Author Interviews, FASEB, Nutrition, OBGYNE / 06.06.2014

Antonio E. Frias, MD Associate Professor | Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine Oregon Health & Science University Director, Diabetes and Pregnancy Program Assistant Scientist | Oregon National Primate Research Center Portland, Oregon 97239MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Antonio E. Frias, MD Associate Professor | Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine Oregon Health & Science University Director, Diabetes and Pregnancy Program Assistant Scientist | Oregon National Primate Research Center Portland, Oregon 97239 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Frias: Resveratrol supplementation in pregnant nonhuman primates fed a Western-style diet improved maternal metabolism, restored placental blood flow, reduced placental inflammation and improved lipid deposition in the fetal liver.  However, there was an unexpected disruption of fetal pancreatic development that is very concerning. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Mediterranean Diet / 06.06.2014

Prof Jordi Salas-Salvadó Professor of Nutrition. Human Nutrition Unit (Director) Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, IISPV School of Medicine. Rovira i Virgili University. Reus, Spain. CIBERobn, Instituto Carlos III. Centre Català de la Nutrició - Institut d'Estudis Catalans (Director). Federation of Spanish Food, Nutrition and Dietetic Scientific Societies (President). Red Iberoamericana RIBESMET (Director) INC - World Forum for Nutrition Research and Dissemination (Chairman).MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Jordi Salas-Salvadó Professor of Nutrition. Human Nutrition Unit (Director) Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, IISPV School of Medicine. Rovira i Virgili University. Reus, Spain. CIBERobn, Instituto Carlos III. Centre Català de la Nutrició - Institut d'Estudis Catalans (Director). Federation of Spanish Food, Nutrition and Dietetic Scientific Societies (President). Red Iberoamericana RIBESMET (Director) INC - World Forum for Nutrition Research and Dissemination (Chairman). MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main findings of our study are that olive oil consumption, especially the extra-virgin variety (which is the olive oil with the best quality because it has higher amounts of bioactive compounds than other varieties), is associated with a reduced risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease (stroke, myocardial infarction...) and also cardiovascular death in an elderly Mediterranean population from Spain who were at high cardiovascular risk (because they had several cardiovscular risk factors such as smoking, being overweight or obese, having a family history of cardiovascular disease...). This means there is even more reason to visit gringocool.com. We have conducted an observational study including more than 7000 individuals who had participated in a randomized clinical trial to evaluate effects of a Mediterranean Diet in on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pancreatic / 05.06.2014

Wai-Nang Paul Lee, M.D. Division Chief, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Professor of Pediatrics Director of Biomedical Mass Spectrometry LaboratoryMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wai-Nang Paul Lee, M.D. Division Chief, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Professor of Pediatrics Director of Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Harbor-UCLA MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wai-Nang Lee: The study reports that EGCG, the active biologic constituent in green tea, changed the metabolism of pancreatic cancer cells by suppressing the expression of an enzyme associated with cancer, LDHA. The researchers also compared the effects of EGCG with those of an enzyme inhibitor, oxamate, which is known to reduce LDHA activity, and found that they both operated in a similar manner by disrupting the pancreatic cancer cells metabolic system. Scientists had believed they needed a molecular mechanism to treat cancer, but this study shows that they can change the metabolic system and have an impact on cancer. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Electronic Records, Outcomes & Safety / 05.06.2014

Lisa M. Kern, MD, MPH, FACP Associate Professor of Healthcare Policy and Research and of Medicine Associate Director for Research, Center for Healthcare Informatics and Policy Deputy Director, Health Information Technology Evaluation Collaborative Weill Cornell Medical College New York, NY 10065MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lisa M. Kern, MD, MPH, FACP Associate Professor of Healthcare Policy and Research and of Medicine Associate Director for Research, Center for Healthcare Informatics and Policy Deputy Director, Health Information Technology Evaluation Collaborative Weill Cornell Medical College New York, NY 10065 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kern: We found that primary care physicians participating in Patient-Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs) improved their quality of care over time at a significantly higher rate than their non-PCMH peers. (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness / 05.06.2014

