Autism, Genetic Research, NEJM, UCSD / 26.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Erik Courchesne PhD Professor, Department of Neurosciences UC San Diego School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Courchesne: “Building a baby’s brain during pregnancy involves creating a cortex that contains six layers,” Courchesne said. “We discovered focal patches of disrupted development of these cortical layers in the majority of children with autism.” The authors created the first three-dimensional model visualizing brain locations where patches of cortex had failed to develop the normal cell-layering pattern. The study found that in the brains of children with autism key genetic markers were absent in brain cells in multiple layers. “This defect,” Courchesne said, “indicates that the crucial early developmental step of creating six distinct layers with specific types of brain cells – something that begins in prenatal life – had been disrupted.”  The study gives clear and direct new evidence that autism begins during pregnancy. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics / 26.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marie Lund MD, PhD student Department of Epidemiology Research København S | Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lund: We found macrolide use in infants to be associated with a 30-fold increased risk of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) with use during the first two weeks after birth and a lower, but significantly increased threefold risk with use during days 14 to 120. Similarly, there was a more than three-fold increased risk of IHPS associated with maternal macrolide use during the first two weeks after birth, but no increased risk with use thereafter. Finally, we found a possible modest association between maternal macrolide use during weeks 28 to birth and infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gout, Mayo Clinic, Rheumatology / 26.03.2014

Tim Bongartz, M.D. Associate Professor of Medicine Department of Rheumatology Mayo Clinic, MinnesotaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tim Bongartz, M.D. Associate Professor of Medicine Department of Rheumatology Mayo Clinic, Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What are the main study findings? Dr. Bongartz:  Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an imaging methods that has been in use for many years to classify the material of renal stones. Our study demonstrates that this technology can be useful in identifying monosodium urate deposits in and around joint, allowing to diagnose patients with gout with overall high sensitivity and specificity. Importantly, a stratified analysis of patient subgroups revealed that DECT is less accurate in diagnosing patients with a first flare of gout, emphasizing the importance of careful patient selection when using this new technology. In a "diagnostic-yield" substudy, we explored the question how much DECT could contribute to correctly diagnose patients where clinicians did have a high level of suspicion for gout, but synovial fluid aspiration results came back negative. In about a third of these patients with negative routine testing, we could confirm a diagnosis of gout through use of DECT. (more…)
HPV, MD Anderson / 26.03.2014

Dr. Judith A. Smith is an Associate Professor in the Department of Gynecologic Oncology & Reproductive Medicine in the Division of Surgery at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston (UTMDACC),MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Judith A. Smith Pharm.D. Associate Professor Department of Gynecologic Oncology & Reproductive Medicine Division of Surgery The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Smith: This study first demonstrated in vitro suppression of HPV expression. After a single dose at 24 hours and with repeated dosing every 24 hours for 7 days followed by 7 days of no treatment, HPV eradication was achieved. These findings were confirmed with in vivo animal studies. HPV expression was eradicated with once daily AHCC dosing for 90 days and sustained after 30 day observation off treatment.  Immune modulation (increase) of IFNα (p < 0.03), IFNβ (p <0.03), and IFN (p< 0.03) and IgG1 (P < 0.05) was observed in AHCC treated mice compared to untreated controls. AHCC mechanism of immune modulation of the IFN pathways to eradicate HPV was particularly relevant because E6/E7 oncogenic activity in HPV infection is believed to be related to suppression of IFN expression/signaling.  These data suggest AHCC may help clear HPV infections and have a potential role in the prevention of HPV-related cancers. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, OBGYNE, Weight Research / 25.03.2014

Dr. Kristy Ward Department of Reproductive Medicine UCSD School of MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Kristy Ward Department of Reproductive Medicine UCSD School of Medicine   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Ward: As the second leading cause of preventable death, obesity is one of the nation’s most serious public health problems.  Over two-thirds of the US population is currently overweight or obese and the prevalence continues to increase.  A number of studies have linked obesity with an overall elevated risk of cancer and with many individual cancer types. Among obesity related cancers in women, endometrial cancer is most strongly associated with increasing body mass, with 39% of cases in the US attributable to obesity. In patients with clinically severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2), bariatric surgery results in rapid weight loss and has greater long-term success when compared to non-surgical weight loss methods. Surgical weight loss procedures have been found to reduce obesity-related comorbidites and improve outcomes in clinically severe obese populations. In addition to improved cardiovascular risk factors and mitigation of physical symptoms, there is increasing evidence that cancer risk is reduced after bariatric surgery. (more…)
Alcohol, Cognitive Issues, Neurology / 25.03.2014

