Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Brain Injury, JAMA / 14.05.2014

Patrick S. F. Bellgowan, PhD Laureate Institute for Brain Research Faculty of Community Medicine, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OklahomaMedicalResearch Interview with: Patrick S. F. Bellgowan, PhD Laureate Institute for Brain Research Faculty of Community Medicine, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bellgowan: These results demonstrate 14% and 24% smaller hippocampal volumes in collegiate football players with and without a history of concussion relative to education-, sex- and age-matched controls participants.  Further, the number of years of tackle football experience was correlated with smaller hippocampi and slower baseline reaction times.  The hippocampus plays a key role in memory and emotional regulation.  Volumetrics of other medial temporal lobe structures (I.e. The amygdala) did NOT show differences among groups suggesting that this effect is localized to the hippocampus. (more…)
Author Interviews, Neurology / 14.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: András Szentkirályi, MD, PhD Research fellow:Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster Institut für Epidemiologie und Sozialmedizin Germany, D-4814 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Szentkirályi : Based on two prospective, population-based cohort studies, we found that subjects having multiple chronic diseases are at an increased risk of suffering from restless legs syndrome (RLS). Moreover, increased multimorbidity was a significant predictor of developing new onset RLS. It is important to note that the observed relationship was not reduced when well-established causes of secondary restless legs syndrome (e.g. chronic renal disease) were excluded. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 14.05.2014

dr_Helmneh SineshawMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Helmneh Sineshaw, MD, MPH Senior Epidemiologist, Health Services Researcher American Cancer Society MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sineshaw: We found that non-Hispanic black women had nearly twofold higher odds of being diagnosed with triple-negative (TN) breast cancer subtype than did their white counterparts, regardless of their socioeconomic group. We also found higher odds of presenting with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer in Asian/Pacific Islander women compared with white women at every level of socioeconomic status. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Statins / 14.05.2014

Medidr_jennifer_robinsoncalResearch.com Interview with: Jennifer G. Robinson, MD, MPH Professor ,Departments of Epidemiology & Medicine Director, Prevention Intervention Center Department of Epidemiology College of Public Health University of Iowa Iowa City, IA 52242-2007 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Robinson: The PCSK9 antibody, evolocumab, reduced LDL (or bad) cholesterol by about 65-70% regardless of the dose or type of statin used. This is a greater percentage reduction than ezetimibe, another drug used to lower LDL cholesterol in statin-treated patients, which lowered LDL cholesterol 15-20%. Side effects of evolocumab were similar to those for ezetimibe or placebo. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Exercise - Fitness, Sugar / 14.05.2014

MedicalResearch Interview with: Monique Francois Teaching Fellow & Research Assistant at the University of Otago School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Sciences University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that small 'snacks' of interval exercise before the three main meals lowered postprandial blood glucose and contributed to a lower blood glucose across the day. Whereas 30 minutes of continuous moderate exercise before dinner did not lower postprandial blood glucose nor mean glucose levels the exercise day or the following day, compared to exercise snacking. Six one minute intervals as walking or a combination of walking and resistance 3x per day (before the three main meals) improved glycaemic control in individuals with insulin resistance. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Nutrition, Stroke / 14.05.2014

