Single Higher Dose Radiation Treatment Effective for Metastatic Cancer Pain Relief

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, MDDepartment of Radiation OncologyThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHouston

Dr. Quynh-Nhu

Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, MD
Department of Radiation Oncology
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Houston

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

 Response: This is the first non-spine bone metastases trial comparing higher dose single fraction radiotherapy vs multifraction standard fractionated radiotherapy for patients with painful bone metastases.

The results of this trial demonstrated more durable pain relief and superior local control for patients treated in the higher dose(12 Gy-16 Gy)  single fraction RT compared to standard 30 Gy/10 fractions multifractionated regimen.  This trial supports the previous multiple randomized trials which recommend single fraction should be standard palliative radiotherapy regimen for bone metastases.  This trial is unique in that it addressed previous criticism that single fraction does not provide durable palliation with lower 8 gy single fraction and result in higher re-irradiation rates.  This trial on the contrary with the utilization of modern radiotherapy techniques, demonstrated we can safely and more effectively deliver a higher single fraction radiotherapy regimen for improvement in the quality of life for patients.  This higher dose should be the new standard single fraction regimen for patients who are functional and have a longer life expectancy.  Continue reading

Cancer Patients May Receive Better Emergency Care at Hospital Where They Receive Cancer Treatments

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Keerat Grewal, MD, MSc, FRCPC Schwartz/Reisman Emergency Medicine Institute Mount Sinai Hospital Toronto, ON

Dr. Grewal

Keerat Grewal, MD, MSc, FRCPC
Schwartz/Reisman Emergency Medicine Institute
Mount Sinai Hospital
Toronto, ON 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Patients with cancer have complex care requirements and often use the emergency department. The purpose of our study was to determine whether continuity of care, cancer expertise, or both, impact outcomes among cancer patients in the emergency setting. Using administrative data we looked at adult patients with cancer who received chemotherapy or radiation therapy in the 30 days prior to an emergency department visit.  Continue reading

Occupational Exposure to Pesticides: Poor Prognosis for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients

MedicalResearch.com interview with:
Sylvain Lamure, MD, Hematologist, Principal Investigator

Pascale Fabbro-Peray, MD, PhD , Epidemiologist, Senior Investigator
University of Montpellier, France

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Occupational exposure to pesticides is a well-documented associated factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The main biological mechanisms of both pesticides and chemotherapy are genotoxicity and reactive oxygen species generation. Cellular adaptation among patients exposed to low doses of genotoxic and oxidative compounds might hinder chemotherapy efficiency in lymphoma patients. T

hus, we have investigated the association of occupational exposure with response to immunochemotherapy and survival in the subgroup of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, whose treatment is standardized.

Continue reading

Gene Linked to Colon Cancer in Younger Patients Identified

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Valentine N. Nfonsam, MD, MS, FACSAssociate Professor of SurgeryProgram Director, General Surgery ResidencyColon and Rectal SurgeryDivision of Surgical OncologyUniversity of Arizona, Tucson

Dr. Nfonsam

Valentine N. Nfonsam, MD, MS, FACS
Associate Professor of Surgery
Program Director, General Surgery Residency
Colon and Rectal Surgery
Division of Surgical Oncology
University of Arizona, Tucson 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The overall incidence of colon cancer in the United states has gone down in the last few decades. However, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of sporadic colon cancer is young patients (<50 years old). The etiology of this phenomenon is likely multi-factorial.

These young patients do present with more advanced disease and with aggressive features. We demonstrated in our study that the colon cancer tumor biology was different between young and older patients. We also singled out a particular gene, Cartilage oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) which was significantly over-expressed in young patients and demonstrated its role in cancer proliferation and metastasis and also its potential as a prognostic biomarker since we were able to detect it in plasma.

Continue reading

“Magic Mouthwash” Can Decrease Mouth Pain from Radiation Therapy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Robert C. Miller, MD, MS, MBADepartment of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FloridaUniversity of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore

Dr. Miller

Robert C. Miller, MD, MS, MBA
Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: “Magic Mouthwash” is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for oral mucositis pain during cancer therapy, but there has not been good evidence in the past to support its use.