Osvaldo P. Almeida, MD, PhD, FRANZCP, FFPOA Professor & Winthrop Chair of Geriatric Psychiatry | School of Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences | University of Western Australia. Director of Research | Western Australian Centre for Health & Ageing | Centre for Medical Research | Western Australian Institute for Medical Research. Consultant | Department of Psychiatry | Royal Perth Hospital. Australia.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Osvaldo P. Almeida, MD, PhD, FRANZCP, FFPOA Professor & Winthrop Chair of Geriatric Psychiatry | School of Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences | University of Western Australia. Consultant | Department of Psychiatry | Royal Perth Hospital. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Prof. Almeida: This study used the principles of Mendelian randomisation to clarify whether alcohol use is a direct cause of cognitive impairment in later life. The rationale behind this approach is that the genetic variation associated with lower risk of alcohol abuse or dependence should also be associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment if alcohol misuse is a direct cause cognitive impairment. We found no evidence for such an association. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Social Issues, Stroke / 25.03.2014

Jill Cameron, PhD M.Ed., B.Sc. O.T CIHR New Investigator, Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto Adjunct Scientist, UHN-Toronto Rehabilitation InstituteMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jill Cameron, PhD CIHR New Investigator, Associate Professor, Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto Adjunct Scientist, UHN-Toronto Rehabilitation Institute MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cameron: In our study with 399 stroke survivor, caregiver dyads, caregivers reported more psychological wellbeing when they provided more assistance to stroke survivors who had fewer symptoms of depression, better cognitive functioning, and who had more severe strokes.  In addition, caregivers who maintained participation in valued activities, had more mastery, gained personally providing care, were in better physical health, and were older reported more psychological wellbeing. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JNCI, Pancreatic / 25.03.2014

Dr. Karolina Sjöberg Jabbar, MD, Medicine Policlinic II, Bla Straket 5, Sahlgrenska University Hospital Gothenburg, SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Karolina Sjöberg Jabbar, MD, Medicine Policlinic II, Bla Straket 5, Sahlgrenska University Hospital Gothenburg, Sweden   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding of this study is that the presence of mucin proteins in pancreatic cyst fluid, as evaluated by mass spectrometry, can predict with high accuracy (97%) which pancreatic cysts contain premalignant and malignant tumours. This is important, given that pancreatic cystic lesions are an increasingly common incidental finding on imaging. While most of them pose no threat to the patient, a minor proportion has malignant potential, and may be considered precursors to pancreatic cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Inflammation, Nutrition, Vitamin K / 25.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Mònica Bulló PhD Human Nutrition Unit Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology IISPV  School of Medicine Rovira i Virgili University Sant Llorenç, Spain MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr Bulló: There is some evidence that different dietary forms of vitamin K could exert varying effects on health, however no study to date has simultaneously evaluated the potential effects of the main vitamin K forms on cancer and cardiovascular mortality. We conducted a prospective, epidemiologic study involving 7,216 elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk who were followed for about 5 years.The results of the present study show, for the first time that an increase in dietary intake of both forms of vitamin K is related to a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality, cancer mortality or all-cause mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE / 25.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Michael Kimlin Professor of Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation Queensland University of Technology AustraliaMichael Kimlin Professor of Cancer Prevention Research Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation Queensland University of Technology Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main findings of this study were that women who where classified as having the highest level of sun exposure in our sample had a significantly larger drop in blood folate levels compared to women with lower sun exposures. This was quite a powerful finding, as all women were supplemented with folate and tested so that so that we knew that each sun exposure group had similar average levels of blood folate at the start of the study. We then measured their sun exposure over a week and took a sample of blood at the end of this week to see how the degree of sun exposure affected folate levels. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Smoking / 24.03.2014