MedicalResearch Interview with: Dr. Yan Qu Qingdao Municipal hospital Fruits and Vegetables Consumption and Risk of Stroke A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Reply: First, both fruits and vegetables were found inversely associated with risk of stroke, and the relationships might be linear. Second, the inverse association of fruits and vegetables consumption with risk of stroke is consistent across subgroup analysis by outcome (stroke incidence and stroke mortality), location where the study was conducted (USA, Europe and Asia), sex (male and female), and stroke subtypes (ischemic and hemorrhagic). Third, citrus fruits, leafy vegetables and apples/pears were found inversely associated with risk of stroke. Fourth, very similar results were found in the subgroup analysis by status [yes: 0.78 (0.71-0.86) or no: 0.79 (0.74-0.85)] of adjusting for 6 or more of the 7 covariates (smoking, alcohol, blood pressure/hypertension, serum cholesterol, physical activity, body mass index, ≥3 dietary variables). These findings generally indicated that the association of fruits and vegetables consumption with the reduced risk of stroke may not be the result of confounding by the known factors. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Karolinski Institute, Lancet / 14.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Viveca Ritsinger MD Karolinska Institute, Department of Medicine, Cardiology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm Unit for Research and Development Kronoberg County Council, Växjö, Sweden MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ritsinger: This is a long-term follow-up of the Swedish DIGAMI 1 study where patients with acute myocardial infarction and diabetes were randomized to either intensified insulin-based glycaemic control or to standard glucose lowering treatment. Patients and controls were followed for mortality for over 20 years and 90% of the patients died during follow up. Survival improved during a period of about 8 years. Intensified insulin-based glycaemic control increased survival time by an average of 2.3 years. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Heart Disease, Statins / 14.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Michael Johansen, MD, MS Department of Family Medicine The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43201 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Johansen: We found a surprisingly low number of people with coronary artery disease and diabetes (over age 40) were not reporting statin use. Of the people with coronary artery disease only 58% reported statin use while 52% of people with diabetes reported use. In addition, a reported diagnosis of hyperlipidemia was strongly correlated with statin use. In fact, individuals with hyperlipidemia and no coronary artery disease were more apt to be on a statin than people with coronary artery disease and no hyperlipidemia. Other high-risk conditions that have recently been included in the ACC/AHA high risk category were weakly or not associated with statin use including stroke and peripheral arterial disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Dartmouth / 14.05.2014

Gregory J. Tsongalis, PhD, HCLD, CC, FNACB Professor of Pathology Director, Molecular Pathology Co-Director, Translational Research Program Department of Pathology Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center and The Audrey and Theodor Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth Lebanon, NH 03756MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gregory J. Tsongalis, PhD, HCLD, CC, FNACB Professor of Pathology Director, Molecular Pathology Co-Director, Translational Research Program Department of Pathology Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center and The Audrey and Theodor Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth Lebanon, NH 03756 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tsongalis: This was the first study of its kind looking at multiple genes and multiple mutations in tumors of the appendix. Many of the identified mutations may be clinically actionable with respect to response to therapy or selection of therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, Schizophrenia / 13.05.2014

prof_jayashri_kulharniMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Jayashri Kulkarni MBBS, MPM, FRANZCP, PhD Monash University MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Professor Kulkarni: Persistent schizophrenia is difficult and unfortunately common, despite advances over the past years in antipsychotic drug development. New treatment approaches are urgently needed. Also, a specific focus for women with schizophrenia is still somewhat lacking and there is a need to consider the special issues facing women with schizophrenia. Over many years, we have been conducting clinical trials to develop the role of adjunctive estradiol use to treat symptoms of schizophrenia. This study is the largest clinical trial in the world of this type and we found that in an 8 week, three arm, double blind, placebo-controlled, adjunctive trial of transdermal estradiol (200mcg v 100mcg v placebo) in 183 women with schizophrenia, that the women who received either 200mcg or 100mcg transdermal estradiol made a better recovery. The women who received 200mcg transdermal estradiol made a slightly better recovery than women receiving 100mcg transdermal estradiol. Both estradiol groups were significantly better than the group who received adjunctive transdermal placebo. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Health Care Systems, Hospital Readmissions, Medicare / 13.05.2014

Alex Blum, MD MPH FAAP Chief Medical Officer Evergreen Health, Baltimore MD 21211MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alex Blum, MD MPH FAAP Chief Medical Officer Evergreen Health, Baltimore MD 21211 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Blum: Accounting for the social risk of patients using a measure of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), did not alter the hospital rankings for congestive heart failure (CHF) readmission rates. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hospital Readmissions, JAMA, Mayo Clinic / 13.05.2014