This trial is the first large randomized controlled trial to demonstrate that both “Magic” mouthwash and doxepin rinse reduce patient reported pain during cancer therapy.

Continue reading

RNA Genetic Testing Improves Analysis of Hereditary Cancer Genes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Rachid Karam, PhD

Director, Ambry Translational Genomics Lab
Ambry Genetics 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: DNA genetic testing (DGT) for hereditary cancer genes is now a well accepted clinical practice; however, the interpretation of DNA variation remains a challenge to laboratories and medical providers.

RNA genetic testing (RGT) as a supplement to DGT is a means to clarify the clinical actionability of variants in hereditary cancer genes, improving our ability to accurately apply known strategies for cancer risk reduction.

Continue reading

Sentinel Lymph Node Drainage Can Be Used to Test For Marker of Melanoma Relapse Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Héctor Peinado PhDMicroenvironment and Metastasis LaboratoryMolecular Oncology ProgramSpanish National Cancer Research CenterMadrid, Spain

Dr. Peinado

Héctor Peinado PhD
Microenvironment and Metastasis Laboratory
Molecular Oncology Program
Spanish National Cancer Research Center
Madrid, Spain 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: In this study we detected for the first time BRAF mutation by liquid biopsy in melanoma stage III patients that underwent lymphadenectomy. We obtained a novel biofluid from the drainage implanted 24-48 hours post-lymphadenectomy, called exudative seroma, and profiled BRAF mutation in circulating free DNA and extracellular vesicles.

Those patients positive for BRAF mutation in the seroma had increased risk of relapse, therefore we believe that this technique identifies patients at risk of relapse by identifying residual disease.

Continue reading

Surgical Outcomes Found to be Better at ‘Brand Name’ than Affiliate Cancer Hospitals

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Daniel J. Boffa, MDAssociate Professor of Thoracic SurgeryYale School of Medicine

Dr. Boffa

Daniel J. Boffa, MD
Associate Professor of Thoracic Surgery
Yale School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Prominent cancer hospitals have been sharing their brands with smaller hospitals in the community.  We conducted a series of nationally representative surveys and found that a significant proportion of the U.S. public assumes that the safety of care is the same at all hospitals that share the same respected brand.  In an effort to determine if safety was in fact the same, we examined complex surgical procedures in the Medicare database.

We compared the chance of dying within 90 days of surgery between top-ranked hospitals, and the affiliate hospitals that share their brands.  When taking into account differences in patient age, health, and type of procedure, Medicare patients were 1.4 times more likely to die after surgery at the affiliate hospitals, compared to those having surgery at the top-ranked cancer hospitals.

Continue reading

How Many Cancer Patients Use Complementary or Alternative Medicine Treatments?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Nina Niu Sanford, M.D. Assistant ProfessorUT Southwestern Department of Radiation OncologyDallas TX 75390

Dr. Niu Sanford

Nina Niu Sanford, M.D.
Assistant Professor
UT Southwestern Department of Radiation Oncology
Dallas TX 75390

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: There has been increasing interest in use of complementary and alternative medicine in the oncology population – both in terms of its potential efficacy and harms.

The main finding of this study is that approximately 1/3 of cancer patients and survivors self-reported using complementary or alternative medicine over the past year, the most common being herbal supplements.

Of these patients, approximately 1/3 did not disclose to their physicians that they were doing so.

Continue reading

Cancer Drug Trials: Does Changing the Endpoint from Overall Survival Hasten the Approval Process?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Emerson Chen, MDChief Fellow, Hematology-Oncology, PGY-6Oregon Health & Science University

Dr. Chen

Emerson Chen, MD
Chief Fellow, Hematology-Oncology, PGY-6
Oregon Health & Science University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Many cancer drugs are approved annually giving the appearance of innovation; however, some drugs may have been approved because of a lower bar. Use of lesser endpoints like response rate (how tumor shrinks) and progression-free survival (how tumor has delayed growth) have been proposed to speed trials when compared against traditional endpoints like overall survival (how long patients might live).

Using published trials that led to cancer drug approval from 2006 to 2017, we estimated how long it would take to get each of these three endpoints across all cancer drugs and indications to see how much time we could save by using these weaker but faster endpoints.

