Men and African Americans More Likely To Transition to Hypertension At Younger Age

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Shakia Hardy, MPH, CPH. PhD

Dr. Hardy

Shakia Hardy, MPH, CPH. PhD
Department of Epidemiology
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous studies characterizing blood pressure levels across the life course have relied on prevalence estimates at a given age.

Our study was interested in identifying critical ages at which net transitions between levels of blood pressure occurred. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012) to estimate age-, race-, and sex-specific annual net transition probabilities between ideal blood pressure, prehypertension and hypertension.

We found that African Americans and men were more likely to transition from ideal levels of blood pressure in childhood or early adulthood compared to white Americans and women, which puts them at increased risk of developing prehypertension and hypertension earlier in life.

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Men and Women Have Different Post-Op Risks After Joint Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Darwin Chen, MD Assistant Professor, Orthopaedics Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Dr. Darwin Chen

Darwin Chen, MD
Assistant Professor, Orthopaedics
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Total hip and knee replacement surgery are among the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures today. Although success rates are high, complications can occur and some may be preventable. The goal of our research was to assess the impact of gender on complications within the first 30 days after hip and knee replacement.

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Boy and Girl Fetuses Elicit Different Immune Response in Mother

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Amanda Mitchell PhD Postdoctoral researcher Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center

Dr. Mitchell

Amanda Mitchell PhD
Postdoctoral researcher
Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research
The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Our study followed 80 pregnant women across the course of their pregnancy – throughout 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters. We examined whether women exhibited different levels of immune markers called cytokines based on fetal sex. We looked at this in two ways – levels of cytokines in the blood, and levels produced by a sample of immune cells that were exposed to bacteria in the laboratory. While women did not exhibit differences in blood cytokine levels based on fetal sex, we found that the immune cells of women carrying female fetuses produced more proinflammatory cytokines when exposed to bacteria. This means that women carrying female fetuses exhibited a heightened inflammatory response when their immune system was challenged compared to women carrying male fetuses.

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Gender Differences in Sweating Explained By Size

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sean Notley, PhD. Postdoctoral Fellow School of Human Kinetics | École des sciences de l'activité physique University of Ottawa | Université d'Ottawa Ottawa ON

Dr. Notley

Sean Notley, PhD.
Postdoctoral Fellow
School of Human Kinetics | École des sciences de l’activité physique
University of Ottawa | Université d’Ottawa
Ottawa ON

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Gender-differences in human heat loss (skin blood flow and sweating) have long been ascribed to innate differences between men and women. However, we believed that these were more related more to size than to gender, because most previous research compared average (larger) men with average (smaller) women. In our view, the size and shape (morphology) of an individual might be as important, if not more important, than gender in determining heat loss.

When we matched men and women for body morphology, and when we studied those participants in tolerable conditions, we found that larger men and women were more dependent on sweating and less on skin blood flow, while smaller individuals were more reliant on skin blood flow and less on sweating. Moreover, as anticipated, gender differences in those heat-loss responses could be explained almost entirely by individual variations in morphology.

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Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Stroke Outlined

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Catharina J. M. Klijn, MD Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Neuroscience Department of Neurology Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre Nijmegen, the Netherlands

Dr. Catharina J. M. Klijn

Catharina J. M. Klijn, MD
Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery
University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht
Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Neuroscience
Department of Neurology
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre
Nijmegen, the Netherlands

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The incidence of stroke is higher in men than in women. This difference attenuates with increasing age. Established risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, cigarette smoking and ischemic heart disease are more prevalent in men but only partly explain the difference in stroke incidence. The contribution of oral contraceptive use and hormone therapy to stroke risk has been previously reviewed. We aimed to evaluate what is known on other female- and male specific risk factors for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence and stroke mortality through a systematic review and meta-analysis of 78 studies including over 10 million participants.

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Men and Women Now Drink About Same Amount of Alcohol

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tim Slade, PhD Associate Professor National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre University of New South Wales

Prof. Tim Slade

Tim Slade, PhD
Associate Professor
National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre
University of New South Wales

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Historically, men have been more likely to drink alcohol than women and to drink in quantities that damage their health. However, evidence points to a significant shift in the drinking landscape with rates of alcohol use converging among men and women born in more recent times. In a bid to quantify this trend over time, we pooled data from 68 published research studies in 36 countries around the world. We looked at how the ratio of men’s to women’s alcohol use differed for people born in different time periods and found that the gap between the sexes consistently narrowed over the past 100 years or so. For example, among cohorts born in the early 1900s men were just over two times more likely than women to drink alcohol. Among cohorts born in the late 1900s this ratio had decreased to almost one meaning that men’s and women’s drinking rates have reached parity.

