timothy Salthouse Brown-Forman Professor of Psychology Department of Psychology University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904-4400 MedicalResearch.com: What prompted this work? Prof. Salthouse: I think it is noteworthy that the research originated as an undergraduate project by Arielle Mandell. Ms. Mandell was supported by a University of Virginia Harrison Undergraduate Research Award while she was doing the research, and a report of the research served as her Distinguished Major Thesis. The research was prompted by the observation that according to self-reports, tip-of-the-tongue experiences occur more and more frequently with increased age, and often seem to be associated with concerns about memory decline and possibly impending dementia. We wondered
  1. 1) whether these self-reports are valid, and
  2. 2) if they are valid, do they truly indicate age-related failures of the type of memory used in the diagnosis of dementia.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Genetic Research, Memory / 11.10.2013

Dr. Rebecca Todd Assistant Professor University of British Columbia Department of Psychology Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability 4342A-2260 West Mall Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Rebecca Todd Assistant Professor University of British Columbia Department of Psychology Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability 4342A-2260 West Mall Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: What we found, in essence, is that some individuals are genetically predisposed to see the world more darkly than others. We find that a common gene variant is linked to perceiving emotional events --especially negative ones --¬ more vividly than others. This gene variant has been previously linked (by other researchers) to emotional memory and the likelihood of experiencing intrusive, or “flashback” memories following traumatic experience. Our findings suggest that in healthy young adults this enhanced emotional memory may be because individuals are more likely to perceive what’s emotionally relevant in the first place. We've all heard of rose colored glasses, but this is more like gene-colored glasses, tinted a bit darkly. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer / 11.10.2013

Dr. S. Wassertheil-Smoller PhD Distinguished University Professor Emerita Department of Epidemiology & Population Health Principal Investigator, Women's Health Initiative Albert Einstein College of Medicine | 1300 Morris Park Avenue Bronx, NY 10461MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. S. Wassertheil-Smoller PhD Distinguished University Professor Emerita Department of Epidemiology & Population Health Principal Investigator, Women's Health Initiative Albert Einstein College of Medicine | 1300 Morris Park Avenue Bronx, NY 10461 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We studied 7728 older women who developed invasive breast cancer during their participation in the Women’s Health Initiative, known as WHI. This study found that women with invasive breast cancer who are users of multivitamin and mineral supplements had a 30% lower risk of dying from their breast cancer compared to non-users. This protective effect was observed to be independent of a large number of factors which affect breast cancer outcomes and which account for differences between users and non-users. The women we studied were ages 50-79 when they started the WHI. (more…)
Author Interviews, Duke, Social Issues, Vanderbilt / 10.10.2013

Kaitlin Toner, Ph.D. Vanderbilt Institute for Energy and Environment Vanderbilt Climate Change Research Network 2301 Vanderbilt Place Nashville, TN 37240MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kaitlin Toner, Ph.D. Vanderbilt Institute for Energy and Environment Vanderbilt Climate Change Research Network Nashville, TN 37240 Dr. Kaitlin Toner, is a postdoctoral researcher at Vanderbilt University. The study was conducted colleagues Mark Leary, Michael Asher, and Katrina Jongman-Sereno while Dr. Toner was a graduate student at Duke University. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Toner: The take home message is that people who hold more extreme attitudes also tend to feel superior about those attitudes, whereas people with moderate attitudes aren't as convinced of the superiority of their own beliefs.  Although it might seem that this connection between attitude extremity and superiority seems reasonable, there’s no logical reason why people who hold moderate, middle-of-the-road attitudes should not think that their moderate attitudes are superior to other people’s.  But they don’t tend to do that; it’s the people with extreme attitudes who are inordinately convinced that they are right. These findings are important because it sheds some light on how people become so polarized in their opinions: they don't just take a side, but they believe everyone who disagrees with that view must be wrong. Importantly, it's not just one political party who thinks this way, as previous research had suggested, but rather that it happens for both liberal and conservative attitudes.  And, given the stalemate in Washington, understanding why people become so entrenched in their views – even when there is often not an objectively correct answer – is more important than ever. (more…)
Author Interviews, Erasmus, Social Issues / 10.10.2013

Ioannis Evangelidis, Ph.D. candidate Department of Marketing Management, Rotterdam School of Management Erasmus University, RotterdamMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ioannis Evangelidis, Ph.D. candidate Department of Marketing Management, Rotterdam School of Management Erasmus University, Rotterdam MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We find that donors pay more attention to the number of people killed when donating to a disaster, than to the number of people who are affected (survive but need money).  In other words, people are more likely to donate, and donate more money, the more people die in a disaster, but not when more people survive and need assistance. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Chemotherapy, MD Anderson, Vanderbilt / 10.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hiroko Masuda MD

Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic; Departments of 2Breast Medical Oncology, 3Bioinformatics and Computational Biology The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas;

W. Fraser Symmans, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, Unit 85, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030-4009;

Naoto T. Ueno, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Unit 1354, Houston, TX 77030.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) could be classified into 7 subtypes: basal-like 1 (BL1), basal-like 2 (BL2), immunomodulatory (IM), mesenchymal (M),mesenchymal stem-like (MSL), luminal androgen receptor (LAR), and unstable (UNS). Using cluster analysis, Lehmann and Bauer et al. identified these TNBC subtypes in 21 public mRNA gene expression profiles of breast cancer. However, the clinical relevancy of these novel molecular subtypes has not been established. To establish the clinical relevancy, we determined if the subtypes of TNBC have different rates of pathological complete response (pCR) to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens. In this study, we confirmed that TNBC is heterogeneous and that pCR differs by TNBC subtype using the algorithm proposed by Lehmann and Bauer et al. The BL1 subtype had the highest pCR rate (52%), and BL2 and LAR had the lowest pCR rates (0% and 10%, respectively). TNBC subtype was an independent predictor of pCR status (P=0.022) via a likelihood ratio test. To our knowledge, this was the first study to show that the TNBC subtype can serve as an independent predictor of pCR status in patients who received standard chemotherapy regimens. This confirms the possible clinical relevance of the 7 molecular subtypes, and these subtypes may lead to innovative clinical trials of personalized medicine for patients with TNBC. (more…)

