Author Interviews, JACC, Surgical Research / 26.12.2014

Dr. Mary T. Hawn Center for Surgical, Medical Acute Care Research, and Transitions, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center University of Alabama at Birmingham, BirminghamMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Mary T. Hawn MD, MPH Center for Surgical, Medical Acute Care Research, and Transitions, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center Section of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Hawn: Cardiac risk factors and surgical risk factors contribute to the development of postoperative adverse cardiac events, but the relative contribution of each has not been quantified. In this study, we sought to determine the incremental risk of surgery following coronary stent placement on adverse cardiac events. To answer this question we used a retrospective cohort study of VA patients with coronary stents placed during 2000-2010 undergoing non-cardiac surgery within two years of stent placement matched to patients with coronary stents not undergoing surgery.  The patients were matched on stent type (drug-eluting versus bare metal) and cardiac risk factors at the time of stent placement.  Our outcome of interest was a composite variable of myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization occurring within 30 days of surgery.  We calculated adjusted risk differences over time from stent placement using generalized estimating equations. When comparing the two cohorts, we found a higher rate of composite cardiac events in the surgical cohort compared to the cohort not undergoing surgery. The main findings in the study were that the incremental risk of surgery was greatest when the surgery occurred in the first 6 weeks following stent placement and decreased to approximately 1% after 6 months, where it remained stable out to 24 months. Surgical characteristics associated with a significant reduction in the incremental risk after 6 months following stent placement included elective, inpatient procedures, and in the setting of a drug eluting stent. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Psychological Science, Surgical Research / 20.12.2014

Brian I. Labow, MD Director, Adolescent Breast Clinic Assistant in Surgery Assistant Professor of Surgery Harvard Medical School PrimaryMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Brian I. Labow, MD Director, Adolescent Breast Clinic Assistant in Surgery Assistant Professor of Surgery Harvard Medical School Primary   Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Labow:  This study is part of our larger Adolescent Breast Disorder Study, in which we examine the impact of several breast disorders on adolescent girls and boys and measure the effect of treatment. In this present study we have found breast asymmetry, defined as having at least 1 cup size difference between breasts, can have a significant impact on the psychological wellbeing of adolescent girls.  Validated surveys were given to adolescent girls with breast asymmetry, macromastia (enlarged breasts), and healthy unaffected girls between the ages of 12-21 to assess a wide array of health domains. Girls with breast asymmetry had noted deficits in psychological wellbeing and self-esteem when compared to healthy girls of the same age.  These impairments were similar to those of girls with macromastia, a condition known to have significant negative mental health effects. Interestingly, these negative psychological outcomes did not vary by patient’s age or severity of breast asymmetry. Older and younger adolescents were negatively impacted similarly, as were those with lesser and greater degrees of breast asymmetry. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Surgical Research / 14.12.2014

Dr Aneel Bhangu Clinical Lecturer in Surgery Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Aneel Bhangu Clinical Lecturer in Surgery Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham UK Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Bhangu: Randomised clinical trials are widely regarded as the type of evidence in medical research most likely to change practice and improve patient care. However, they are challenging to perform, expensive to deliver and rely on patients’ willingness to participate for the benefit of their wider community. Results of these studies should be disseminated widely in order to promote new medical knowledge. Unfortunately, some clinical trials are terminated early or fail to reach publication after completion. This leads to lost data and wastage of finite resources. Clinical trials within surgical disciplines present unique challenges, which may further impact on dissemination of evidence. We aimed to investigate the fate of surgical trials. Disappointingly, we found that 1 in 5 surgical trials are terminated early before completion, most commonly due to poor recruitment of research participants. Of trials which do reach completion, 1 in 3 are not published, indicating a significant waste of resources. A systematic approach to contact trial investigators during the study proved largely unsuccessful, implicating further hidden barriers to identifying trial data. (more…)
Author Interviews, NYU, Surgical Research / 12.12.2014

Ganesh Sivarajan, MD Department of Urology New York University Langone Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ganesh Sivarajan, MD Department of Urology New York University Langone Medical Center

  Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Sivarajan: The surgical robot was designed to facilitate laparoscopic surgery. The surgeon sits at a console several feet away from the patient and is linked to a multi-armed robot which translates the surgeon’s movements from the console to surgical instruments inside the patient’s insufflated abdomen. The robot is equipped with a high resolution three dimensional camera which improves visualization over traditional open surgery and allows the manipulation of instruments in directions and angles which are difficult in traditional open surgery. In light of these apparent advancements, the robot was rapidly adopted for use during radical prostatectomy. The outcomes data for men undergoing robotic versus open prostatectomy, however, have not demonstrated any clear advantage of robotic surgery, with some studies demonstrating benefit and other demonstrating harm. This fact coupled with the relatively high cost of the robot and its disposable equipment have led many to criticize robotic surgery and its rapid adoption. Partial nephrectomy is a procedure performed for renal cancer in which just the malignant tumor is excised while the remaining healthy kidney is saved. It is increasingly considered to be preferable to the previous gold standard operation – radical nephrectomy or removal of the entire kidney largely secondary to the benefits accrued from preserving renal function. Despite actual changes in the treatment guideline recommending increased use of partial nephrectomy it remains vastly underutilized nationwide likely because of the technical challenges associated with its performance. It has been suggested that the surgical robot facilitates the performance of partial nephrectomy, but this has not been definitively demonstrated in a model which controls for important variables as the effects of changing guidelines, secular trends supporting increased utilization over time and a variety of other hospital-level characteristics. We sought to determine whether acquisition of the surgical robot was independently associated with increased utilization of partial nephrectomy – a guideline-supported procedure. If true, it would suggest that the acquisition of the surgical robot may have improved the quality of care of renal cell carcinoma patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Case Western, Education, JAMA, Surgical Research / 10.12.2014

Ravi Rajaram MD Division of Research and Optimal Patient Care, American College of Surgeons Surgical Outcomes and Quality Improvement Center (SOQIC), Department of Surgery and Center for Healthcare Studies in the Institute for Public Health and Medicine Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IllinoisMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ravi Rajaram MD Division of Research and Optimal Patient Care, American College of Surgeons Surgical Outcomes and Quality Improvement Center (SOQIC), Department of Surgery and Center for Healthcare Studies in the Institute for Public Health and Medicine Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Rajaram: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medication Education (ACGME) first implemented restrictions to resident duty hours in 2003. In surgical populations, these reforms have not been associated with a change in patient outcomes. However, in 2011, the ACGME further restricted resident duty hours to include: a maximum of 16 hours of continuous duty for first-year residents (interns), direct supervision of interns at all times, a maximum of 4 hours for transitions in care activities for residents in-house for 24 hours, and that these residents be given 14 hours off prior to returning to work. The association between the 2011 ACGME resident duty hour reform with surgical patient outcomes and resident education has not previously been reported. The 2011 resident duty hour reform was not associated with a change in death or serious morbidity in the two years after the reform was implemented. Additionally, the 2011 duty hour reform was not associated with a change in any of the secondary outcomes examined, including any morbidity, failure to rescue, surgical site infection, and sepsis. Furthermore, common measures of surgical resident education, such as in-training examination scores and board certification pass rates, were unchanged after the implementation of the 2011 duty hour reform when compared to scores prior to the reform. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research / 30.11.2014