We see that many trials using overall survival used less time than anticipated, and many trials using response rate or progression-free survival actually took quite a bit of time.  In part that is due to researchers needing to document the duration of the response. But, whatever the reason, the time to get each of the three endpoints is actually more similar than different, and we estimate that our current use of  these faster endpoints are saving us only 11 months compared to using only overall survival.

Continue reading

Opioid-Related Hospitalizations Among Cancer Patients are Rare

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Isaac Chua MDInstructor of Medicine at Harvard Medical SchoolBoston, Massachusetts

Dr. Chua

Isaac Chua MD
Instructor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School
Boston, Massachusetts 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  

Response: Opioids are routinely prescribed for cancer-related pain, but little is known about the prevalence of opioid-related hospitalizations for patients with cancer. Although opioid addiction among patients with cancer is estimated to be as high as 7.7%, our understanding of opioid misuse is based on small, preliminary studies.

In light of the wider opioid epidemic, oncologists and palliative care clinicians frequently balance providing patients with legitimate access to opioids while protecting them and the general public from the risks of prescribing these medications.

Continue reading

The Word ‘Cancer’ Still Affects How Patients Feel About Their Disease, Even if Low Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Peter R. Dixon, MDDepartment of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck SurgeryInstitute of Health Policy, Management and EvaluationUniversity of TorontoToronto, Ontario, Canada 

Dr. DIxon

Peter R. Dixon, MD
Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery
Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The word ‘cancer’ is often associated with an aggressive and lethal disease. Innovations in screening and diagnostic tests detect some ‘cancers’ that — even if left untreated — pose very low-risk of any symptoms, progression, or mortality. Still, many of these low-risk cancers are treated aggressively and those treatments can have harmful consequences and side-effects.

We were interested in determining how influential the word ‘cancer’ is in decisions made by patients about low-risk malignant neoplasms relative to other labels for the same disease.

Continue reading

Genetic Mutation May Predict Outcomes of Prostate Cancer Treated With Androgen-Deprivation Therapy or Abiraterone

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Masaki Shiota MD, PhD Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences Kyushu University Fukuoka , Japan

Dr. Shiota

Masaki Shiota MD, PhD
Department of Urology
Graduate School of Medical Sciences
Kyushu University
Fukuoka , Japan

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response:  3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 encoded by HSD3B1 is a rate-limiting enzyme required for all pathways of dihydrotestosterone synthesis, as well as converts abiraterone into Δ4-abiraterone (D4A), which blocks multiple steroidogenic enzymes and antagonizes the androgen receptor.

A mutation (1245A>C) in HSD3B1 is shown to be resistant to proteasomal degradation, causing substantial accumulation of this enzyme and gain-of-function. Although the HSD3B1 (1245C) allele can be acquired by mutation, germ-line single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1047303) is also known to exist. Then, in this study, we investigated the significance of missense polymorphism in HSD3B1 gene among men treated with primary ADT or abiraterone.

The results showed men carrying variant allele showed higher risk of progression in primary androgen-deprivation therapy, but vulnerable to abiraterone treatment. Continue reading

Younger Generations at Much Higher Risk of Obesity Related Cancers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hyuna Sung, PHD Principal Scientist, Surveillance Research American Cancer Society, Inc. 250 Williams St. Atlanta, GA 30303 

Dr. Sung

Hyuna Sung, PHD
Principal Scientist, Surveillance Research
American Cancer Society, Inc.
250 Williams St.
Atlanta, GA 30303 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This project was motivated by our previous finding on the rise of colorectal cancer among young adults before age 55. Changes in cancer trends among young age group have significant implications because the newly introduced carcinogenic agents are likely to affect trends among young people before they affect those among older people. Owing to this relationship, cancer trends among young people can be often considered as a bellwether for future disease burden. Given the dramatic increase of the obesity prevalence during 3-4 decades in the US, we wanted to expand the colorectal cancer finding to the more comprehensive list of cancers and explain them in the context of obesity epidemic.