Pamela Ling, MD MPH Associate Professor, Department of Medicine Director, Tobacco Control Policy Fellowship Center for Tobacco Research and Education University of California San Francisco San Francisco, CA 94143-1390MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pamela Ling, MD MPH Associate Professor, Department of Medicine Director, Tobacco Control Policy Fellowship Center for Tobacco Research and Education University of California San Francisco San Francisco, CA 94143-1390 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ling:  We followed a sample of smokers from a nationally representative panel for one year.  We found that there was no difference in the rate of quitting between smokers who used an e-cigarette and those who did not. Put another way, smokers who had used e-cigarettes at the beginning of the study were equally likely to have quit smoking one year later as those who did not use e-cigarettes. There was no relationship between e-cigarette use and quitting even after taking into account measures of tobacco dependence (number of cigarettes smoked per day, how early in the day a smoker has his first cigarette) and intention to quit smoking. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 24.03.2014

Craig A. Anderson, Distinguished Professor Director, Center for the Study of Violence Department of Psychology Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-3180MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Craig A. Anderson, Distinguished Professor Director, Center for the Study of Violence Department of Psychology Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-3180 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Anderson: There are three main findings from this long-term study of violent video game effects. 1. Over time, repeated play and practice of violent video games led to an relative increase in aggressive thought patterns and in physical aggression. 2. As predicted by social-cognitive theoretical models, the violent video game effect on physical aggression was directly linked to the increase in aggressive thought patterns. That is, one key reason why repeated exposure to violent video games increases aggression is because such exposure changes the way children and adolescents think about people and events that occur in their lives. In a sense, their personality changes, so that they perceive more hostility around them and come to view physically aggressive behavior as a proper solution to even minor conflicts and provocations. 3. These effects of repeated exposure to violent video games were quite general across types of people. Boys and girls, younger children and older adolescents, high aggressive and low aggressive children, all showed pretty much the same effects. In other words, no subgroup was immune to the harmful effects of violent video games. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Johns Hopkins, Surgical Research / 24.03.2014

Elizabeth C. Wick, MD Assistant Professor,Department of Surgery The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MarylandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elizabeth C. Wick, MD Assistant Professor,Department of Surgery The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wick: The main finding is the high variability in physician practice for prescribing steroids and the lack of clear guidance as to best practice in the literature. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dental Research, Genetic Research / 23.03.2014

Dr. Panos N. Papapanou: Professor of Dental Medicine; Chairman, Section of Oral and Diagnostic Sciences Director, Division of Periodontics Section of Oral and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dental Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, USAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Panos N. Papapanou: Professor of Dental Medicine; Chairman, Section of Oral and Diagnostic Sciences Director, Division of Periodontics Section of Oral and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dental Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Papapanou: Gene expression signatures in gum tissues obtained from patients with periodontitis identified two fairly robust clusters, suggesting potential differences in pathobiologic processes between the two groups. In addition, the two clusters displayed differences in important features of the disease (e.g., the extent and severity of periodontitis, and the level of colonization by periodontal bacteria). These findings indicate that gene expression patterns may form the basis for a novel, pathobiology-based classification of periodontitis. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 23.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christos S. Mantzoros, MD, DSc, PhD Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the VA Boston HealthcareChristos S. Mantzoros, MD, DSc, PhD Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the VA Boston Healthcare Cynthia R. Davis PhD Judge Baker Children’s Center in Boston, MA.Cynthia R. Davis PhD Judge Baker Children’s Center in Boston, MA.     MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Answer: These results highlight that chronic stressors in childhood, like child abuse and family violence, parental substance abuse, divorce and separation from a parental figure, can potentially have a long standing impact on brain structures and functioning, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.  Our work supports the notion of allostatic load, and is the first of its kind to demonstrate links between childhood adversity and central obesity later in life which leads to increased cardio metabolic risk. This study describes the role of these novel molecules in mediating metabolic dysregulation highlighting them as a novel mechanism linking childhood adversity to obesity. We have also used more sensitive assessments of childhood adversity, not typically employed in biomedical research, that incorporate the severity of adversities and their chronicity across childhood.  Assessments of this nature are better able to detect severe and chronic adversity, and are critical in the measurement of stress, its role in allostatic load and its impact on the brain.  Furthermore, the current study and others from our lab show that severe and chronic adversity in childhood is associated with metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adulthood, regardless of lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise and psychosocial factors like depression and social support. Clinicians and patients need to be aware of the fact that subjects exposed to early life adversity are at increase risk for central obesity and cardio metabolic risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, Case Western, Chemotherapy, Genetic Research, Lung Cancer, UT Southwestern / 22.03.2014