Aaron L. Leppin, MD Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MinnesotaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aaron L. Leppin, MD Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Leppin: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials assessing the effectiveness of hospital discharge interventions on reducing 30-day readmission rates. We identified 47 trials, 42 of which contributed to the primary meta-analysis. Overall, the interventions that have been tested to reduce early hospital readmissions reduce them by about 20%. The ones that are most effective, though, reduce them by almost 40% and use a consistent but complex approach. These interventions make a robust effort to fully understand the patient’s post-discharge context, often by visiting the patient’s home. They focus on identifying all the things the patient needs to do to be well—whether that’s organizing medications, getting a ride to the clinic, or paying the electric bill—and they determine whether the patient has the necessary resources and capacity to pull it all off. When limitations are found, these interventions have a strategy in place to support the patient through the post-discharge period. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 13.05.2014

Charbel El Bcheraoui, PhD, MSc Acting Assistant Professor, Global Health Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation University of Washington Seattle, WA 98121MedicalResearch Interview with: Charbel El Bcheraoui, PhD, MSc Acting Assistant Professor, Global Health Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation University of Washington Seattle, WA 98121 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. El Bcheraoui: We found a low rate of adverse events associated with male circumcision from U.S. hospital settings, especially if the procedure is performed within the first year of life. The rate of adverse events increased about 10 - 20 times if the procedure was performed later in life. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, CMAJ, OBGYNE / 13.05.2014

Professor, Full SGS Member Director, Clinical Epidemiology Unit Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre G106-2075 Bayview Avenue Toronto, ON  Dr. Donald Redelmeier, MD Professor, Full SGS Member Director, Clinical Epidemiology Unit Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Toronto, ON MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Redelmeier: We identified every woman in Ontario, Canada, who gave birth to a newborn baby between 2006 and 2011 and then evaluated each driver for the months before, during, and after pregnancy.  This amounted to about half a million women who accounted for almost 8000 serious crashes that sent the driver to hospital.  We found that the second trimester of pregnancy led to a 42% increase in the risk of a serious motor vehicle crash.  The increased risk included diverse populations, distinct obstetrical cases, different crash characteristics. The risk equated to about twice the population norm but was still below male drivers at this age. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Mental Health Research / 13.05.2014

Dr Alexandra Pitman MBBS MRC Psych MRC Clinical Research Fellow, UCL Division of Psychiatry, UCL (University College LondonMedicalResearch.com interview with: Dr Alexandra Pitman MBBS MRC Psych MRC Clinical Research Fellow, UCL Division of Psychiatry, UCL (University College London MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We conducted a systematic review of all published research comparing the experience of suicide bereavement with bereavement due to other causes, in which we considered the evidence from 57 studies evaluating the effect of bereavement on death, mental health, and social functioning of family members, friends, and other close contacts of the deceased. These studies showed that parents and children bereaved by suicide were at higher risk of mental health problems after the loss than parents and children bereaved by other causes, and that spouses and mothers bereaved by suicide were at higher risk of suicide than spouses and mothers bereaved by other causes. We also found some evidence that people from a range of kinship groups bereaved by suicide report more rejection and shame than people bereaved by other violent deaths, and that feeling stigmatised by the death is commonly experienced after any violent bereavement. It seemed that people bereaved by violent deaths, for example due to accidental death, homicide, drug-related death, motor vehicle crash, undetermined death or suicide, shared a sense of feeling blamed for the death or tainted by their association with the deceased. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Calcium, Heart Disease / 13.05.2014

Dr. Julie Paik, MD MPH Instructor, Harvard Medical School Brigham and Women's Massachusetts GeneralMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Julie Paik, MD MPH MSc Instructor, Harvard Medical School Brigham and Women's Hospital MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Paik: Many women in the United States take calcium supplements. One study found that over 60% of women aged 60 and over in the United States were taking calcium supplements. However, the medical community is still not certain of the effects of calcium supplements in women, particularly on cardiovascular disease risk. For this reason, we studied 74,245 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study over a 24-year follow-up period for their risk of developing cardiovascular disease (heart disease or stroke). We found that there was no increased risk of heart disease or stroke among women taking calcium supplements during the 24-year follow-up period. Our paper has several distinct strengths compared to prior studies including the large sample size, long follow-up period, cases of cardiovascular disease that were confirmed by medical record review, detailed and repeated assessment of calcium supplement use, and detailed information about other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, JAMA / 12.05.2014

