Finnish-Style Baby Box Reduced Parent-Baby Bed Sharing

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Megan Heere, MD Assistant Professor of Clinical Pediatrics Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University Medical Director Temple University Hospital Well Baby Nursery Temple Pediatric Care Philadelphia, PA 19140

Dr. Heere

Megan Heere, MD
Assistant Professor of Clinical Pediatrics
Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University
Medical Director
Temple University Hospital Well Baby Nursery
Temple Pediatric Care
Philadelphia, PA 19140

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Bed-sharing, the unsafe practice in which parents sleep in the same bed as their babies, is associated with sleep-related deaths in infants, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. No studies have examined the effect of a Finnish-style baby box on infant sleep environment. Face-to-face postpartum education about safe infant sleep, combined with the distribution of a baby box, which is a cardboard bassinet, reduced the rates of bed-sharing during babies’ first 8 days of life.

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Stop Using Cotton Tip Applicators in Kids’ Ears

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Kris Jatana, MD FAAP Pediatric Otolaryngologist Nationwide Children’s Hospital

Dr. Jatana

Kris Jatana, MD FAAP
Pediatric Otolaryngologist
Nationwide Children’s Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study looked at a 21-year period – 1990 through 2010 – and focused on children younger than 18 years of age treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments for cotton tip applicator-related ear injuries. About 263,000 children were injured during the study period, which comes out to approximately 1000 injuries seen in emergency departments every month or 34 per day.

The majority of injuries occurred when cotton tip applicators were used to clean a child’s ear canal (73%), and most of those injuries occurred when a child was using a cotton tip applicator on their own (77%), or their parent was using the device (16%) to clean the ear canal. About two out of every three patients were younger than 8 years of age, and patients aged 0-3 years accounted for 40% of all injuries.

Surprisingly, the highest rate of injury was in children 0-3 years old. The most common injuries were foreign body sensation (30%), perforated ear drum (25%) and soft tissue injury (23%).

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Regions With Strict Gun Control Laws Have Lower Rates of Pediatric Gun Injuries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Monika Goyal, M.D., M.S.C.E. Assistant Professor of Pediatrics & Emergency Medicine Director of Research, Division of Emergency Medicine Attending Physician Children’s National Health System The George Washington University

Dr. Monika Goyal

Monika Goyal, M.D., M.S.C.E.
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics & Emergency Medicine
Director of Research, Division of Emergency Medicine and Attending Physician
Children’s National Health System
The George Washington University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: As pediatric emergency clinicians, unfortunately, many of us have cared for a number of children who have been victims of gun violence. We wanted to investigate whether gun laws may make a difference in the rates of firearm-related morbidity and mortality in children. We specifically were interested in emergency department visits because they relate directly to the care we provide to pediatric patients.

Our main findings from our five-year study were that children are affected by gun violence nationally and, specifically, we saw regional differences in emergency department visits made by children who were victims of firearm violence.

Overall, firearm-related visits by patients 21 and younger to emergency departments remained consistent over time at a rate of 65 per every 100,000 visits until 2013, when they decreased slightly to 51 per 100,000 visits.

We also found that regions with more strict gun laws had lower rates of emergency department visits by children for gun violence compared with those regions with less stringent laws. We used the Brady Score, which looks at various state gun laws and assigns a score, to measure strictness. Then, based on state-level scores, we created regional composite scores.

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Fatty Acids From Fish During Infancy May Lower Risk of Type 1 Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sari Niinistö, PhD Senior Researcher, Public Health Solutions, Nutrition Unit National Institute for Health and Welfare Helsinki, Finland

Dr. Niinistö

Sari Niinistö, PhD
Senior Researcher,
Public Health Solutions, Nutrition Unit
National Institute for Health and Welfare
Helsinki, Finland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Previous prospective studies have observed protective association between fish-derived fat and type 1 diabetes related autoimmunity in older children. Also some other fatty acids have been associated with the risk for type 1 diabetes associated autoimmunity. We wanted to study very young children, because type 1 diabetes associated autoimmunity often begins early, already in infancy. Therefore, we investigated whether serum fatty acid levels during infancy or the main dietary sources of fatty acids (breast milk and infant formula) were related to the development of autoimmunity responses among children at increased genetic risk of developing type 1 diabetes.