Dr. Azi  Gazdar, MD UT Southwestern Medical Center W. Ray Wallace Distinguished Chair in Molecular Oncology Research Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology, PathologyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Azi  Gazdar, MD UT Southwestern Medical Center W. Ray Wallace Distinguished Chair in Molecular Oncology Research Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology, Pathology MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gazdar: We describe the characteristics of lung cancers arising in subjects who inherited a germline mutation that predisposes to lung cancer.  The mutation is rare in the general populations, and is inherited equally by both sexes.  However it is a potent predisposing gene, and one third of the never smoking carriers will develop lung cancer.  Thus, about 1% of patients who develop lung cancer carry the germline mutation.  This figure may rise as awareness of the condition and its link to lung cancer is raised among doctors diagnosing lung cancer. However, lung cancers mainly develop in women who are lifetime never smokers.  Lung cancer development is much less common among smokers and men, although accurate figures are not yet available. So the risk among carriers is somewhat similar to the BRCA genes predisposing to breast cancer, where a female carrier has about a 50% lifetime chance of developing breast cancer. The specific germline mutation (known as T790M) occurs in a gene known as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene.  Sporadic mutations in this gene usually predict for effective responses to a class of drugs known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which are widely used in the treatment of lung cancer.  However, the T790M mutation, when it occurs in sporadic tumors not associated with germline inheritance are resistant to TKI therapy.  Thus the prediction is that lung cancers arising in carriers with the germline mutation would also be resistant to TKI therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, Neurology, NIH / 22.03.2014

Hannes Devos, PhD Assistant Professor Assistant Director Georgia Regents University Driving Simulator Lab Department of Physical Therapy College of Allied Health Sciences Georgia Regents University Augusta, GA 30912MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hannes Devos, PhD Assistant Professor Assistant Director Georgia Regents University Driving Simulator Lab Department of Physical Therapy College of Allied Health Sciences Georgia Regents University Augusta, GA 30912 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Devos: We compared on-road driving performance between 30 active drivers with Huntington disease and 30 age- and gender- matched control drivers. We found that Huntington disease affects all levels of driving skill due to motor and cognitive deficits and leads to unsafe driving, even in the early stages of the disease. Fourteen (47%) drivers with Huntington disease failed the road test compared with none of the controls. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer, Endocrinology, Pediatrics, Thyroid / 20.03.2014

Melanie Goldfarb MD Assistant Professor of Surgery, Endocrine Surgery University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CaliforniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with Melanie Goldfarb MD Assistant Professor of Surgery, Endocrine Surgery University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Goldfarb: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who develop thyroid cancer as a secondary cancer are six times more likely to die than AYAs with primary thyroid cancer, though survival with treatment is excellent for both primary and secondary cancers at greater than 95 percent. Additionally, Hispanics, Males, and those of lower socioeconomic status have worse overall survival. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Mayo Clinic, Neurology / 20.03.2014

Rosebud O Roberts, M.B., Ch.B. Professor of Epidemiology Professor of Neurology Mayo ClinicMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rosebud O Roberts, M.B., Ch.B. Professor of Epidemiology Professor of Neurology Mayo Clinic   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Roberts: The onset of type two diabetes in midlife (before age 65 years)  is associated with brain pathology (subcortical brain infarctions, reduced hippocampal volume, reduced whole brain volume) in late-life. Early onset of diabetes also increases the risk of developing mild cognitive impairment  which is an intermediate stage between normal cognitive aging and dementia. Our findings suggest that loss of brain volumes may be an intermediate stage or a link between diabetes and cognitive impairment. We also found that diabetes onset in late-life (after age 65 years), is also associated with brain pathology (cortical infarctions, reduced whole brain volume). Finally, onset of hypertension in midlife, but not late-life, is associated with brain pathology in late- life. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, FDA, Pharmacology / 20.03.2014