Richard D. Semba, MD MPH W. Richard Green Professor of Ophthalmology The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD  21287MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Richard D. Semba, MD MPH W. Richard Green Professor of Ophthalmology The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD  21287 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Semba: Resveratrol levels in older adults are not related to the risk of heart disease or cancer and are not related with lifespan. These findings were made in the InCHIANTI Study, a rigorously conducted study of human aging that is sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 12.05.2014

dr_julie_wangMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Julie Wang, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics Division of Allergy and Immunology Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY 10029   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wang: The results of this study demonstrate that differences in prevalence of reported food allergies exist in elementary schools representing diverse socioeconomic and racial/ethnic characteristic.  In this study, we conducted a survey at 4 elementary schools in New York City, 2 private schools that had a predominantly White student body with over 80% of families having paid a full tuition of over $35,000 per year and 2 public charter schools that had a primarily Black and Hispanic student body where over 90% of students qualified for free or reduced price school lunch.  The results show a high rate of reported food allergy, with rates significantly higher in the private school population as compared to the public charter school population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Weight Research / 12.05.2014

MedicalResearch Interview with: Alicia J. Kowaltowski, MD, PhD Professor of Biochemistry Departamento de Bioquímica, IQ, Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo, SP, Brazil MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kowaltowski: Intermittent fasting (24 hour cycles of all-you-can-eat followed by 24 fasting) is often used as a way to control excessive weight gain in laboratory animals, despite the fact that these animals overeat on the days they get food, and end up ingesting total quantities of food very similar to animals that eat every day. We show here that although lower weight gain occurs with intermittent fasting and there are some health benefits in adopting this diet, there are also some undesirable consequences. One such consequence is that this diet changes the control of hunger in the hypothalamus within the brain, making the rats hungry all the time, even when they are eating. (more…)
Erasmus, General Medicine / 12.05.2014

Dr. Adriaan J van der Meer Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The NetherlandsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Adriaan J van der Meer Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. J van der Meer: The main finding of our study is that the prognosis of patients with compensated HCV-induced advanced liver disease can be adequately assessed by risk scores which merely include objective variables that are readily available in daily practice. Our analyses resulted in two separate prognostic scores by which the individual patient's risk of mortality or clinical disease progression (defined as occurence of Hepatitis C Cirrhosis (HCC), liver failure, liver transplantation or death) can be assessed. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, Surgical Research / 10.05.2014

Dr. Carlo Riccardo Rossi, MD Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit, Veneto Institute of Oncology Surgery Branch, Department of Surgery Oncology, and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, Padova, ItalyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Carlo Riccardo Rossi, MD Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit, Veneto Institute of Oncology Surgery Branch, Department of Surgery Oncology, and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rossi: A total of 90% patients undergone lymph node dissection for melanoma had 12, 7, 14, 6 and 13 excised lymph nodes (10th percentile of the distribution) after 3 level axillary, 3 level or less neck, 4 level or more neck, inguinal, or ilio-inguinal dissections, respectively. (more…)
Author Interviews, Flu - Influenza, Vaccine Studies / 10.05.2014

MedicalResearch Interview: Dr Nicoline van der Maas MD Epidemiologist National Institute for Public Health and the Environment Centre for Infectious Disease Control Epidemiology and Surveillance The Netherlands MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. van der Maas: The main finding, presented at the ESPID, is that we found no difference in growth, development and infection related contact rates with the general practitioner after the first year of life between infants of unvaccinated mothers and infants of mothers, vaccinated with an adjuvanted Influenza A (H1N1) vaccine during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. The offer of a H1N1 vaccination to pregnant women in their second and third trimester did not have a negative impact on infants’ health during the first year of life. (more…)
Author Interviews, Frailty, Geriatrics, JAMA, Surgical Research / 10.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kwang-il Kim, MD, PhD Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul, Republic of KoreaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kwang-il Kim, MD, PhD Associate Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: There are few tools of preoperative risk stratification for the older adults. We found that not only disease itself but also frailty can lead to post-operative complication and mortality. So we made a scoring model to predict post-operative mortality and morbidity based on comprehensive geriatric assessment and it worked exactly. MedicalResearch: Were any of the findings unexpected? Answer: Under our predictive model, there was inflection point of mortality slope at point 5. Post-operative mortality of someone who scores 4~5 is below 10%, but it of other who scores 6~7 is about 30%. It was unexpected drastic change, so we think that there is physiologic threshold point. MedicalResearch: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? Answer: Because the elderly are different from adults, clinicians have to focus on functional capacity, co-morbidity, and frailty for their older surgical patients. Make operative decision base on comprehensive geriatric assessment or our scoring model. If you depend on your own feeling, some older patients will suffer from post-operative complication and someone will forfeit his chance of surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections / 09.05.2014