Hong Ryul Jin, MD Professor and Chair Department of Otorhinolaryngology-HNS Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, KoreaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hong Ryul Jin, MD Professor and Chair Department of Otorhinolaryngology-HNS Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Although autologous rib cartilage is a useful graft material for rhinoplasty, surgeons sometimes encounter unpleasant complication such as warping or donor-site morbidity. These complications are not infrequent, but there has been no systematic review with regarding this matter. For evidence-based practice, we aimed to assess the long-term safety of using rib cartilage by means of meta-analysis. By reviewing the 10 selected, eligible articles after extensive screening, we found that rates of warping, resorption, infection, and displacement were 3.1, 0.2, 0.6, and 0.4%, respectively. Hypertrophic scar at chest was found in 5.5%, with highest report of 23.8%. Warping and hypertrophic chest scarring showed relatively higher rates, warranting a surgeon’s attention (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Orthopedics, Surgical Research / 27.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: NatNathan Evaniew MD Division of Orthopaedics McMaster Universityhan Evaniew MD Division of Orthopaedics McMaster University   Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Evaniew: Symptomatic cervical and lumbar spinal disc diseases affect at least 5% of the population and they cause a great deal of pain, disability, social burden, and economic impact. For carefully selected patients that fail to improve with nonsurgical management, conventional open discectomy surgery often provides good or excellent results. Minimally invasive techniques for discectomy surgery were introduced as alternatives that are potentially less destructive, but they require specialized equipment and expertise, and they may involve increased risks for technical complications. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, Surgical Research, Toxin Research / 24.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Naveed Nosrati MD Indiana University School of Medicine Staff Surgeon, Roudebush VAMC Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Nosrati: We originally began this study as a broader project investigating the effect of trauma induced by biopsies on the spontaneous clearance of a non-melanoma skin cancer. As part of that, we created a large database with many patient variables. Since we undertook this project at our local VA hospital, one of the variables available to us was Agent Orange exposure. Shortly after completing the study, Clemens et al published their study linking Agent Orange exposure to higher rates of invasive non-melanoma skin cancer. Their study was a pilot study of only 100 patients. As we had well over 1,000 patients, we decided to pursue a side project of how Agent Orange specifically affects our results. Our study was operating under the hypothesis that trauma induced by biopsies led to an inflammatory response that often led to the immunologic clearance of the remaining skin cancer. We actually coined the term “SCORCH” lesion, or spontaneous clearance of residual carcinoma histologically, for this phenomenon. With that mind, we would expect patients exposed to Agent Orange to theoretically have a more invasive form of malignancy and thus have lower rates of spontaneous clearance. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JAMA, Surgical Research, Vanderbilt / 20.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Kristy Lynn Kummerow MD Division of Surgical Oncology and Endocrine Surgery Vanderbilt University Medical Center Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Veterans Affairs Medical Center Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center Nashville, Tenn Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Kummerow: This study looked at how we are currently treating early stage breast cancer in the US – early stage breast cancer includes small cancers with limited or no lymph node involvement and no spread to other body site – it was prompted by something we observed an our own cancer center, which is that more and more women seem to be undergoing more extensive operations than are necessary to treat their cancer.  It is helpful to understand the historical context of how we treat early breast cancer.  Prior to the 1980s, the standard of care for any breast cancer was a very extensive procedure, which involved removal of the entire breast, as well as underlying and overlying tissues and multiple levels of lymph nodes drained by that area.  Informative clinical trials were completed in the 1980s demonstrated that these extensive procedures were unnecessary, and that equivalent survival could be achieved with a much more minimal operation, by removing only the tumor, with a margin of normal breast tissue around it, and performing radiation therapy to the area; this technique is now known as breast conservation surgery, also known as lumpectomy with radiation.  In the 1990s, breast conservation was established by the national institutes of health and was embraced as a standard of care for early stage breast cancer; performance of breast conservation surgery also became a quality metric – accredited breast centers in the US are expected to perform breast conservation surgery in the majority of women who they treat for breast cancer.  However, what our research team observed at our institution didn’t fit – over time it appears more aggressive surgical approaches are being used for more women.  This has been found in other institutions as well, and is supported by smaller national studies.  We wanted to understand how surgical management of early breast cancer is changing over time at a national level using the largest data set of cancer patients in the United States. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research / 14.11.2014