Holger Cramer, PhD Director of Yoga Research University of Duisburg-Essen | Faculty of Medicine Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine | Kliniken Essen-Mitte Essen  Germany MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Holger Cramer, PhD Director of Yoga Research University of Duisburg-Essen | Faculty of Medicine Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine Essen  Germany MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cramer: There is a number of randomized trials available on yoga for asthma. Based on those trials, there is evidence that yoga can improve asthma symptoms, asthma control, and pulmonary function in patients with asthma. However, yoga does not seem to be superior to sham procedures or breathing exercises and generally the evidence was quite weak. Yoga seems to be relatively safe in this patient population. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, BMJ, Environmental Risks / 05.06.2014

Elaine Fuertes Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Centre for Environmental Health Neuherberg, Germany and School of Population and Public Health University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elaine Fuertes Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Centre for Environmental Health Neuherberg, Germany and School of Population and Public Health University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding of our study was that despite the use of identical study designs and statistical methods, the level of greenness (measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) around a child's home address was differentially associated with the development of allergic health outcomes among children living in two areas in Germany. In our urban study centre, which includes the city of Munich, we found that higher greenness levels around a child's home increased their risk of developing allergic rhinitis and experiencing eyes and nose symptoms. In contrast, greenness around the home appeared to be protective for allergic rhinitis, nose and eye symptoms and sensitization to inhalant allergens in the second more rural study centre investigated. These observations emphasize that the effects of greenness around the home on respiratory health is complex and multifaceted, and are based on 5,803 German children followed from birth to 10 years as part of the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, NEJM / 05.06.2014

Dr. Olivia Pagani  Institute of Oncology of Southern Switzerland Ospedale San Giovanni, SwitzerlandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Olivia Pagani  Institute of Oncology of Southern Switzerland Ospedale San Giovanni, Switzerland   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pagani: The studies show that also in premenopausal women (as already proven in postmenopausal women), aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (in this case Exemestane) given as adjuvant treatment are more effective than Tamoxifen in women with hormone receptor positive early breast cancer who are given concomitantly ovarian suppression to lower estrogen production. The 28% improvement in disease free survival is comparable to that seen in postmenopausal women. In particular, outcomes in women who did not receive chemotherapy (43% of the entire population, 29% of whom with node positive disease) were strikingly good (<97% were breast cancer free at 5 years). (more…)
Author Interviews, MRSA / 05.06.2014

Dr. Brad Spellberg MD Associate Program Director, Internal Medicine Training Program Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Division of General Internal MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Brad Spellberg MD Associate Program Director Internal Medicine Training Program Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of General Internal Medicine MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Spellberg:  The rates of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) varied dramatically among academic medical centers in California, New York, Illinois and North Carolina, suggesting there is not a uniform change in the "national epidemic" of the "superbug" that has generated extensive public health concern over the past decade, according to a new study.The study surveyed hospital records of 4,171 cases of MRSA and MRSA-related infections between 2008 and 2011 in five medical centers located in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, New York City and Raleigh-Durham, NC.The rates of MRSA acquired in the community declined 57% from 2008-2011 in the Los Angeles medical center. In contrast, CO-MRSA rates tripled at the New York medical center, while the rates remained stable in San Francisco, Chicago and Raleigh-Durham. (more…)
Author Interviews, Outcomes & Safety / 04.06.2014

Dr. Hiroshi Hoshijima Evidence-based Anesthsia Research Group Tohoku Universit y Graduate School of Dentistry, Dept of Anaesthesiology, Sendai, Japan,MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Hiroshi Hoshijima Evidence-based Anesthsia Research Group Tohoku Universit y Graduate School of Dentistry, Dept of Anaesthesiology, Sendai, Japan, MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr.  Hoshijima: Our systematic review shows that weekend admission is associated with higher mortality compared with weekday admission.Subgroup analysis revealed that patients admitted during the weekend were at a higher risk of death than weekday admission in patients in 5 categories (patients who had stroke; cardiovascular disease; upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage; medical disease; mixed medical and surgical disease.) (more…)
Gender Differences, Heart Disease / 04.06.2014