Christian Hampp PhD Senior Staff Fellow/Epidemiologist at FDA Division of Epidemiology-I, Office of Pharmacovigilance and Epidemiology, Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MDMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christian Hampp PhD Senior Staff Fellow/Epidemiologist at FDA Office of Pharmacovigilance and Epidemiology, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hampp: Our study described U.S. market trends for antidiabetic drugs, focusing on newly approved drugs, concomitant use of antidiabetic drugs, and effects of safety concerns and restrictions on thiazolidinedione use. We found that since 2003, the number of adult antidiabetic drug users increased by approximately 43% to 18.8 million in 2012.  During 2012, 154.5 million prescriptions for antidiabetic drugs were filled in outpatient retail pharmacies.  Since 2003, metformin use increased by 97% to 60.4 million prescriptions dispensed in 2012.  Among antidiabetic drugs newly approved for marketing between 2003 and 2012, the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin had the largest share with 10.5 million prescriptions in 2012. Possibly triggered by safety concerns, the use of pioglitazone declined in 2012 to approximately 52% of its peak in 2008, when 14.2 million prescriptions were dispensed in outpatient retail pharmacies and the use of rosiglitazone use decreased to fewer than 13,000 prescriptions dispensed in retail or mail-order pharmacies in 2012. (more…)
Breast Cancer, Exercise - Fitness / 20.03.2014

Professor Mathieu Boniol PhD International Prevention Research Institute Lyon, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Mathieu Boniol PhD International Prevention Research Institute Lyon, France MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Boniol: We conducted a meta-analysis of all prospective epidemiological studies on physical activity and risk of breast cancer. It includes 37 studies, so covers more than 4 million women among which more than 100,000 breast cancer were diagnosed. We showed that when comparing the most active women (about 20% of the population) to least active women (another 20% of the population), vigorous physical activity reduce the risk of breast cancer by 11%. And the good news is that this decline is irrespective of age, BMI, menopausal status, country,... It is also true for the most aggressive breast cancer (ER-/PR-). However, we also showed that this decline is not observed for women taking hormonal replacement therapies, as if these treatments (which are already infamous for poor efficacy and increasing the risk of breast cancer) would nullify any benefit from physical activity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, PTSD / 20.03.2014

Dr. Nancy Crum-Cianflone Deployment Health Research Department, Naval Health Research Center San Diego, CAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Nancy Crum-Cianflone MD Deployment Health Research Department, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Nancy Crum-Cianflone: There have been several studies examining the health outcomes of service members who recently deployed to the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.  However, none of these studies to date had examined the potential role of military deployment experiences and PTSD on coronary heart disease (CHD) among young US service members.  We believed that this would be an important study to undertake since these data would not only be useful to the US military, but may also have implications regarding job-related stressors on the health of young adults in the general population. After studying over 60,000 current and former US military personnel, we found that those who deployed and experienced combat were at a 60%-90% increased risk of subsequently developing CHD.  This finding was noted when we examined both self-reported CHD and medical record validated coronary heart disease.  These data suggest that experiences of intense stress may increase the risk for coronary heart disease over a relatively short period among young, previously healthy adults. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Emergency Care, Gender Differences, Heart Disease, McGill / 20.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Roxanne Pelletier, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Division of Clinical Epidemiology  McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) 687 Pine Avenue West, V Building, Room V2.17 Montreal, QcRoxanne Pelletier, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Division of Clinical Epidemiology McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) 687 Pine Avenue West, V Building, Room V2.17 Montreal, Qc MedicalResearch.com: What made you want to study this disparity between men and women and heart attacks?  Dr. Pelletier:  Despite enhanced medical treatment and decrease in the incidence of heart diseases, important sex disparities persist in the risk of mortality following a cardiac event: the risk of mortality is higher in women compared to men, and this sex difference is even more important in younger adults. Therefore, we aimed to investigate potential mechanisms underlying this sex difference in mortality. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews / 20.03.2014