Rachel Bhak MS Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center West Haven, ConnecticutMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rachel Bhak MS Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center West Haven, Connecticut Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Ms. Bhak: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and their rupture are potentially fatal, so monitoring and understanding their expansion is of utmost importance. This study sought to characterize factors associated with Abdominal aortic aneurysms expansion, as well as their different growth patterns. The main findings are that current smoking and diastolic blood pressure are associated with increased linear expansion rate, diabetes with a decreased linear expansion rate, and diastolic blood pressure and baseline abdominal aortic aneurysms diameter with an accelerated expansion rate. (more…)
Author Interviews, Electronic Records, Outcomes & Safety, Surgical Research, UCSD / 09.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jamie Anderson MD MPH Department of Surgery University of California, San Diego Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Anderson: Risk adjustment is an important component of outcomes and quality analysis in surgical healthcare. To compare two hospitals fairly, you must take into account the “risk profile” of their patients. For example, a hospital operating on predominately very sick patients with multiple co-morbidities would be expected to have different outcomes to a hospital operating on relatively healthier patients with fewer co-morbidities. Somewhat counter-intuitively, it is possible that a hospital with a 10% mortality rate may be better than a hospital with 5% mortality rate when you adjust for the risk of the patient population. Currently, the “gold standard” database to evaluate surgical outcomes is the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), which includes a number of variables on each patient to perform risk adjustment. However, collecting these variables is costly and time consuming. There is also concern that risk adjusted benchmarking systems can be “gamed” because they include data elements that require subjective interpretation by hospital personnel. With the widespread adoption of electronic health records, the aim of this study was to determine whether a number of objective data elements already used for patient care could perform as well as a traditional, full risk adjustment model that includes other provider-assessed and provider-recorded data elements. We tested this hypothesis with an analysis of the NSQIP database from 2005-2010, comparing models that adjusted for all 66 pre-operative risk variables captured by NSQIP to models that only included 25 objective variables. These results suggest that rigorous risk adjusted surgical quality assessment can be performed relying solely on objective variables already captured in electronic health records. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pain Research, Surgical Research / 31.10.2014

Lars Peter Holst Andersen MD., Ph.d. Fellow / Læge, Ph.d. studerende Department of Surgery Herlev Hospital Gastroenheden, Herlev HospitaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lars Peter Holst Andersen MD., Ph.d. Fellow / Læge, Ph.d. studerende Department of Surgery Herlev Hospital Gastroenheden, Herlev Hospital Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Andersen: The sleep hormone, melatonin is diverse molecule. Several experimental animal studies have documented significant antinociceptive effects in a wide range of pain models. In perioperative medicine, administration of melatonin has demonstrated anxiolytic, analgesic and anti-oxidant effects. Optimization of the analgesic treatment in surgical patients is required due to documented inadequate analgesia and the risk of adverse effects and complications caused by commonly used NSAIDs and opioids. Our goal was to investigate if melatonin was able to reduce pain scores or analgesic use in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research / 16.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sayaka Suzuki, MD Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr.  Suzuki: We found a slight increase in the risk of severe bleeding requiring surgery for hemostasis in children who were administrated intravenous steroid on the day of tonsillectomy. Physicians should carefully make a decision to use steroids, taking into account patients' choice under being well informed on the risks and benefits of steroid use. (more…)
Outcomes & Safety, Surgical Research / 16.10.2014

Terrence Loftus, MD, MBA, FACS Medical Director, Surgical Service & Clinical Resources Banner Health Phoenix, Arizona 85006Medical Research.com Interview with: Terrence Loftus, MD, MBA, FACS Medical Director, Surgical Service & Clinical Resources Banner Health Phoenix, Arizona 85006 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Loftus: This study demonstrated that a standardized safe surgery program effectively and systematically implemented across a diverse healthcare system resulted in a significant reduction in serious reportable events (SREs), thereby improving the quality of patient care and leading to significant cost avoidance.   For the purposes of the study, SREs were defined as any reported retained surgical item, wrong site, wrong patient or wrong procedure event. Following implementation of the Safe Surgery Program there was a 52% reduction in the SRE rate in the operating rooms and L&D areas in our system. The most dramatic change and greatest area of improvement was in wrong site events which demonstrated a 70% reduction for this type of serious reportable events. This was achieved through a Safe Surgery Program which consisted of three main components.
  • The first component was patient focused procedures. These are steps designed to prevent wrong site, wrong patient or wrong procedure events.
  • The second component was sponge, sharp and instrument count procedures. These are steps designed to prevent retained surgical items.
  • The final component was monthly observational audits that were performed to assess program compliance. (more…)
Surgical Research, Weight Research / 15.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Donna Tepper, M.D. Henry Ford Hospital Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tepper: We looked at 94 patients who underwent bariatric surgery at Henry Ford from 2003 through 2013. Of those, 47 subsequently had body recontouring procedures, such as body lift, abdominoplasty (tummy tuck), arm lift, thigh lift, face lift.  We recorded the patients’ body mass index prior to bariatric surgery, and then again at 6 months, 1, 2.5, 4, and 5 years.  Of the patients who underwent contouring surgery, the average decrease in BMI was 18.24 at 2.5 years, compared to a statistically significant 12.45 at 2.5 years for those who did not have further surgery.  This is statistically significant.  This 3 point change in BMI is an 18-21 pound difference depending on patient height.  Furthermore, the BMI in the body contouring group continues to be lower at 4 and 5 years from bariatric surgery compared to the bariatric surgery alone group. (more…)
Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Infections, Surgical Research / 11.10.2014