Luke Kim, M.D., FACC, FSCAI Assistant Professor of Medicine Interventional Cardiac and Endovascular Laboratory  Greenberg Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine Weill Cornell Medical College/The New York Presbyterian HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Luke Kim, M.D., FACC, FSCAI Assistant Professor of Medicine Interventional Cardiac and Endovascular Laboratory Greenberg Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine Weill Cornell Medical College/The New York Presbyterian Hospital MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Kim: The main findings of the study include:
  1. From 2007-2011, there was no significant change in the rate of acute MI in both male and female cohorts in U.S. . Although there was a decline in the rate of ST-elevation (STEMI) in those ≥55 years old, the rate remains steady in patients < 55 years old, especially in the female cohort after 2009.
  2. Female patients <55 years old with MI were sicker at baseline than the male counterparts with more likelihood of having diabetes, hypertension, chronic renal insufficiency, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure and obesity.
  3. Female patients were more likely to present with non– STEMI vs. STEMI and more likely to develop shock complicating their MIs.
  4. Female patients are less likely to undergo coronary artery revascularization including percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass surgery.
  5. Unadjusted risk of death was higher in female vs male (5.2% vs. 3.7%, p<0.001) along with higher incidence of stroke (0.5% vs. 0.3%, p<0.001), bleeding (4.9% vs. 3.0%, p<0.001), vascular complication (0.6% vs. 0.4%, p<0.001) and ARF (11.6% vs. 9.6%, p<0.001). After adjustment, death (OR 1.10 CI 1.04-1.17), stroke (OR 1.31 CI 1.10-1.55), bleeding (OR 1.30 CI 1.22-1.37), and vascular complications (OR 1.33 CI 1.15-1.55) were all significantly higher for female cohort.
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Author Interviews, JAMA, Respiratory, UT Southwestern / 04.06.2014

Dr. Eric M. Mortensen, M.D., M.Sc. VA North Texas Health Care System and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, DallasMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Eric M. Mortensen, M.D., M.Sc. VA North Texas Health Care System and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mortensen: The main findings of our study was that for older patients hospitalized with pneumonia that with the use of azithromycin although there is a small increase in the number of non-fatal heart attacks there was a much lower decrease in mortality.   In addition there were no other significant increases in cardiac events.  So the overall risk:benefit ratio was that for each non-fatal heart attack there were 7 deaths that were prevented. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, General Medicine, Hospital Readmissions / 04.06.2014

Cindy Feltner, MD, MPH Assistant Professor, Division of General Medicine University of North Carolina--Chapel Hill RTI- UNC Evidence-based Practice CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cindy Feltner, MD, MPH Assistant Professor, Division of General Medicine University of North Carolina--Chapel Hill RTI- UNC Evidence-based Practice Center MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Feltner: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and harms of transitional care interventions to reduce readmission and mortality rates for adults hospitalized with heart failure. We included a broad range of intervention types applicable to adults transitioning from hospital to home that aimed to prevent readmissions. Although 30-day readmissions are the focus of quality measures, we also included readmissions measured over 3 to 6 months because these are common, costly, and potentially preventable. Forty-seven trials were included, most enrolled adults with moderate to severe heart failure and a mean age of 70 years. We found that interventions providing multiple home visits soon after hospital discharge can reduce 30-day readmission rates. Both home-visiting programs and multidisciplinary heart failure clinics visits can improve mortality and reduce all-cause readmission in the six months after hospitalization. Telephone support interventions do not appear to reduce all-cause readmission, but can improve survival and reduce readmission related to heart failure. Programs focused on telemonitoring or providing education only did not appear to reduce readmission or improve survival. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA / 03.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sana Al-Khatib, M.D. MHS Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University School of Medicine Durham, NC,MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sana Al-Khatib, M.D. MHS Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University School of Medicine Durham, NC, MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Al-Khatib: Patients with an ejection fraction (measure of the pumping ability of the heart) of 30% to 35% who receive a prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator have better survival than similar patients with no implantable defibrillator. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, Erasmus, Sloan Kettering / 03.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Frank van Hees MSc Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands and Ann G. Zauber PhD Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding of our study is that colorectal cancer screening of individuals without previous screening is worthwhile well beyond age 75, which is the recommended age to stop screening in individuals with an adequate screening history. The exact age up to which screening should be considered in unscreened elderly depends on an individual's health status: in healthy individuals screening remains worthwhile up to age 86, whereas in individuals with a severe illness, such as heart failure, screening remains worthwhile up to age 80. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Heart Disease, Lancet / 03.06.2014

​MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eleni Rapsomaniki, PhD The Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research Department of Epidemiology & Public Health University College London London MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rapsomaniki: Our data shows that hypertension is associated with considerable reduction in CVD-free life expectancy. Based on our estimates a 30-year old with hypertension suffered from CVD 5 years earlier compared to a similarly aged individual with normal blood pressure. We noted substantial heterogeneity in the associations of blood pressure with specific cardiovascular outcomes. For example a 20 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure was associated with ~40% higher risk of stable angina, and intracerebral or subarachnoid haemorrhage but less than 10% increase in risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm. In all age groups from 30 to over 80 people with a systolic blood pressure 90–114 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure of 60–74 mm Hg had the lowest risk of all cardiovascular diseases, and we found no J-shape associations. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, JAMA, Pediatrics, Yale / 03.06.2014

Dr. Christopher Wildeman PhD Associate Professor of Sociology Faculty fellow at the Center for Research on Inequalities and the Life Course (CIQLE), and at the Institution for Social and Policy Studies (ISPS) at Yale University.MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Christopher Wildeman PhD Associate Professor of Sociology Faculty fellow at the Center for Research on Inequalities and the Life Course (CIQLE), and at the Institution for Social and Policy Studies (ISPS) at Yale University. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wildeman: There are four key findings in the study. First, the cumulative risk of having a confirmed maltreatment report any time between birth and age 18 is much higher than most people would have thought. Fully 1 in 8 American children will experience this event at some point. Second, the risk of experiencing this event is highly unequally distributed, with Black and Hispanic experiencing it much more than Hispanic, White, and (especially) Asian children. Between 1 in 4 and 1 in 5 Black children will have a confirmed maltreatment report at any time in their childhood. For Native American, the risk is about 1 in 7. Third, the risk of maltreatment is quite similar for boys and girls. Finally, the highest risks of child maltreatment are in the first few years of life, suggesting that interventions aiming to diminish maltreatment should focus on parents with very young children. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, OBGYNE / 02.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with : Dr. Francesco FiorentinoMedicalResearch.com Interview with : Dr. Francesco Fiorentino CEO and Lab Director ROME - ITALY MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Fiorentino: This study describes findings from first and second of a three-phase strategy to validate the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for comprehensive aneuploidy screening, as a preclinical step toward its routine use in the diagnosis of chromosomal aneuploidy on embryos. The first phase  involved a large preclinical validation study on single cells, and demonstrated that the NGS-based 24-aneuploidy screening protocol was accurate and reliable. The results provided 100% consistency for aneuploid embryo call with array-CGH, the highly validated method of aneuploidy screening. The second phase of the study, instead, focused on the clinical application of the NGS-based protocol for the detection of all chromosomes in embryos. A prospective trial involving analysis of human embryos at the blastocyst stage of development was designed for this purpose, in order to establish similar levels of chromosome-specific NGS copy number assignment concordance compared with 24sure array as those observed in the first phase of the study. Consistency of NGS-based aneuploidy detection was assessed matching the results obtained with array-CGH–based diagnoses, Embryos obtained from 55 consecutive clinical PGS cycles, blindly assessed in parallel with both NGS and array-CGH techniques, displayed 100% concordance for aneuploid embryo call. Consistency obtained during this investigation was similar to those obtained in the first phase of the study that used NGS to examine single cell samples, demonstrating the reliability of the NGS-based method in detection of chromosome aneuploidy also in embryos at blastocyst stage derived from clinical preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)  cycles. The clinical outcomes obtained in this study from preimplantation genetic screening cycles performed with the NGS approach were very encouraging, resulting in a clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer of 63.8% (mean age 38.5+2.1 years) and an ongoing implantation rate of 64.0%, values that are comparable with recent results from other comprehensive chromosome screening approaches. In conclusion, the results achieved in this study demonstrate the reliability of the NGS-based protocol for detection of whole chromosome aneuploidies, mosaicism occurrences and segmental changes in embryos. (more…)
Biomarkers, Journal Clinical Oncology, Lung Cancer / 02.06.2014