Continue reading

Female Radiation Oncologists Less Likely to Receive Industry Payments

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Ann Raldow MD MPH Assistant Professor Department of Radiation Oncology David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA

Dr. Raldow

Dr. Ann Raldow MD MPH
Assistant Professor
Department of Radiation Oncology
David Geffen School of Medicine
UCLA 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Similar to women in other historically male-dominated fields, female radiation oncologists face unique obstacles in achieving many metrics of career success, including equal salary, research funding, and academic promotion. Our study of industry payments found that female radiation oncologists were less likely than their male colleagues to receive payments from industry and that these payments tended to be of smaller monetary value.

Continue reading

Younger Cancer Survivors Face Greater Financial Burdens

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Zhiyuan "Jason" Zheng PhD Director, Economics and Healthcare Delivery Research American Cancer Society, Inc. Atlanta, GA 30303

Dr. Zheng

Zhiyuan “Jason” Zheng PhD
Director, Economics and Healthcare Delivery Research
American Cancer Society, Inc.
Atlanta, GA 30303

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Historically, the cost of healthcare can be a substantial burden for cancer survivors and their families in the US. Even with health insurance, a cancer diagnosis can impose significant out-of-pocket costs for medical care.  These are partially due to the rising costs of cancer treatments in recent years, moreover, the increasing levels of coinsurance, copayments, and deductibles also shift a significant portion of the burden to cancer patients.

We found that younger cancer survivors, those aged 18-49 years, bear a higher burden than their older counterparts. We also found that two-thirds of cancer survivors enrolled in high-deductible health plans did not have health savings accounts, and they are more vulnerable to financial hardship than those in high-deductible health plans with health savings accounts and those covered by low-deductible plans.

These findings are important to patients because although cancer patents have benefited from newer and more advanced treatments, financial hardship may lead to emotional distress, cause changes in health behaviors, and jeopardize treatment adherence and health outcomes. 

Continue reading

First Patient Dosed in Phase 3 AGENT Study for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

MedicalResearch.com interview with:

Anders Rabbe CEO of Isofol Medical

Anders Rabbe

Anders Rabbe
CEO of Isofol Medical

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How common is colorectal cancer? 

Response: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common forms of cancer with more than 1.8 million new cases identified globally every year. Due to a lack of new therapeutic options and a high mortality rate, colorectal cancer is a disease with a significant unmet need for effective new treatments.

Isofol is developing arfolitixorin (Modufolin®) to improve the efficacy of standard of care chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. Arfolitixorin is the company’s proprietary drug candidate currently being studied in a global Phase 3 AGENT study (ISO-CC-007) as a first-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), which just enrolled its first patient in December of 2018. Continue reading

Esophageal Cancer: HMIE Procedure Reduces Morbidity Without Sacrificing Efficacy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Guillaume Piessen, MD, PhD University Hospital Centre Lille, France

Prof. Piessen

Guillaume Piessen, MD, PhD
University Hospital Centre
Lille, Franc

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Patients requiring surgery for esophageal cancer fare better after undergoing a hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (HMIE) with a combined laparoscopy+thoracotomy procedure compared to an open esophagectomy (OE), according to results of the MIRO trial published in the last issue of the New England Journal Of Medicine (link article).

This French prospective multi-center randomized controlled study was funded by the French National Cancer Institute (Grant n° 1907). The study was conducted by Pr Mariette who sadely passed away in 2017 and Pr Piessen (Department of Digestive and Oncological Surgery, CHU Lille), under the hauspice of FRENCH (Fédération de Recherche EN Chirurgie) and FREGAT (French Eso-Gastric Tumors) working group (https://www.fregat-database.org/fr/).

Postoperative morbidity, especially pulmonary complications, affects more than half of patients after open esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.

Hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (HMIE) combines a laparoscopic abdominal phase with an open thoracotomy, which may have specific advantages including lower rate of pulmonary complications, without laparoscopic tumor dissection limiting potential tumor spillage and easier reproducibility of the technique [12].

Postoperative morbidity, especially pulmonary complications, affects more than half of patients after open esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.

Hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (HMIE) combines a laparoscopic abdominal phase with an open thoracotomy, which may have specific advantages including lower rate of pulmonary complications, without laparoscopic tumor dissection limiting potential tumor spillage and easier reproducibility of the technique [12].