Michael S. Calderwood, MD MPH Department of Population Medicine Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute Boston, MAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael S. Calderwood, MD MPH Division of Infectious Diseases Brigham and Women's Hospital Boston, MA Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Calderwood: "In our study, we found that the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following total hip arthroplasty and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is higher for Medicare patients undergoing surgery in U.S. hospitals with lower surgical volume. This suggests that volume leads to experience, and experience leads to improved outcomes." "We found a significantly higher risk of surgical site infection in U.S. hospitals performing <100 total hip arthroplasty procedures and <50 CABG procedures per year on Medicare patients. In the lowest volume hospitals, 1 out of 3 infections following total hip arthroplasty and 1 out of 4 infections following CABG were in excess of expected outcomes based on experience in the highest volume hospitals." (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Surgical Research / 08.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jason D. Wright, M.D. Sol Goldman Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Chief, Division of Gynecologic Oncology Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons New York, New York 10032 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wright: The use of robotic assisted ovarian surgery (oophorectomy and cystectomy) has increased rapidly and compared to laparoscopic alternatives, robotically assisted surgery is associated with a small increase in complication rates and substantially greater costs. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis, Surgical Research / 03.10.2014

David Plurad, MD Los Angeles Biomedical Research In MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Plurad, MD Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Based on a survey of patients with traumatic brain injuries, a group of Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute researchers found those who tested positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana, were more likely to survive than those who tested negative for the illicit substance. We surveyed 446 patients who were admitted to a major urban hospital with traumatic brain injuries between Jan. 1, 2010, and Dec. 31, 2012, who were also tested for the presence of THC in their urine. We found 82 of the patients had THC in their system. Of those, 2.4% died. Of the remaining patients who didn't have THC in their system, 11.5% died. While most - but not all - the deaths in the study can be attributed to the traumatic brain injury itself, it appears that both groups were similarly injured. The similarities in the injuries between the two groups led to the conclusion that testing positive for THC in the system is associated with a decreased mortality in adult patients who have sustained traumatic brain injuries. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research, University of Pittsburgh, Weight Research / 03.10.2014

Anita P. Courcoulas M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.S Professor of Surgery Director, Minimally Invasive Bariatric & General Surgery University of Pittsburgh Medical Center MedicalResearch.com Interview with:  Anita P. Courcoulas M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.S Professor of Surgery Director, Minimally Invasive Bariatric & General Surgery University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Courcoulas: This paper was not a study but a summary of findings from a multidisciplinary workshop (and not a consensus panel) convened in May 2013 by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The goal of the workshop was to summarize the current state of knowledge of bariatric surgery, review research findings on the long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery, and establish priorities for future research. (more…)
Author Interviews, Surgical Research / 26.09.2014

Dennis Kim, MD Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute Researcher MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dennis Kim, MD Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute Researcher Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kim: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a minimally invasive procedure to remove the gallbladder, is one of the most common abdominal surgeries in the U.S. Yet medical centers around the country vary in their approaches to the procedure with some moving patients quickly into surgery while others wait. Our study found gallbladder removal surgery can wait until regular working hours rather than rushing the patients into the operating room at night. The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ on the upper right side of the abdomen that collects and stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallbladders may need to be removed from patients who suffer pain from gallstones that block the flow of bile. In a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgeons insert a tiny video camera and special surgical tools through small incisions in the abdomen to remove the gallbladder. Occasionally, surgeons may need to create a large incision to remove the gallbladder, and this is known as an open cholecystectomy. We conducted a retrospective study of 1,140 patients at two large urban referral centers who underwent gallbladder removal surgeries. We found 11% of the surgical procedures performed at night (7 a.m.-7 p.m.) were converted to the more invasive procedure, open cholecystectomies. Only 6% of those who underwent the surgery during the day required the more invasive form of surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research, Transplantation / 17.09.2014