Prof. Nir Peled MD PhD FCCP Pulmonologist & Medical Oncologist Thoracic Cancer Unit, Davidoff Cancer Center, RMC, Kaplan St, Petach Tiqwa, Israel  International Lung Cancer Association;  Committee Chair; Prevention, Screening & Early Detection of Lung Cancer, IASLC.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Nir Peled MD PhD FCCP Pulmonologist & Medical Oncologist Thoracic Cancer Unit, Davidoff Cancer Center, RMC, Kaplan St, Petach Tiqwa, Israel International Lung Cancer Association;  Committee Chair; Prevention, Screening & Early Detection of Lung Cancer, IASLC. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Peled: The study focuses on early detection of lung cancer through the exhale breath NaNose which was developed by Prof Hossam Haick (Israel).   The study included 358 patients who were diagnosed or at risk for lung cancer. The multisite enrollments included UC Denver (Dr Fred Hirsch), Tel Aviv University (Dr Nir Peled), Jacksonville (Dr Stuart Millstone, Dr Douglas Johnson) and Liverpool (Dr John Field). The NaNose was able to detect lung cancer with a very high accuracy (~90%) even when the lung nodule was tiny and hard to sample. It was even able to discriminate between sub histologies of cancer, which was unexpected. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Weight Research / 01.06.2014

Rhonda Stewart Senior Communications Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation  Seattle, WA 98121, USAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rhonda Stewart Senior Communications Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Seattle, WA 98121, USA MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Globally, obesity has become a public health epidemic. Obesity is affecting not just developed countries, but developing countries as well. Almost one-third of the world’s population, over 2 billion people, are considered to be overweight or obese. Of this group, nearly two-thirds (62%) are in developing countries. If current trends continue, this number will continue to rise. Between 1980 and 2013, the prevalence of overweight or obesity for children and adolescents increased by nearly 50%. This study is the first analysis of global trends on obesity and covers more than 30 years and 188 countries. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer, Cancer Research / 01.06.2014

Recinda L Sherman, MPH, PhD, CTR Program Manager, Data Use & Research North America Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR)MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Recinda L Sherman, MPH, PhD, CTR Program Manager, Data Use & Research North America Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR)   MedicalResearch: What is the context of the study? Dr. Sherman:
  • It has long been known that poverty is associated with adverse health conditions. In general, increasing poverty results in higher disease rates and higher mortality.
  • This study assessed the relationship between poverty and cancer incidence using national cancer data on nearly 3 million tumors from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR).
  • Cancer registries do not collect economic information on cancer patients, so we used an area-based social measure: % of persons living below poverty within a census tract. This measure is a proxy for an individual’s economic status and also gives insight into the type of neighborhood in which an individual lives.
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Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology / 01.06.2014

