MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Arun Kumar
Research Fellow ,School of Medicine
Division of Primary Care University of Nottingham
University Park Nottingham NG7 2RD
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: A simpler model (socio-demographic + falls risk factors) correctly classified as many observations (82%) as a more complex model (socio-demographic + falls risk factors + functional measures) with similar values for sensitivity and specificity in both models. There were significantly raised odds of FOF in the simpler model in those unable to rise from a chair of knee height (OR 7.39 (CI 2.48-22.07)), with a lower household income (4.58 (CI 1.23-17.07)), use of a walking aid (OR 4.32 (CI 2.29-8.17)), difficulty in using public transport (OR 4.02 (CI 1.77-9.11)), poorer perceived physical health (OR 2.85 (CI 1.35-6.04)), from a black/ minority ethnic group (OR 2.42 (CI 1.29-4.52)), with self-reported balance problems (OR 2.17 (CI 1.29-3.64)), with lower educational level (OR 2.01 (CI 1.20-3.37)), and a higher BMI (OR 1.06 (CI 1.02-1.09)).
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Jonathan Cedernaes PhD
Department of Neuroscience
Uppsala University Sweden
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study?Dr. Cedernaes: We found that two peripheral blood markers were modestly but significantly increased in healthy young participants after a single night of sleep deprivation, as compared with a normal night of sleep. These two markers, S-100B and NSE, are for example used as markers of acute ischemic injury in the brain, and are also increased following concussions. S-100B is produced mainly by glial cells and also increases after injury to the blood brain barrier. NSE is instead produced by neurons and is regarded as being more specific for neuronal damage, although it can also be produced by peripheral cells.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Prof Sirpa Jalkanen MD, PhD
MediCity Research Laboratory and Department of Medical Microbiology
University of Turku Turku, Finland
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer:Pulmonary vascular leakage occurs early in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Mortality is high (35-45%), but no effective pharmacotherapy exists. Production of anti-inflammatory adenosine by ecto-5’-nucleotidase (CD73) maintains endothelial barrier function. Interferon-beta-1a (IFN-beta) increases CD73 synthesis and might thus reduce vascular leakage and mortality in ALI/ARDS. We tested this hypothesis and the findings were as follows:
1.IFN-beta increased the number of CD73-positive vessels in human lung culture (4- and 14.3-fold on days 1 and 4 respectively, p=0.04 and 0.004).
2. The optimal tolerated FP-1201 dose (a unique intravenous formulation of interferon-beta 10 μg /day for six days) caused a significant rise in serum MxA (a marker for interferon response) and CD73 levels and a fall in interleukin-6 (an inflammatory cytokine) concentration.
3. Most importantly, odds of 28-day mortality was 81% lower in the treated than untreated subjects (8% vs 32%, OR[95% CI]0.19[0.03 to 0.72], p=0.01).
MedicalResearch.com Interview withMichael McClung, MD
Founding Director, Oregon Osteoporosis Center
5050 NE Hoyt Street, Suite 626
Portland, OR 97213
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. McClung: In this Phase 2 trial, each of five romosozumab dose regimens significantly increased BMD compared with pooled placebo groups at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck regions (all p<0.001). The largest increases were observed with the romosozumab 210 mg once-monthly dose, with mean increases, compared with baseline, of 11.3 percent at the lumbar spine, 4.1 percent at the total hip and 3.7 percent at the femoral neck.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Laura Maclagan, MSc.
Epidemiologist, Cardiovascular Program
Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer:We developed the CANHEART health index in order to measure the cardiovascular health of the Canadian population. The index is based on the prevalence of six health factors and behaviours known to be associated with cardiovascular health; being a non-smoker, being physically active, consuming at least 5 fruits and vegetables per day, having a low body mass index (BMI <25 kg/m²) and being free of diabetes and hypertension. The factors were summed to create an index ranging from 0 (worst) to 6 (best/ideal). We found that only 9.4% of Canadian adults age 20 and older met our definition of ideal cardiovascular health. 53.3% of adults were in intermediate cardiovascular health (4-5 healthy behaviours/factors) and 37.3% were in poor cardiovascular health (0-3 healthy behaviours). We found that the cardiovascular health of Canadians was stable over the 2003-2011 study period.
MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with:Dr. Peter Lindenauer MD MS
Director, Center for Quality of Care Research
Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA, US
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: Among a cohort of 250,000 patients hospitalized for pneumonia at 347 US hospitals, those with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea were twice as likely to be intubated at the time of hospital admission than patients without sleep apnea. In addition, patients with sleep apnea had approximately 50% higher risk of needing to be transferred to the ICU after initial admission to a regular bed, and a 70% increased risk of requiring intubation later in the hospital stay. Patients with sleep apnea stayed longer in the hospital and incurred higher costs than those without sleep apnea.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carlos M Ferrario, MD, FAHA, FASH, FACC
Dewitt-Cordelll Professor of Surgical Sciences
Professor, Internal Medicine-Nephrology
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1032
Vice-President, Consortium Southeastern Hypertension Control
Editor-in-Chief, Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Ferrario: A significant and unexpected difference in the hemodynamic mechanisms that account for the elevated blood pressure between untreated hypertensive men and women.
The main findings were:
"Despite there being no differences between women and men in terms of office blood pressure, heart rate and body mass index, men demonstrated lower values of pulse pressure, systemic vascular resistance, brachial artery pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. In each of the three hypertension categories, the increased blood pressure in men was associated with significant augmentations in stroke volume and cardiac output compared with women. Sex-related hemodynamic differences were associated in women with higher plasma levels of leptin, hs-CRP, plasma angiotensin II and serum aldosterone. In women but not men, hs-CRP correlated with plasma concentrations of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and body weight; in addition, plasma TGFβ1 correlated with levels of serum vascular cell adhesion molecule 1."
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Sheila G. Klauer, Ph.D
Virginia Tech Transportation Institute
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr.Klauer: We found that novice drivers are especially at risk of crash/near-crash involvement when engaging in secondary tasks that take their eyes off of the forward roadway. This includes tasks with wireless devices such as texting, dialing, and reaching for the device as well as reaching for any object, eating, and looking at objects along the roadway. We also found that the prevalence of engaging in these high risk tasks increases over time which concerns traffic safety researchers. This is particularly concerning with the proliferation of highly capable smart phones where teens can do not only texting but also sending pictures, watching video, skype, etc.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Sohyun Park, PhD,
Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, GA 30341
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Park:Nearly 1 out of 3 U.S. adults (30.5%) consumed sugar-sweetened beverages at least 1 time per day; 20% consumed sugar-sweetened beverages at least 2 times per day. About 8 out of 10 adults agreed that drinking sugar-sweetened beverages can contribute to weight gain. However, 8 of 10 adults also did not know the actual calorie content of a 24-oz fountain soda. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, adults who were neutral (neither agreed nor disagreed) that drinking sugar-sweetened beverages can contribute to weight gain were more than 1-and-a-half times more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages at least 2 times per day. Conversely, knowledge about the calorie content of a 24-oz fountain soda was not associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Bruce Reed PhD
Professor of Neurology,
Associate Director UC Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center
Davis, CA 95616
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Reed: We found that high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol in blood were both associated with higher amyloid deposition in the brain. This is potentially very important because the deposition of amyloid seems to be a critical step that kicks off a whole chain of events that eventually lead to Alzheimer's disease. It is widely believed (although not proven) that if this deposition of amyloid could be blocked that we could greatly decrease the incidence of Alzheimer's. The connection to cholesterol is exciting because we know a fair amount about how to change cholesterol levels. A great deal more research needs to be done, but this does suggest a potential new path toward trying to prevent AD.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Simone Gattarello
Vall d’Hebron Hospital, Critical Care Department
Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona and Medicine Department, Spain
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Gattarello: The main findings from the present study are a 15% decrease in ICU mortality due to severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the last decade; moreover, several changes in antibiotic prescription practices were detected and an association between improved survival and both earlier antibiotic administration and increased combined antibiotic therapy were identified. In summary, in severe pneumococcal pneumonia combined antibiotic therapy and early antibiotic administration are associated with lower mortality.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Stewart C. Alexander, PhD
Department of Medicine
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, North Carolina
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Alexander: Adolescents are reluctant to talk about sex with their doctors and won't raise the topic with their doctors. For physicians, there are common and valid barriers to talking about sexuality with adolescents, including time pressures and discomfort with the topic. Two-thirds of adolescents in our study had some sexuality talk during their annual visit, lasting 36 seconds long. Girls, African Americans, and older teens were more likely to receive sexuality talk. Additionally, longer visits and visits where the physician talked confidentially with their adolescent patient were more likely to have sexuality talk. Our study suggest that sexuality conversations in annual visits can be improved.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Amitava Banerjee
NIHR Clinical Lecturer in Cardiovascular Medicine
University of Birmingham UK
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
This was the first long-term study in individuals with atrial fibrillation to consider the impact of renal function, as measured by eGFR, on stroke/thromboembolism, mortality and bleeding in the same population concurrently.
Answer: There were three main findings of our study.
First, patients with worsening renal function had more severe risk factor profiles and had higher rates of stroke/thromboembolism, mortality and bleeding.