Darren J. Malinoski, MD, FACS Assistant Chief of Surgery – Research and Education Chief, Section of Surgical Critical Care Portland VA Medical Center Associate Professor of Surgery Oregon Health & Science University Portland, OR 97207MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Darren J. Malinoski, MD, FACS Assistant Chief of Surgery – Research and Education Chief, Section of Surgical Critical Care Portland VA Medical Center Associate Professor of Surgery Oregon Health & Science University Portland, OR 97207 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?  Dr. Malinoski: Our two main findings are that the status of the DMG Bundle prior to organ recovery, at the end of the OPO donor management process, is the most predictive of the number of organs that will be transplanted per expanded criteria donor (ECD) and that the absolute increase in the number of individual DMG elements achieved over time also appears to be relevant.  Taken together, these two findings suggest that the number of organs that will be transplantable from each donor is not necessarily predetermined by their age, comorbidities, and pre-neurologic death condition, but that active critical care management has the ability to affect outcomes and reassessing each donor’s condition over time is necessary. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, General Medicine, Surgical Research / 13.09.2014

Dr. Dee Fenner, M.D. Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Director of Gynecology University of MichiganMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Dee Fenner, M.D. Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Director of Gynecology University of Michigan MedicalResearch.com Editor’s note: American Medical Systems Inc. (AMS), a subsidiary of Endo International plc (Nasdaq: ENDP) (TSX: ENL), released top-line results from its TRANSFORM study that show the investigational TOPAS™ System improves fecal incontinence in women. The results show that over a 12 month period, 69% of women suffering from fecal incontinence who were implanted with the TOPAS™ System experienced at least a 50% reduction in weekly incontinence episodes and experienced a durable, consistent effect across the study period. The results were presented in Cape Town, South Africa at the International Society of University Colon & Rectal Surgeon (ISUCRS) Congress. Dr. Fenner, a primary investigator of the study, kindly answered the questions below: Medical Research: How common/prevalent is the problem of fecal incontinence in women? Dr. Fenner: Fecal incontinence, also known as accidental bowel leakage (ABL), is estimated to affect nearly 11 million women and 10% of women over the age of 20 in the United States.1,2 Additionally, nearly one in five women over the age of 45 experience ABL at least once a year.3 (more…)
Author Interviews, Surgical Research / 10.09.2014

Achih H. Chen, MD, FACS, FAACS Georgia Center for Facial Plastic Surgery, Evans, Ga and the Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Georgia Regents University, August, GaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Achih H. Chen, MD, FACS, FAACS Georgia Center for Facial Plastic Surgery, Evans, Ga and the Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Georgia Regents University, August, Ga Medical Research: What is the significance of the study? Dr. Chen : This is the first time that facial rejuvenation surgery using surgical approaches in three planes combined with ablative resurfacing has been reported in the medical literature. This approach was not previously thought possible in a single surgical setting because of the concern about disrupting the facial blood supply that may result in loss of the skin. The study demonstrates the safety of this “Total Face” approach. This approach allows simultaneous tightening of the jawline and neck, recreating the lost youthful volume of the midface region, and restoring of the smooth skin texture so characteristic of a young face. This allows for a more complete or “Total Face Rejuvenation” for patients while allowing them the flexibility for a single recovery period or downtime. (more…)
Breast Cancer, MD Anderson, Surgical Research / 05.09.2014

sabelle Bedrosian, M.D., F.A.C.S. Associate Professor, Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Surgery Medical Director, Nellie B. Connelly Breast Center The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TXMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Isabelle Bedrosian, M.D., F.A.C.S. Associate Professor, Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Surgery Medical Director, Nellie B. Connelly Breast Center The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bedrosian: •       National BCT (breast conserving therapy) rates have increased during the last two decades. •       Disparities based on age, geographic facility location and type of cancer treatment facility have lessened over time. •       Insurance type and travel distance remain persistently associated with underutilization of breast conserving therapy. •       Annual income of less than $35K may be emerging as a new association with underutilization of breast conserving therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mayo Clinic, Surgical Research / 03.09.2014