Meagan F. Vaughn, PhD Postdoctoral Trainee Department of Epidemiology Gillings School of Global Public Health University of North Carolina at Chapel HillMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Meagan F. Vaughn, PhD Postdoctoral Trainee Department of Epidemiology Gillings School of Global Public Health University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Vaughn: Outdoor workers are at high-risk for tick-borne diseases. Adherence to recommended tick-bite prevention methods is poor.  While permethrin treatment of clothing is highly protective against many arthropod vectors, the need for frequent reapplication lessens adherence.  A double-blind randomized intervention was conducted to determine the effectiveness of long-lasting permethrin-impregnated uniforms for tick bite prevention among outdoor workers from North Carolina.  Treatment group uniforms were factory-impregnated with long-lasting permethrin by Insect Shield, while control group uniforms received sham treatment.  Participants completed weekly tick bite logs during two tick seasons.  130 participants reported 1,045 work-related tick bites over 5,251 person-weeks of follow-up.  The effectiveness of long-lasting permethrin impregnated uniforms for prevention of work-related tick bites was 82% (p<0.001) for the first year and 34% (p=0.38) for the second year. These results indicate that long-lasting permethrin impregnated uniforms are highly effective for at least one year against tick bites among North Carolina outdoor workers. (more…)
Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 09.05.2014

Tessa Schurink-van 't Klooster Epidemioloog Rijksvaccinatieprogramma Epidemiologie en Surveillance RIVM - Centrum Infectieziektebestrijding 3720 BA BilthovenMedicalResearch.com Interview with Tessa Schurink-van 't Klooster Epidemioloog Rijksvaccinatieprogramma Epidemiologie en Surveillance RIVM - Centrum Infectieziektebestrijding 3720 BA Bilthoven MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding of this study was that we observed no differences in mortality rate ratios for females compared to males related to the type of last offered vaccination in DTP- and MMR-eligible age groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Mayo Clinic, Outcomes & Safety / 09.05.2014

MedicalResearch Interview with: Dr. David Cook MD Professor in the Department of Anesthesiology Division of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Rochester, Minnesota. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cook: The main finding of the study was that segmentation of a population of surgical patients into groups of higher and lower complexity allowed us to apply a standardized practice, focused factory model to surgical care delivery. A standardized care model improved care process measures such as time on mechanical ventilation or duration of a bladder catheter indwelling. The model reduced resource utilization, decreasing patient time in all care environments (operating room, ICU and on ?the floor?). The care model improved outcomes at 30 days and reduced the costs overall and in every care environment. In addition to the absolute improvements in quality and in cost, the standardized care model reduced variation in all measured variables. That reduction in variation may be even more important than the improved outcomes or reduced costs because we now know it is possible to make the health care experience predictable for these patients. That predictability is critically important to patients and providers, but it also has implications for health care metrics and payment models. (more…)
Cannabis, Neurology, Stroke / 09.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tara Dutta M.D. Vascular Neurology Fellow University of Maryland Medical Center MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dutta: We analyzed data from the Stroke Prevention in Young Adults Study in order to evaluate for an association between self-reported marijuana use and ischemic stroke.   1,101 cases and 1,154 age, gender, and race-matched controls, aged 15-49 years old, were recruited from the greater Baltimore-Washington area between 1992 and 2008. Interviews were conducted to assess for various potential stroke risk factors, including illicit drug, alcohol, and tobacco use. Individuals reporting use of vasoactive illicit drugs, including cocaine and amphetamines, were excluded, yielding 751 cases and 813 controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between marijuana use and ischemic stroke, adjusting for age, gender, race, current tobacco use, current alcohol use, hypertension, and diabetes. We did not find a positive association between marijuana use and ischemic stroke risk in our population of young-onset stroke patients compared to matched controls, even after controlling for current tobacco and alcohol use, hypertension, and diabetes.   A statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between remote use (defined as any use over one year ago) and stroke risk (adjusted OR 0.77, CI 0.61-0.98, p = 0.03). We also looked to see whether recent use (in the past 30 days), and particularly recent heavy use, was associated with ischemic stroke risk as has been suggested in the medical literature. Though our data did not show this association, the number of patients reporting recent use in our study was very small­­­­­­­. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hepatitis - Liver Disease / 09.05.2014