Continue reading

WHO: Profits Outweigh R&D Costs of New Cancer Drugs

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kiu Tay-Teo, PhD World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland

Dr. Kiu Tay-Teo

Kiu Tay-Teo, PhD
World Health Organization
Geneva, Switzerland

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: High costs and high risks of R&D for drugs have been presented to justify high drug prices, especially for cancer drugs. However, it is unclear whether prices are in fact justifiable compared to the overall return on R&D investment.

In this paper, we systematically compared incomes from the sales of cancer drugs with the R&D costs. We quantified the incomes generated from the sales of 99 cancer drugs approved by FDA from 1989–2017. This was based on sales figures reported in the originator companies’ annual financial reports, and where necessary, estimates deduced from the reported figures. The sales incomes were net of rebates and discounts, but without accounting for expenses and taxes. For the R&D costs of bringing one new cancer drug to the market, the literature reported a typical costs of between $219 million and $2.9 billion, after accounting for the costs of failed products that were investigated but not marketed and the opportunity costs. For the main analysis, we used a median cost of $794 million, as reported in the literature. To be clear, this analysis did not estimate profit return because we do not have information about the costs and year-to-year variations in costs (i.e. expenses and taxes) specific to cancer drugs.

Continue reading

Cancers Attributable to Obesity Vary by State

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Farhad Islami, MD PhD Scientific Director, Surveillance Research American Cancer Society, Inc. Atlanta, GA 30303

Dr. Islami

Farhad Islami, MD PhD
Scientific Director, Surveillance Research
American Cancer Society, Inc.
Atlanta, GA 30303

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Despite variations in excess body weight (EBW) prevalence among states in the United States, there was little information on the proportion of incident cancers attributable to EBW (or population attributable fraction, PAF) by state. This information would be useful to help states set priorities for cancer control initiatives.

In this paper, we estimated the PAF and number of incident cancer cases attributable to EBW by sex in all 50 states and the District of Columbia using representative exposure and cancer occurrence data. To provide more accurate estimates, we adjusted state-level data on body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported weight and height from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and education level (162 strata) using BMI values from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative survey with objectively-measured height and weight.

Continue reading

Chemo and Some Cancers Raise Risk of Shingles

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Herpes Zoster - Shingles on chest Wikipedia image

Herpes Zoster – Shingles
on chest
Wikipedia image

Jiahui Qian, MPH
School of Public Health and Community Medicine
University of New South Wales
Sydney Australia

 

 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Herpes zoster is a neurocutaneous disease caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus and its risk is related to the cell-mediated immunity. Previous studies have reported a higher zoster risk among patients with haematological cancer and cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. However, the role of the cancer itself and the receipt of cancer treatment is not clearly separated, we therefore started this study and tried to separate the risk of zoster associated with the cancer itself from cancer treatment.  Continue reading

Some Anti-Tumor Drugs May Promote Delayed Aggressive Cancers

MedicalResearch.comInterview with:
Alexandra Avgustinova PhD
Postdoctoral fellow at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRBBarcelona)

Dr. Avgustinova
Dr. Avgustinova

MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?

Response: The basis of this study was the strong association between closed chromatin and high mutation rate reported several years ago. We were surprised to see this observation being widely interpreted as a causal association, as it was largely based on correlative studies without experimental backing. Therefore we decided to experimentally test for the first time whether indeed altering chromatin opening would affect mutation rate or distribution within tumours.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: We found that, despite significantly increasing chromatin opening, loss of the histone methyltransferase G9a did not have any major influence on the mutation rate or distribution within cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. These results demonstrate that chromatin opening does not play a major role in determining the mutation rate within tumours, and we speculate that other, confounded factors (e.g. replication timing or H3K36me3 levels) are likely causal for the observed association. This, however, remains to be proven experimentally.

Another major conclusion of our study was that although tumour initiation was delayed and tumour burden decreased in the absence of G9a, the tumours that did develop were highly aggressive due to selection for more aggressive tumour clones. This finding was contrary to many published reports suggesting G9a as a good candidate for clinical targeting, highlighting the need for long-term follow-up in pre-clinical studies.

Continue reading

Immunotherapy Gel Sprayed on Surgical Site May Reduce Cancer Recurrence

MedicalResearch.comInterview with:

Zhen Gu, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Bioengineering
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
Dr. Zhen Gu

Zhen Gu, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Bioengineering
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)

MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?