Dr. Juliane Bingener-Casey, M.D. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Juliane Bingener-Casey, M.D. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bingener: Other investigators have shown that preoperative quality of life is a predictor for postoperative survival in colon and pancreas cancer surgery. In this study we looked as preoperative quality of life as a predictor for postoperative complications. The main findings of the study were that patients who had a deficit in their quality of life before surgery had a 3 times higher risk of a serious complication before leaving the hospital than patients who had normal quality of life (16% vs 6 %), independent of gender, race, tumor stage or laparoscopic or open colectomy. Patients with serious complications before leaving the hospital also were older and had more other medical problems than patients without complications. Further, patients who had a complication stayed in the hospital longer and their postoperative quality of life was worse (more…)
Anesthesiology, Author Interviews, Pain Research, Surgical Research / 30.08.2014

Ian Gilron, MD, MSc, FRCPC Director of Clinical Pain Research Professor of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Biomedical & Molecular Sciences, and Center for Neuroscience Studies Queen's University Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ian Gilron, MD, MSc, FRCPC Director of Clinical Pain Research Professor of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Biomedical & Molecular Sciences, and Center for Neuroscience Studies Queen's University Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, Canada Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gilron: Pain is the most common symptom which prevents recovery from surgery. Even with the best available treatments today, many patients still suffer from moderate to severe pain after surgery. Antidepressants - drugs used to treat depression - are also proven effective for treating chronic pain due to nerve disease and fibromyalgia. However, there has been much less research on the effects of antidepressant drugs on pain after surgery. Our group conducted a systematic review of all published clinical trials of antidepressant for post surgical pain. Slightly more than half of these studies suggested some benefit of these drugs but the details of this review led us to conclude that there is not yet enough evidence to recommend these medications for post surgical pain treatment. Given the possibility that these medications could be useful treatments for pain after surgery, we believe that future studies of higher scientific quality and which involve larger numbers of patients should be carried out in the hopes of finding safer and more effective treatments for pain after surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hospital Acquired, JAMA, Surgical Research / 28.08.2014

Christopher Mantyh, M.D. Associate Professor of Surgery Chief of Colorectal Surgery NSQIP Surgical Champion Duke University Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christopher Mantyh, M.D. Associate Professor of Surgery Chief of Colorectal Surgery NSQIP Surgical Champion Duke University Medical Center Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?  Dr. Mantyh: Specific perioperative bundles can drastically reduce surgical site infections in colorectal surgery patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Karolinski Institute, Surgical Research / 20.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mats Möller MD Department of Surgery, Ersta Hospital Department of Clinical Sciences Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Möller: The natural course of common bile duct stones seem not as favorable as previous studies have suggested. Leaving stones with no measures taken has in our study a less favorable outcome compared to removing the stones. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research / 13.08.2014

Dr. Thomas M. Scalea, MD R. Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, Program in Trauma University of Maryland School of Medicine, BaltimoreMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Thomas M. Scalea, MD R. Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, Program in Trauma University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore Medical Research: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Scalea:  The main findings of the study was that putting this financial incentive program in place had immediate and dramatic effects on first cases starting on time and turnaround times decreasing in our operating room. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Clots - Coagulation, Surgical Research / 13.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Stavros G. Memtsoudis, MD, PhD, FCCP Clinical Professor of Anesthesiology and Public Health Weill Cornell Medical College Senior Scientist and Attending Anesthesiologist Hospital for Special SurgeryMedicalResearch.com Interview with Stavros G. Memtsoudis, MD, PhD, FCCP Clinical Professor of Anesthesiology and Public Health Weill Cornell Medical College Senior Scientist and Attending Anesthesiologist Hospital for Special Surgery Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Memtsoudis: In this large population based study we found that perioperative tranexamic acid administration significantly reduced the need for blood transfusions in joint arthroplasty patients, while not increasing the risk of major complications, including thromboembolic, cardiac and renal events. (more…)