Author Interviews, Duke, Prostate Cancer / 10.10.2013

Susan Halabi, PhD Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 2771MedicalResearch.com Interview with Susan Halabi, PhD Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Halabi: The purpose of assessing surrogate endpoints is to allow for a more rapid and efficient determination of whether a given therapy provides clinical benefit to patients by prolonging their life. We sought to evaluate PSA kinetics as surrogate endpoints for overall survival (OS) in mCRPC patients who were receiving second line chemotherapy (cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone) following progression after docetaxel. Using different analytical approaches, we found that PSA declines within the first three months of treatment are not appropriate as surrogate markers of clinical benefit in men who were receiving second line chemotherapy. This analysis has important clinical care and study design implications:  it has become common to use ≥30% decline in PSA as a clinical trial endpoint for all patients with metastatic CRPC, based on the original front-line docetaxel data. The data presented in this study suggest that this is erroneous. Further we believe these data are important because they demonstrate that there are different disease states within the group of patients with “metastatic CRPC". To make the assumption that the same surrogate endpoint can be used across the board may seem like an obvious mistake, but permeates the literature. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Pediatrics, Probiotics / 10.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Valerie Sung MBBS(Hons) FRACP MPH
NHMRC PhD Candidate Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, and Community Health Services Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Paediatrician, Centre for Community Child Health The Royal Children’s Hospital Parkville | 3052 | Victoria
 Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sung: The systematic review identified 12 studies (1825 infants)  that investigated the use of probiotics to treat or prevent infant colic (excessive crying of unknown cause in babies less than 3 months old). Three of the 5 treatment trials concluded probiotics effectively treat colic in breastfed babies; one suggested possible effectiveness in formula-fed babies with colic, and one suggested ineffectiveness in breastfed babies with colic. The three effective trials used the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri in breastfed babies only; in two of these trials, the mothers were on a dairy-free diet. Five of the 7 prevention trials suggested probiotics to be ineffective in preventing colic. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA, Nutrition, Protein / 10.10.2013

Zudin Puthucheary MBBS B.Med.Sci D.UHM EDICM MRCP FHEA NIHR Research Fellow, Respiratory and Critical Care Institute of Health and Human Performance, UCL Post-CCT Fellow in Trauma and Critical Care, Kings College HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zudin Puthucheary MBBS B.Med.Sci D.UHM EDICM MRCP FHEA NIHR Research Fellow, Respiratory and Critical Care Institute of Health and Human Performance, UCL Post-CCT Fellow in Trauma and Critical Care, Kings College Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: That muscle wasting occurs rapidly and early in critical illness, with up to 2-3% loss of muscle mass per day. This is related to the numbers of organs failed, and is made worse by the degree of acute lung injury, and increased protein delivery. Muscle wasting is the result of both decreased muscle protein synthesis and increased muscle protein breakdown. In addition 40% of these patients developed muscle necrosis over the study period. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research / 10.10.2013

Erica D. Watson, PhD Lecturer in Reproductive Biology Centre for Trophoblast Research Dept Physiology, Development and Neuroscience University of Cambridge Physiology Building, Downing Site Cambridge, CB2 3EG, United Kingdom MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Erica D. Watson, PhD Lecturer in Reproductive Biology Centre for Trophoblast Research Dept Physiology, Development and Neuroscience University of Cambridge, United Kingdom MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Watson: It has been known for decades that maternal folate deficiency increases the risk for a diverse range of health problems in her children, such as spina bifida, heart defects and growth restriction. Despite this, the molecular mechanism of folate during development was not well understood. Our study is important because it shows that the inability to break down folate due to a mutation in the gene Mtrr can affect the health not only in the immediate offspring but also of the next generation. We used mice for the study as they metabolize folate similarly to humans and because folic acid deficiency or mutations in the genes required to break down folate in humans result in similar developmental abnormalities and diseases in mice. This enabled us to explore how the molecular mechanism of folate deficiency impacted development, thereby causing health problems. (more…)
General Medicine / 10.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cristiano Fava MD, PhD University of Verona Department of Medicine Division of Internal Medicine C Hospital “Policlinico G.B. Rossi” 37134 Verona Italy University of Lund Department of Clinical Sciences Division of Endocrinology CRC, Lund University S-205 02 Malmö Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Fava: The main finding of the meta-analysis is that cPAP usage for at least 2 weeks, with respect to either placebo or usual care is associated with a significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However the effect size of blood pressure reduction is modest. (more…)
Author Interviews, NEJM, OBGYNE / 09.10.2013

Associate scientist Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre 2075 Bayview Ave., Room M4 172a Toronto, ON M4N 3M5MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jon Barrett, M.B.Bch., FRCOG, MD, FRCSC Associate scientist Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre 2075 Bayview Ave., Room M4 172a Toronto, ON M4N 3M5 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Barrett: For twins at 32-38 weeks gestation where Twin A is presenting cephalic a policy of planned CS does not benefit the baby or the mother, compared to a policy of planned VB, and planned CS will result in delivery at a earlier gestational age. (more…)