Second, individuals receiving oral anticoagulation had lower rates of stroke/thromboembolism and mortality than those not receiving anticoagulation at all levels of renal function measured by eGFR, suggesting that anticoagulation has benefit in even patients with low eGFR.
Third, renal function was not an independent predictor of stroke/thromboembolism at 1 year after adjustment for baseline characteristics.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Harry J de Koning, MD PhD
Professor of Public Health & Screening Evaluation
Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. de Koning: Annual CT screening for lung cancer has a favorable benefit-to-harm ratio for individuals ages 55 through 80 years with 30 or more pack-years’ exposure to smoking. It would lead to 50% (model ranges, 45% to 54) of cases of cancer being detected at an early stage (stage I/II), 575 screenings examinations per lung cancer death averted, a 14% (range, 8.2% to 23.5%) reduction in lung cancer mortality, 497 lung cancer deaths averted, and 5250 life-years gained per the 100 000-member (1950-) cohort. Harms would include 67 550 false-positive test results, 910 biopsies or surgeries for benign lesions, and 190 overdiagnosed cases of cancer (3.7% of all cases of lung cancer [model ranges, 1.4% to 8.3%]), again for a 100 000-member (1950-) cohort.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chia-Hung Kao, MD
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine Science and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taiwan.
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: Colonic diverticular disease and colorectal cancer shared certain characteristics. Some previous studies aimed to identify their epidemiological correlation. However, their results were discrepant and insufficiently strong to draw firm conclusion. In our nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study, we found that the previously diagnosed colonic diverticular disease is not associated with an elevated risk of colorectal cancer after the first year of a diagnosis of colonic diverticular disease (adjusted HR, 0.96). The increased risk in the first year may be due to misclassification and screening effect.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Ajay K Parsaik, MD, MS
Department of Psychiatry and Behavior Sciences
The University of Texas Medical School, Houston
Department of Neurology and Mayo Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Parsaik:Main findings of our study are that clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism is not associated with mild cognitive impairment in an elderly population after accounting for possible confounding factors and interactions.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Jacques Donzé MD PhD
Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care, Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115,
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Donzé: In a large retrospective cohort study, we identified the primary diagnoses of 30-day potentially avoidable readmissions in medical patients according to the most common comorbidities. Interestingly, almost all of the top five diagnoses of potentially avoidable readmissions for each comorbidity were possible direct or indirect complications of that comorbidity. Patients with cancer, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease had a significantly higher risk of potentially avoidable readmission than those without those comorbidities. Also, when readmitted, patients with chronic kidney disease had a 20% higher risk of having the readmission be potentially avoidable.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Jerry Y. Niederkorn, Ph.D.
George A. and Nancy P. Shutt
Professorship in Medical Sciences
Royal C. Miller Chair in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Research Professor of Ophthalmology and Microbiology
Vice Chair, Research (Department of Ophthalmology)
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
FN-γ Blocks CD4+CD25+ Tregs and Abolishes Immune Privilege of Minor Histocompatibility Mismatched Corneal Allografts
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Niederkorn: These findings indicate that a combination of two simple maneuvers increases the acceptance of corneal transplants. In the past, there was no clear benefit in performing tissue matching of the cornea donor’s major histocompatibility complex (MHC) with the recipient of the corneal transplant. However, our study in experimental animals revealed that blocking a single immune system molecule called interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) combined with matching the corneal transplant donor with the transplant recipient’s MHC gene complex reduced the risk of rejection to less than 10% in the total absence of anti-rejection drugs. This study revealed that blocking this single immune system molecule promoted the development of immune system cells called T regulatory cells (Tregs) that suppressed the lymphocytes that are responsible for attacking organ transplants.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael C. Young, M.D.