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Number of Preschool Children With Visual Impairment Projected To Rise

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Rohit Varma, MD, MPH</strong> Executive Director - USC Roski Eye Institute and Dean of the Keck School of Medicine of USC

Dr. Varma

Rohit Varma, MD, MPH
Executive Director – USC Roski Eye Institute and
Dean of the Keck School of Medicine of USC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Visual impairment in early childhood has profound impact on a child’s development. It can significantly impair development of visual, motor, and cognitive function1-3 and lead to adverse psychosocial consequences. There has been a lack of accurate data characterizing the current and expected numbers of visual impairment cases among preschool children in the United States from 2015 to 2060.

The number of preschool children with visual impairment is projected to increase by 26% in 2060. And 69% of these visual impairment will result from simple uncorrected refractive error such hyperopia and myopia, which can be prevented or treated by low-cost refractive correction.

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Having A Dog Doesn’t Protect Kids From Type 1 Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tove Fall, PhD Department of Medical Sciences Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University Uppsala, Sweden

Dr. Tove Fall

Tove Fall, PhD
Department of Medical Sciences
Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University
Uppsala, Sweden

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Type 1 diabetes is a severe chronic disease in children. There are few established risk factors, but it has been hypothesized that factors related to reduction of microbial exposure in childhood may increase the risk. We have previously shown that children in dog-owning families are at lower risk for asthma, and we now wanted to investigate the relationship of dog ownership and diabetes. We did this by studying the whole Swedish child population with record linkage across registers of health and dog ownership. We could not find evidence for an association of dog ownership and type 1 diabetes in the general population.

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Community Targeting of High Risk Minority Males Improves HIV Detection and Treatment

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Robin Lin Miller, Ph.D. Professor, Ecological-Community Psychology Co-Director, MA in Program Evaluation Chair, Graduate Program in Ecological-Community Psychology Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824

Dr. Miller

Robin Lin Miller, Ph.D.
Professor, Ecological-Community Psychology
Co-Director, MA in Program Evaluation
Chair, Graduate Program in Ecological-Community Psychology
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824
MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We wanted to identify promising strategies for providing access to HIV-testing for gay and bisexual male youth. We were especially interested in testing strategies to reach gay and bisexual male youth of color, as they bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic and are the least likely to be aware of their HIV status. We also wanted to explore approaches to successfully link these youth with HIV-negative test results to diverse HIV prevention services, including pre-exposure prophylaxis, when warranted.

Although some argue that the ideal place to test adolescents and young adults is via emergency rooms and in routine medical care visits, we found that we were able test many more youth with previously undiagnosed HIV-infection through intensive, targeted community outreach efforts. We also tested a much higher proportion of young men of color through targeted outreach.

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Simulation Exercises Reduce Anxiety of Taking Baby Home From NICU

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Deborah A. Raines PhD, EdS, RN, ANEF School of Nursing University at Buffalo

Dr. Raines

Deborah A. Raines PhD, EdS, RN, ANEF
School of Nursing
University at Buffalo

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This research grew from my experience as a neonatal nurse. I have worked with many families preparing to take their baby home and have seen the anxiety they experience wondering if they will be able to take care of their baby’s medical needs at home.

Parents are usually most anxious about emergency situations that may occur. Majority of these parents are able to state what they should do, but have never experienced the actual situation with their baby. This study was designed to see if a simulation experience would fill this gap in parents’ preparation for the discharge of their baby from the NICU. This study had parents participated in a customized simulation to have them experience the care needed by their baby at home following discharge from the NICU.

The findings revealed that parents reported a nearly 30 percent increase in confidence in their abilities to care for their baby after participating in the simulation.