Response: Despite improvements in surgical techniques, local residual tumor micro infiltration and circulating tumor cells continue causing tumor recurrence after resection. 

Calcium carbonate nanoparticles could scavenge H+ in the surgical wound, reserving the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and promoting the antitumor immuneresponses. 

Continue reading

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Linked to Increased Risk of Some Cancer Types

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Weimin Ye, MD MSC, PhD Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institue

Prof. Ye

Dr. Weimin Ye, MD MSC, PhD
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Karolinska Institue

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine    disorder affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age. Characterized by hyperandrogenism and metabolic abnormalities, PCOS is known to be related to various long-term health consequences, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and endometrial cancer. Besides, inconsistent results have been reported for the associations between PCOS and the risk of ovarian and breast cancer. Studies addressing the risks of other cancers are scarce. Thus, we conducted a large, population-based cohort study with a long follow-up and rather sufficient confounding adjustment to explore the full picture of associations between PCOS and the risks of various cancer types.

We found that PCOS is a risk factor for certain types of cancer, including cancers of the endometrium, ovary, endocrine gland, pancreas, kidney and skeletal & hematopoietic system. Continue reading

Daily Drinking is Dangerous

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Alcohol” by Jorge Mejía peralta is licensed under CC BY 2.0Sarah Hartz, MD PhD

Assistant Professor
Department of Psychiatry
Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: This study is the first to show that daily drinking is dangerous. Specifically, drinking four or more times weekly, even if it’s only 1-2 drinks at a time, increases risk of mortality. This is in line with recent studies published in the Lancet, but we were able to break down their lowest drinking categories (up to 12.5 drinks weekly in one and up to 5.6 drinks weekly in the other) and found that the frequency is important, not just the average number of drinks per week. It looks like the increased mortality is predominantly due to cancer-related deaths.

Continue reading

Can an Organic Diet Reduce Cancer Risk?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

"Sunday market in Paris: all organic food" by Richard Smith is licensed under CC BY 2.0Julia Baudry &
Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot PhD
Centre de Recherche Epidémiologie et Statistique Sorbonne Paris Cité, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1153, Institut National de la Recherche

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Among the environmental risk factors for cancer, there are concerns about exposure to different classes of pesticides, notably through occupational exposure. Organic foods are less likely to contain pesticide residues than conventional foods, and studies have showed that an organic diet reduces exposure to certain pesticides (Baudry et al 2018, Oates et al 2014, Curl et al 2015). In the general population, the primary route of exposure is diet, especially intake of conventionally grown fruits and vegetables. However, few studies have examined the association of organic food consumption with cancer risk.

In a population of 68 946 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé study, we found a reduction of 25% of cancer risk among consumers with a high frequency of organic foods compared to consumers with a low frequency, after accounting for many factors (such as lifestyle, diet and sociodemographic factors). Specifically a 34% and 76% decrease in risk was observed for post-menopausal breast cancer and all lymphomas, respectively, among frequent organic food consumers compared to consumers with a low organic food consumption frequency.

Continue reading

TumorScan May Become a Universal Screening Blood Test For Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Professor Diana Anderson Established Chair in Biomedical Sciences The University of Bradford Richmond Road Bradford West Yorkshire

Prof Anderson

Prof. Diana Anderson
Established Chair in Biomedical Sciences
The University of Bradford Richmond Road Bradford West Yorkshire

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: I have worked in this field for over 40 years both as a research scientist in industry and as a university-based researcher. It has always been my ambition to develop a relatively simple and affordable test to predict if a person is sensitive to cancer. In fact, in 1974, I was appointed as Head of Mutagenesis Studies at ICI’s Central Toxicology Laboratory in Manchester, UK, and I was looking at developing a short-term test to predict cancer even back then.

Our ‘universal’ cancer test is different from other ‘universal’ tests being developed, because ours is not looking for a specific biomarker or mutation. Ours is a generic test for cancer in an individual, regardless of any underlying mechanism that’s causing their cancer.

It is known that levels of damage to the DNA in the cellular genome can correlate with cancer and this is what we set out to investigate with the Comet assay.