Judy A. Stevens PhD National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta GA 30341MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Judy A. Stevens PhD National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta GA 30341 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Stevens: The fall death rate among persons aged 65 and older has been increasing rapidly. We used vital statistics data to examine the circumstances and contributing conditions to fall deaths. We found that of 21,649 fall deaths in 2010, the largest proportion (35%) occurred from falling on the same level, followed by falling on stairs or steps (6.5%).  From 1999 to 2010, there was a trend toward more specific reporting of falls circumstances. However, information about the circumstances of 49% of the 2010 fall deaths was not available. In 2010, 49% of fall deaths involved a head injury and 30% involved a hip fracture. The most important contributing causes to fall deaths were circulatory diseases, especially hypertension, and respiratory diseases. Factors that may partially explain the rapid increase in the fall death rate include changing trends in the death rates for underlying chronic diseases strongly associated with falls, such as reductions in cardiovascular disease deaths, as well as better reporting on death certificates of falls as the underlying cause of death. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Macular Degeneration, Ophthalmology / 19.03.2014

Chung-Jung Chiu DDS PhD Scientist II, JM USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging Assistant Professor, School of Medicine Tufts University Boston MA 02111MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chung-Jung Chiu DDS PhD Scientist II, JM USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging Assistant Professor, School of Medicine Tufts University Boston MA 02111 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In this study, we found that advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is predictable by using clinically readily available information. We devised a simple algorithm to summarize the clinical predictors and showed the validity of our prediction model in both clinic-based and community-based cohorts. We also develop an application (App) for the iPhone and iPad as a practical tool for our prediction model. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, NIH, Omega-3 Fatty Acids / 19.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Denise Bonds, MD, MPH National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)  MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr.Bonds: We found no cardiovascular benefit to supplementation of the diet with either omega-3 fatty acids or with the macular xanthophyll’s lutein and zeaxanthin. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Colon Cancer, NEJM / 19.03.2014

Dr. Thomas Imperiale MD Professor of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine Research Scientist, Indiana University Center for Health Services and Outcomes Research Research Scientist, Center for Health Services Research, Regenstrief Institute, Inc. Core Investigator, VA HSR&D Center for Health Information and CommunicationMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Dr. Thomas Imperiale MD Professor of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine Research Scientist, Indiana University Center for Health Services and Outcomes Research Research Scientist, Center for Health Services Research, Regenstrief Institute, Inc. Core Investigator, VA HSR&D Center for Health Information and Communication MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Imperiale: The main findings are the performance characteristics of the multi-target test (sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 86.6%) and its performance as compared with the commercial FIT: more sensitive for colorectal cancer and advanced precancerous polyps, but less specific. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA, Pharmacology, Psychological Science / 19.03.2014

Dr. Christian Fynbo Christiansen Clinical Associate Professor Department of Clinical Epidemiology Aarhus University HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Dr. Christian Fynbo Christiansen Clinical Associate Professor Department of Clinical Epidemiology Aarhus University Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Christiansen:  We included 24,179 critically ill nonsurgical patients receiving mechanical ventilation in intensive care units in Denmark, and matched comparison groups of hospitalized patients and the general population. We assessed psychiatric diagnoses and medication prescriptions before and after critical illness. We found an increased prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses in the 5 year period before critical illness, compared to both other hospitalized patients and the general population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, OBGYNE / 19.03.2014

Shamez Ladhani, MRCPCH PhD Health Protection Services, Immunisation, Hepatitis, and Blood Safety Department, Public Health England, LondonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shamez Ladhani, MRCPCH PhD Health Protection Services, Immunisation, Hepatitis, and Blood Safety Department, Public Health England, London   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ladhani: Pregnancy was associated with an increased of serious infection by a bacterium called Haemophilus influenzae which is usually associated with respiratory tract infections. Nearly all the H. influenzae were unencapsulated; that is, they did not have an outer sugar capsule which is often required to make the bacterium more virulent. The encapsulated H. influenzae type b (Hib), for example, was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in your children prior to routine immunisation. We also found that infection with unencapsulated H. influenzae was associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, including miscarriages, stillbirth and premature birth. (more…)