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Both Men and Women Can Face Financial Barriers After Heart Attack

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Adam L. Beckman
Yale College, New Haven, CT (at the time this work was completed)
Erica S Spatz MD MHS
Assistant Professor, Section of Cardiovascular Medicine
Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation
Yale-New Haven Hospital
Yale University School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Beckman: Despite the expansion of insurance coverage, young adults face major challenges to obtaining affordable healthcare. We suspected women may experience greater challenges than men — they often have lower income and less complete medical coverage than men, and care for multiple generations of family, and that this may in part explain why young women have worse outcomes following a heart attack as compared with similarly-aged men.

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TAVR: Women Have More Short Term Complications But Better One-Year Survival

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael A. Gaglia Jr., MD, MSc, FACC, FSCAI Scientific Lead, Population Research Medstar Cardiovascular Research Network Interventional Cardiology Medstar Heart and Vascular Institute Washington, DC 20010

Dr. Michael Gaglia

Michael A. Gaglia Jr., MD, MSc, FACC, FSCAI
Scientific Lead, Population Research
Medstar Cardiovascular Research Network
Interventional Cardiology
Medstar Heart and Vascular Institute
Washington, DC 20010

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Cardiovascular outcomes vary according to gender in a variety of disease states. For example, short-term mortality is higher among women presenting with an acute coronary syndrome in comparison to men. There is a similar trend for higher short-term mortality of women undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, although this is in part due to a relatively higher burden of comorbidities. Female gender is also a well-established risk factor for bleeding complications after percutaneous coronary intervention.

In regards to women undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis (AS), however, the data is equivocal; some studies suggest higher mortality for women, whereas others suggest improved survival for women.

The emergence of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) as the preferred therapeutic option for patients with severe AS at high or extreme risk for surgery offered another opportunity to examine gender disparities in outcomes. The evidence base for the impact of gender upon TAVR, however, is still evolving. A recent meta-analysis suggested improved long-term survival among women after TAVR. And in general, previous studies also suggest more vascular and bleeding complications in women when compared to men. The goal of this study was relatively simple: to compare outcomes between women and men undergoing TAVR at a single center.

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Stem Cells May Be Stimulated in Women With Chest Pain But Normal Coronary Arteries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arshed A. Quyyumi MD; FRCP

Dr. Arshed Auyyumi

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Arshed A. Quyyumi MD; FRCP
Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology
Emory University School of Medicine
Co-Director, Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute
Atlanta GA 30322

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Circulating progenitor or stem cells were discovered in adults 15 years ago. We now know that they may be stimulated by injury or ischemia, and they go down in number and function with aging, particularly when aging is associated with risk factors.

Women with chest pain despite normal coronary arteries are thought to have ischemia because of microvascular dysfunction. We found that these women, with the worst microvascular function (measured as coronary flow reserve), had higher levels of circulating stem or progenitor cells. This implies that the mild ischemia they are having during their normal daily life, leads to stimulation of their stem cells. Also, the vascular abnormality may be a stimulus for repair.

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Poor Work/Life Balance Cited As Main Reason For Few Female Surgeons

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Miss Hui-Ling Kerr
SpR Trauma and Orthopaedics
Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic
Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Gender inequality at consultant level in surgery has not improved despite greater opportunities for women and only a small proportion of women apply to become surgical trainees.

We wanted to find out if the lack of female surgical role models acted as a deterrent to first year female junior doctors and final year medical students towards a career in surgery.

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Calcium Supplements May Raise Risk of Dementia in Elderly Women with Cerebrovascular Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Silke Kern, MD, PhD Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit and Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Sahlgrenska Academy University of Gothenburg Gothenburg, Sweden

Dr. Silke Kern

Silke Kern, MD, PhD
Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit and Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory
Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology
Sahlgrenska Academy
University of Gothenburg
Gothenburg, Sweden

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Calcium has an important role in ischemic neuronal cell death and atherosclerosis. Several studies suggest that increased serum calcium increases the risk for vascular events and worsens the outcome after stroke. Widespread ischemic neuronal cell death and atherosclerosis might lead to dementia. We therefore examined if Calcium supplementation is associated with development of dementia. Our study is the first to show a relationship between Calcium supplementation and increased risk for dementia in older women. This risk is mainly confined to women with cerebrovascular disease (history of stroke or presence of white matter lesions).

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Sleep Duration Affects Diabetes Risk Differently in Men and Women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Femke Rutters Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre Amsterdam, The Netherlands; EMGO+ Institute for Care Research

Dr. Femke Rutters

Dr. Femke Rutters
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre
Amsterdam, The Netherlands;
EMGO+ Institute for Care Research

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In the past 10 years the interest in sleep as a possible cause for obesity/diabetes has risen. But data up until now used mainly self-reported sleep and simple measures of diabetes (related parameters), such as fasting glucose. A study on well-measured insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function was lacking. Such a study could provide more information on the pathophysiology.

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