Of the available tests to detect damage to the genome the Comet assay is very straightforward. This assay was primarily developed as a method to measure DNA damage. Briefly, cells are embedded in agarose on a microscope slide and lysed to remove membranes leaving supercoiled DNA loops, breaks in which after alkaline treatment and alkaline electrophoresis move towards a positive charge. The DNA is stained with a fluorescent dye and visualised by fluorescent microscopy. The image is like Haley‘s comet and the greater number of breaks the greater is the migration to the anode and the greater the damage.  Continue reading

Breast Cancer: Gene Expression of Receptors on a Chip Can Enhance Precision Diagnosis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"JFK Plaza/ Breast Cancer Awareness" by nakashi is licensed under CC BY 2.0Univ.- Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schreiner
Section Biosimulation and Bioinformatics
Center for Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Intelligent Systems
Medical University of Vienna
General Hospital
WIEN / AUSTRIA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The choice of correct individualized therapy for breast cancer depends on correct diagnosis: receptors for estrogen, progesterone and HER2 are determined routinely. However 5-10% of these routine diagnostics are inaccurate and may entail suboptimal therapy.

We have paved the way for additional diagnostics from gene expression data so as to increase precision of diagnostics. Continue reading

Exercise May Benefit Some Cancer Patients More Than Others

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Laurien Buffart, PhD  Chair Amsterdam eXercise in Oncology (AXiON) research Departments of Epidemiology & Biostatistics and Medical Oncology VUmc  Amsterdam | The Netherlands

Dr. Buffart

Laurien Buffart, PhD
Chair Amsterdam eXercise in Oncology (AXiON) research
Departments of Epidemiology & Biostatistics and Medical Oncology
VUmc  Amsterdam | The Netherlands

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: There is evidence from randomized controlled trials that exercise has beneficial effects on physical fitness, fatigue, quality of life and self-reported physical function during and following cancer treatment. The magnitude of the effects, however, often appear modest, possibly because interventions rarely target patients with worse symptoms and quality of life.

Based on individual patient data from 34 randomized controlled trials, we found that exercise interventions during cancer treatment are effective in maintaining muscle strength and quality of life, regardless of their baseline values.

Offering exercise interventions post cancer treatment to patients with a relatively high muscle strength and quality of life does not appear to further improve these outcomes. For aerobic fitness, exercise interventions during treatment had larger effects in patients with higher baseline aerobic fitness, whereas all patients were able to improve aerobic fitness post treatment. Greater effects on fatigue and self-reported physical function were found for patients with worse baseline fatigue and physical function, both during and post-treatment. 

Continue reading

Obesity Linked to Alarming Risk in Gastric and Colon Cancers in Young Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hisham Hussan, M.D. Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine Director, Obesity and Bariatric Endoscopy Section Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Department of Internal Medicine The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center Columbus, OH 43210

Dr. Hussan

Hisham Hussan, M.D.
Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine
Director, Obesity and Bariatric Endoscopy Section
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
Department of Internal Medicine
The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center
Columbus, OH 43210

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Obesity, a major healthcare burden, is an established risk factor for many gastrointestinal cancers. With obesity being on the rise, we inspected whether obesity related gastrointestinal cancers are increasing in different age groups, and relation to obesity.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? 

Response: We identify an alarming increase in incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers in young adults (less than 50 years of age) between 2002-2013.

This was paralleled by an uptrend in obese patients undergoing surgeries for these cancers during the same period. 

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Our results suggest, for the first time, a contributing role of obesity in the etiology as well as the increasing incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers in young adults. 

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: More studies are needed to investigate the interplay of epigenetics factors such as young-onset obesity and western diet in relation to risk of adults developing colorectal and gastric cancers at an earlier age. Also public policies are needed to counter obesity and the rising incidence of gastric and colorectal cancer in this young high risk group.

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

Response: My main career focus is translational and clinical research at the interface of energy balance, the microbiome and gastrointestinal cancer.

We have no financial disclosers or conflict of interest.

Citation:

 ACG18 abstract:

Rising, Age‐Specific, Trends of Obesity‐Related Gastrointestinal Cancers Correspond With Increasing Cancer Resections in Obese Patients: A 2002‐2013 National Analysis Using the SEER and NIS Databases

Oct 9, 2018 @ 11:58 am

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.