Reed Jost, MS Retina Foundation of the Southwest 9600 N Central Expwy, Suite 200 Dallas, TX 75231MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Reed Jost, MS Retina Foundation of the Southwest 9600 N Central Expwy, Suite 200 Dallas, TX 75231   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Commercially available automated screening devices assess refractive risk factors, not amblyopia or strabismus, resulting in under-referral of affected children and over-referral of healthy children to pediatric eye care professionals. The Pediatric Vision Scanner is a binocular retinal birefringence scanner that directly detects strabismus and amblyopia by analyzing binocular scans for the presence or absence of birefringence, which is characteristic of steady, bifoveal fixation. We found that the Pediatric Vision Scanner outperformed an automated, refractive error screener (SureSight Autorefractor) in a cohort of 300 patients (2-6 years) tested in a pediatric ophthalmology setting. Compared to the SureSight, the Pediatric Vision Scanner had significantly higher sensitivity and higher specificity in the detection of strabismus and amblyopia. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, JAMA / 01.06.2014

Dr David A Hanauer MD MS Department of Pediatrics University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor, MIMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr David A Hanauer MD MS Department of Pediatrics University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor, MI MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study Dr. Hanauer: The main findings of our study were that: (1) Awareness and usage of rating sites for physicians appears to be growing, (2) The public is using these sites to make decisions about selecting (or avoiding) a physician, and (3) The percentage of people leaving ratings is still low (about 5%) suggesting that the results may not be representative of the majority of patient experiences. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pharmacology / 31.05.2014

Theodore J. Cicero, PhD Professor, Vice Chairman for Research Department of Psychiatry Washington University in St Louis St Louis, MissouriMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Theodore J. Cicero, PhD Professor, Vice Chairman for Research Department of Psychiatry Washington University in St Louis St Louis, Missouri MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cicero: Heroin users nowadays are predominantly white men and women in their late 20s living outside large urban areas who were first introduced to opioids through prescription drugs compared to the 1960s when heroin users tended to be young urban men whose opioid abuse started with heroin. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM / 31.05.2014

Prof. Stefano Palomba Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro Catanzaro, ItalyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Stefano Palomba Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University “Magna Graecia” of Catanzaro Catanzaro, Italy MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Palomba: Our study demonstrates that simple markers of inflammation, commonly detectable in clinical practice with commercial kits, are significantly modified in women with PCOS during pregnancy and associated at an increased risk of complications during pregnancy in the same population with PCOS. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine / 30.05.2014

Mark A D’Andrea, MD, FACRO University Cancer and Diagnostic Centers Houston, TexasMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark A D’Andrea, MD, FACRO University Cancer and Diagnostic Centers Houston, Texas   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. D’Andrea: Crude oil spills affect the human health through their exposure to the inherent hazardous chemicals such as para-phenols and volatile benzene. Human exposure to crude oil spills is associated with multiple adverse health effects including hematopoietic, hepatic, renal, and pulmonary abnormalities. In this study, we assessed the hematological and liver function indices among the subjects participated in the Gulf oil spill clean-up operations along the coast of Louisiana. The findings were compared with the standardized normal range reference values. We found that over 77% of subjects had WBC counts in the mid range (6 - 10X 103 per mL) while none of the subjects had upper limit of the normal range (11 X 103 per mL). Similar pattern was seen in the platelet counts and BUN levels among the oil spill exposed subjects. Conversely, over 70% of the subjects had creatinine levels toward upper limit of the normal and 23% of subjects had creatinine levels above the upper limit of the normal range (> 1.3 mg per dL). Similarly, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were toward the upper limit of the normal in more than two-third of the subjects. Aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase levels above the upper limit of normal range (> 40 IU per L) were seen in 15% and 31% of subjects, respectively. Over 80% of subjects had urinary phenol levels more than detectable levels (2 mg per L). (more…)
Diabetes, Weight Research / 30.05.2014