Zobair Younossi, MD, MPH Chairman, Department of Medicine, Inova Fairfax Hospital Vice President for Research, Inova Health System Falls Church, Virginia, USAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zobair Younossi, MD, MPH Chairman, Department of Medicine, Inova Fairfax Hospital Vice President for Research, Inova Health System Falls Church, Virginia, USA   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Younossi: We conducted the analysis of the patient reported outcomes (PROs) data that were systematically collected during clinical trials of sofosbuvir-containing regimens. The highlights of our findings are as follows:
  1. Patients with Hepatitis C (HCV)  have a significant impairment of their health related quality of life including those related to activity and fatigue. Their work productivity is also impaired.
  2. Cirrhosis can add additional negative impact on some of these patient reported outcomes.
  3. During treatment, patients with cirrhosis who were treated with an interferon-free sofosbuvir and ribavirin containing regimen did experience mild decline in their patient related outcome scores. However, this decline was similar for HCV patients with or without cirrhosis.
  4. On the other hand, patients with cirrhosis who were treated with an interferon-containing regimen showed a significant decline in their patient reported outcomes scores compared to those with Hepatitis C and without cirrhosis.
  5. Nevertheless, at the end of week 12 follow up, there was no longer a significant deficit in PROs noted regardless of the treatment arm for patients with cirrhosis.
  6. Furthermore, for the patients (HCV and cirrhosis) who achieved a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks, there were significant improvements (compared to baseline) in some PRO scores.
  7. During treatment, changes in patient reported outcomes scores were similar between cirrhotics and non-cirrhotics for both treatment regimens (all p>0.05).
(more…)
Cannabis, Mental Health Research / 08.05.2014

Meesha Ahuja, MD Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior of the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University Young Adult Behavioral Health Program at Rhode Island Hospital Mentors: Laura Whiteley, MD and Larry Brown, MDMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Meesha Ahuja, MD Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior of the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University Young Adult Behavioral Health Program at Rhode Island Hospital Mentors: Laura Whiteley, MD and Larry Brown, MD MedicalResearch: Why did you decided to study this topic? Dr. Ahuja: Severe mental illness is more common among college students than it was a decade ago, and the number of college students presenting for psychiatric care both on and off campus has dramatically increased. The rates of cannabis use have also been increasing among college students in the United States since the mid-1990s. The concomitant use of cannabis and other substances among general samples in psychiatric treatment has been linked to poorer clinical outcomes including increased hospitalizations, increased symptomatology, poorer treatment adherence, higher treatment resistance. However, before doing this study, there was no research that examined the effect of cannabis and other substance use disorders on the scholastic and general functioning of college students in psychiatric care. (more…)
Breast Cancer, Mayo Clinic, Weight Research / 08.05.2014

Judy C. Boughey, MD Chair, Division of Surgery Research Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Judy C. Boughey, MD Chair, Division of Surgery Research Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Boughey: Rates of bilateral mastectomy are higher in hospitals with immediate breast reconstruction available. Bilateral mastectomy rates were highest in hospitals with high volumes of immediate breast reconstruction. Large, teaching, urban, and Northeastern hospitals were more likely to have higher immediate breast reconstruction volumes. (more…)