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Loss of a Sibling In Childhood Increases Short and Long Term Mortality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Yongfu Yu, PhD Department of Clinical Epidemiology Aarhus University Hospital Aarhus N, Denmark

Dr. Yong Yu

Dr. Yongfu Yu, PhD
Department of Clinical Epidemiology
Aarhus University Hospital
Aarhus, Denmark

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Bereavement by the death of a close relative is ranked as one of the most severe life events and it is likely to cause psychological stress regardless of coping mechanisms. An increased risk of mortality and adverse health outcomes has been observed among the bereaved spouses, parents, and children. It is estimated that nearly 8% of individuals in the US experienced a sibling death in childhood but much less is known about its health consequences. Sibling relationship tends to be the longest and the most intimate in family thus the death of a sibling can be a devastating life event, especially when this event happens at early ages. However, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the effects of sibling death in childhood on subsequent mortality in bereaved siblings with a long follow-up time.

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Childhood Adversities Linked To Increased Suicide Risk in Adolescents and Young Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Charlotte Björkenstam PhD

Dept of Clinical Neuroscience
Karolinska Institutet
Division of Insurance Medicine
Stockholm

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In a prior study we revealed that exposure to childhood adversities were associated with a substantial risk increase for self-harm. The risk was even higher for those exposed to accumulated childhood adversities. This finding together with the fact that the suicide rate among young adults is increasing (as opposed to decreasing in the general population) lead us to want to examine the relationship between childhood adversities and death by suicide.

We investigated 7 different childhood adversities, including familial death (suicide analyzed separately), parental substance abuse, parental psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, parental separation/single-parent household, public assistance recipiency, and residential instability occurring between birth and age 14. We then followed the individuals up until age 24 at most. All adversities were entailed with an increased suicide risk from IRR: 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.4) for residential instability to IRR: 2.9 (95% CI; 1.4 to 5.9) for familial suicide. We also found a dose-response relationship between accumulating CA and suicide risk where IRR ranged between 1.1 (95% CI: 0.9 to 1.4) for those exposed to 1 CA, to 2.6 (95% CI: 1.9 to 3.4) for those exposed to 3 or more adversities.

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Exposure To Furry Pets During Pregnancy and Babyhood May Help Keep Your Child Lean

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD Department of Pediatrics Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry University of Alberta

Dr. Anita Kozyrskyj

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD
Department of Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry
University of Alberta

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We have known for a while that early-life exposure to household pets can reduce risk for allergic disease; new studies also suggest a benefit in preventing overweight. Our pilot study in 2013 showed that postnatal pet exposure increases the number of different beneficial microbes in the infant gut. My team of 12, including first author and Albert Innovates-Health Solutions (AIHS) postdoctoral fellow Hein Min Tun, took the science one step closer to understanding this connection in our recently published work in the Microbiome journal. In a study of 746 infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study (CHILD) birth cohort, we investigated the impact of pet exposure during pregnancy or afterwards on infant gut microbes, and whether this depended on how infants were born.

In infants born vaginally or by cesarean section, pet exposure during pregnancy or pre and postnatally up to 3 months after birth increased the amounts of 2 bacteria found on dogs and cats. One is Ruminococcus, linked to lower rates of allergies in children. The other is a relatively unknown microbe, Oscillospira, reported to promote leanness. Another important finding suggested that contact with pets during pregnancy could reduce transmission of vaginal GBS (group B Streptococcus) during birth.

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Radiation Exposure in the Pediatric Patient: What Every Orthopaedist Should Know

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ayesha Rahman, MD

Chief Orthopaedic Surgery Resident
NYU Langone Medical Center.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Children are more vulnerable and susceptible to lifetime adverse events from radiation exposure, caused by imaging . We reviewed literature and found certain pediatric orthopaedic patients are at greater risk for radiation exposure, namely those who have surgery for hip dysplasia, scoliosis, and leg length discrepancy, as they are among those most likely to undergo CT imaging. After reviewing all types of imaging studies performed in orthopedics and how much radiation is involved in each test, we developed several recommendations that pediatric orthopaedic surgeons should follow.

Among those recommendations are: utilize low-dose CT protocols or technology that uses less imaging (like EOS), limit CT scans of the spine and pelvis, know that female patients are more susceptible to adverse risk and plan accordingly, and follow the the “as low as reasonably achievable,”principle to limit exposure to parts of the body that are necessary for diagnosis.

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