John Wilding DM FRCP Professor of Medicine & Honorary Consultant Physician Head of Department of Obesity and Endocrinology Institute of Ageing & Chronic Disease Clinical Sciences Centre University Hospital Aintree Liverpool United KingdomMedicalResearch.com Interview with: John Wilding DM FRCP Professor of Medicine & Honorary Consultant Physician Head of Department of Obesity and Endocrinology Institute of Ageing & Chronic Disease Clinical Sciences Centre University Hospital Aintree Liverpool United Kingdom MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wilding: This trial studied over 3700 obese people who were trying to lose weight. The main findings were that liraglutide (an injectable medication already approved for diabetes treatment at lower dose of 1.8mg) can help reduce body weight in people with obesity when used at a higher dose than is usually used in diabetes (3mg). Trial participants experienced a weight loss of 8 % from baseline compared to 2.6 % with placebo (diet and exercise alone). Some risk factors for diabetes and heart disease such as blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol also improved with liraglutide treatment to a greater extent than with placebo. The main side effects seen were nausea which in most cases resolved after a few weeks treatment; there were also more cases of gallstones (which could be due to weight loss) and a few more cases of acute pancreatitis in people treated with liraglutide. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Cancer Research, University of Pittsburgh / 30.05.2014

Yael Schenker, MD, MAS Assistant Professor Division of General Internal Medicine Section of Palliative Care and Medical Ethics University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA  15213 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yael Schenker, MD, MAS Assistant Professor Division of General Internal Medicine Section of Palliative Care and Medical Ethics University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA  15213 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?  Dr. Schenker: We analyzed the content of cancer center advertisements placed in top TV and magazine media markets in 2012.  Out of 1427 advertisements that met our initial search criteria, we found 409 unique advertisements that promoted clinical services at 102 cancer centers across the country.  These advertisements promoted cancer treatments (88%) more often than cancer screening (18%) or supportive services (13%).  Provision of information about clinical services was scant. For example, 27% of advertisements mentioned a benefit of advertised services and 2% quantified these benefits.  2% mentioned a risk of advertised services and no advertisements quantified these risks.  5% mentioned costs or insurance coverage and no advertisements mentioned availability under specific insurance plans.  In contrast, use of emotional appeals was frequent (85%).  Emotional appeals commonly evoked hope for survival, focused on treatment advances, used fighting language, and/or evoked fear.  Nearly half of all advertisements included patient testimonials, overwhelmingly focused on stories about survival or cure.  Only 15% of testimonials included a disclaimer (for example, “most patients do not experience these results”) and none described the outcome that a typical patient may expect. (more…)
Nutrition, Weight Research / 30.05.2014

Anna Peeters Associate Professor, BSc(Hons) PhD Head Obesity & Population Health | Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute President Australian & New Zealand Obesity SocietyMedicalResearch.com Interview Anna Peeters Associate Professor, BSc(Hons) PhD Head Obesity & Population Health | Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute President Australian & New Zealand Obesity Society MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Professor Peeters: The context for this study is that ‘point of sale menu labelling’ policies in fast food restaurants have some evidence of generally decreasing how many calories are consumed by people who go there. They may also lead the companies to reformulate their food to become slightly healthier. The key finding of our study is that  those from more disadvantaged/ poorer backgrounds are unlikely to have a direct benefit from ‘point of sale menu labelling’ policies in fast food restaurants through a decreased number of calories consumed. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Pulmonary Disease / 29.05.2014

Susan Wu MD Division of Hospital Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles Assistant Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern CaliforniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Susan Wu MD Division of Hospital Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles Assistant Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wu: We performed a randomized trial at 2 urban free-standing children's hospitals, comparing inhaled 3% hypertonic saline to 0.9% normal saline in patients under 24 months with bronchiolitis. Patients with prematurity less than 34 weeks, cyanotic heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, and previous episodes of wheezing or bronchodilator use were excluded. Patients were 4 mL of study medication nebulized up to 3 times in the emergency department; if admitted, patients continued to receive the assigned study medication three times a day until discharge. A total of 408 patients were analyzed. We found that 28.9% of patients treated with hypertonic saline required hospital admission, compared with 42.6% of patients in the normal saline group. (more…)