Associate Clinical Professor of Pediatrics
Harvard Medical School
Division of Allergy & Immunology
Children's Hospital Boston
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Young: We found an association between increased maternal peripregnancy consumption of peanuts/ tree nuts and reduced risk of nut allergies in the offspring.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Leo Anthony Celi, MD, MS, MPH
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, MA 02139
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Celi: The main take home point from the paper is that we know little about how drug perform in the real world. Which patients truly benefit? Which patients are harmed? How do drugs interact with different acute (such as critical illness) and chronic conditions? These questions are almost never answered during pre-marketing research due to cost. We need a better system of following the life cycle of drugs post-marketing. Clinical databases provide us with this opportunity.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Yang Liu
Dr. David A. Sullivan, MS, PhD, FARVO
Senior Scientist, Schepens Eye Research Institute, Associate Professor, Department of Ophthalmology Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA, USA 02114
MedicalResearch.com: What is the main finding of the study?Answer:We discovered that azithromycin (AZM) can directly stimulate the function of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Given this finding, it is possible that this antibiotic may prove beneficial as a treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), which is the leading cause of dry eye disease in the world.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aisha T. Langford, PhD, MPH
VA Health Services Research and Development Service & U-M Center for Bioethics and Social Sciences in Medicine
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Langford: The main and perhaps most interesting finding was that there were no racial/ethnic differences in cancer clinical trial enrollment, refusal rates, or "no desire to participate in research" as the reason given for clinical trial refusal; however, patients over the age of 65 had lower odds of being enrolled in a clinical trial. Additionally, higher odds of having physical/medical conditions were associated with older age, males, and non-Hispanic blacks.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Anders P. Hakansson, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Microbiology
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Buffalo, NY 14214
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study:Dr. Hakansson:During the last couple of years we have shown that Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common colonizer of the nasopharynx in small children and elderly that sometimes cause respiratory infections such as middle ear infections and pneumonia, and Streptococcus pyogenes, a common colonizer of the oropharynx and also the cause of strep throat and skin infections, colonize us humans by forming biofilms; intricate bacterial communities. Biofilms have been studied for a long time but these specific organisms have not been shown to form biofilms during colonization until recently. As biofilms are much more resistant to environmental stresses and antibiotics, we were interested to see whether biofilms formed by these organisms could survive in the environment. The main reason for doing the experiments was that CDC guidelines indicate that spread of these organisms between individuals occur solely by inhalation of bacteria-containing droplets after coughing or sneezing. The risk of spread through surfaces has been estimated to be very low as laboratory experiments over the last 40 years have shown that these bacteria die very rapidly on surfaces. These studies were not, however, done with biofilm bacteria. Laura Marks in the laboratory with help from Ryan Reddinger therefore first tested how long biofilm bacteria could survive on plastic surfaces and found that rather than hours these bacteria were alive even after a month and could be used to successfully colonize animals. This made us interested in understanding if these bacteria survive better on hands, a common way to spread bacteria. And just as on inanimate surfaces, the biofilms survived much better on hands than bacteria grown in laboratory media. Based on these results, we were allowed to sample bacteria from stuffed toys, books, crib linens and others surfaces in a day care center early in the morning before the children arrived, and found both S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes on these items. The results of the study indicate that these bacteria can survive in the environment longer than we have previously thought and may therefore play a role in spread between individuals.
MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation withHenry P. Parkman, MD
Director, GI Motility Laboratory
Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Parkman: Gastroparesis remains a challenging syndrome to manage with few effective treatments and a lack of rigorously controlled trials. Tricyclic
antidepressants are often used to treat refractory symptoms of nausea,
vomiting, and abdominal pain. Evidence from well-designed studies for this
However, in this study, among patients with idiopathic gastroparesis, the
use of nortriptyline compared with placebo for 15 weeks did not result in
improvement in overall symptoms. These findings do not support the use of
nortriptyline for idiopathic gastroparesis.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Scott W. Powers, PhD APBB
Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology and
Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Powers: Cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline resulted in greater reductions in days with headache and migraine-related disability compared with the use of headache education plus amitriptyline. Children and adolescents with chronic migraine began the study with an average of 21 days with headache per 28 days and disability measured in the severe range. After 20 weeks of treatment, 2 out of 3 participants in the CBT group had a 50% or greater reduction in headache days and 3 out of 4 had a reduction in disability to the mild to none range.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Raine Sihvonen, M.D.
From the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology
Hatanpää City Hospital, Tampere Finland
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Järvinen: The main finding of the study is that arthroscopic partial meniscectomy
is not superior over sham-surgery (placebo) when treated patients with knee
pain attributable to degenerative meniscus tear, even in the
`best-case-scenario, that is patients with no knee OA.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Raj S Bhopal
Bruce and John Usher Professor of Public Health
Edinburgh Ethnicity and Health Research Group,
Centre for Population Health Sciences,
University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH89AG
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Prof. Bhopal:In a randomised controlled trial, a tailored, family orientated intervention whereby dietitians worked in the family home to provide diet and exercise advice in people at high risk of developing diabetes, had a modest but potentially important effect in reducing weight at the end of the three-year intervention, by 1.6 kg more than in the control group.
Medical Research.com Interview with: Dr. Beate Wieseler
Head of Department Dept. Drug Assessment
Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) Im Mediapark
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
Dr. Wieseler: Our study shows that unpublished clinical study reports, i.e. reports submitted to regulatory authorities during the approval procedure for a drug, provide substantially more information on patient-relevant outcomes than publicly available sources, i.e. articles published in medical journals and reports published in online clinical trial registries. (A “patient-relevant outcome” is an outcome describing morbidity, mortality or health-related quality of life.)
Privacy & Cookies Policy
Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information.