Author Interviews, Johns Hopkins, Sleep Disorders / 22.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ruth Tamrat, Minh-Phuong Huynh-Le, and Madhav Goyal Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, MSIV MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Despite the known adverse effects of sleep deprivation on recovery from illness, studies have shown that sleep deprivation remains an incompletely addressed problem among inpatients. Behavioral interventions are recommended as first line therapy prior to using pharmacologic therapy due to the adverse side effects of sedative hypnotics. This systematic review sought to identify the efficacy of non-pharmacologic interventions that have been used to improve the sleep of general inpatients. The results of this review demonstrate a lack of high quality evidence regarding the efficacy of these non-pharmacologic interventions in improving the sleep quality or quantity of patients in the hospital. (more…)
Author Interviews, Emergency Care / 22.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Gina Agarwal Assistant Professor Department of Family Medicine McMaster Family Practice 690 Main Street West Hamilton , Ontario L8S 1A4 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Agarwal: The study findings are just preliminary as of yet, but suggest that the CHAP-EMS program is potentially a feasible and effective health program for seniors housing buildings in urban areas. The program delivered tailored health risk assesments to seniors living in subsidized city housing, also assessing their risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and falls using validated tools. Paramedics were trained in how to assess, and deliver risk assessment results and then provide community resource information. Seniors attending the program could drop in any time and were encouraged to come back for follow up sessions. Results of each attendance were forwarded to family doctors to close the loop. At the 5th month of implementation, we have recorded 241 participant visits by 40 unique participants; 37 had 2 or more visits; 70% had elevated BPs initially; 77.8% of those previously diagnosed hypertensive and 55.8% of those undiagnosed hypertensive had elevated BP; 82.5% had moderate to high CANRISK scores. Preliminary data shows a 32% reduction in EMS calls. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 22.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with Katherine Auger, MD, MSc Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Division of Hospital Medicine Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Auger: We examined hospitalization rates in infants for pertussis before versus after the recommendation to universally vaccinate all adolescents with Tdap. We used mathematical modeling to predict the number of infant hospitalizations that would be expected without the Tdap vaccine policy. We then compared these predicted numbers to the actual observed numbers of infant hospitalizations. In 3 of the 4 years after Tdap vaccine policy, there were significantly fewer infant hospitalizations for pertussis than expected base on the predictions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Hearing Loss, Medical Research Centers, Vitamin D, Weight Research / 22.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sharon Curhan, MD, ScM Channing Division of Network Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02115 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Curhan: The main findings of our study are that higher body mass index and larger waist circumference are associated with an increased risk of acquired hearing loss, and higher level of physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of acquired hearing loss in women. Specifically, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared with women with BMI <25 kg/m2, the relative risk for hearing loss was 25% higher for women with BMI >40. Compared with women with waist circumference <71 cm, the relative risk for hearing loss was 27% higher for women with waist circumference >88 cm. Higher physical activity was inversely related to risk; compared with women in the lowest quintile of physical activity, women in the highest quintile of physical activity had a 17% lower risk of hearing loss. Walking, the most common form of physical activity among these women, was associated with a lower risk; women who walked 2 hours per week or more had a 15% lower risk of hearing loss than women who walked less than one hour per week. These findings provide evidence that maintaining healthy weight and staying physically active, potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, may help reduce the risk of hearing loss. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Nutrition, Omega-3 Fatty Acids / 22.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview wit: Elin StrandResearcher, Department of Clinical Science University of Bergen, Norway MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Answer: The main findings in this prospective observational cohort study among patients with established coronary artery disease were that a very high intake of omega-3 fatty acids was associated with a reduced risk of acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes, but with an increased risk of fatal acute myocardial infarction and with lower glycosylated hemoglobin in those without impaired glucose metabolism. (more…)
Cost of Health Care, Emergency Care, Pediatrics, University of Michigan / 20.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adrianne Haggins, MD, MS University of Michigan Health System Department of Emergency Medicine Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5303 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Haggins: Since the implementation of the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) in 1997, the last national health care reform that broadly expanded insurance coverage, adolescent use of primary care and specialty care has increased substantially in comparison to no change seen among the comparison group (young adults, who were not covered). Broadening insurance coverage for adolescents did not result in a decrease in emergency department use, while ED use in the comparison group increased over time. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gigi Cuckler Economist National Health Statistics Group Office of the Actuary, CMS MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Below we provide the major findings, but it’s important to note that these estimates incorporate two substantial changes from prior projections.
- First, the estimates incorporate the June 2012 US Supreme Court ruling that made the Medicaid eligibility expansion under health reform optional for states.
- Second, unless otherwise stated, the estimates focus on an outlook for spending in which the scheduled Medicare physician payment rate updates under the Sustainable Growth Rate formula do not occur. The following are highlights from our most recent report:
- Over the projection period, 2012-22, national health spending is projected to grow at an average rate of 5.8 percent, which is 1.0 percentage point faster than expected average annual growth in the economy over the period. Consequently, the health share of GDP is projected to increase from 17.9 percent in 2011 to 19.9 percent of the economy by 2022.
- In the near term of the projection, through 2013, national health spending growth is expected to remain just under 4.0 percent due to the sluggish economic recovery, continued increases in cost-sharing requirements for the privately insured, and low growth for Medicare and Medicaid.
- However, in 2014, national health spending growth is projected to accelerate to 6.1 percent, reflecting the expanded insurance coverage that will become available through the Affordable Care Act.
- After 2014 through the remainder of the projection period, national health spending is projected to grow 6.2 percent per year on average, largely as a result of the continued implementation of the coverage expansions under reform, faster projected economic growth, the aging of the population, and the end of the sequester.
Author Interviews, BMJ, Compliance, Mental Health Research / 18.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with Professor Stefan Priebe, Dipl.-Psych., Dr. med. habil., FRCPsych Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry WHO Collaborating Centre for Mental Health Services Development Queen Mary, University of London MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Offering modest financial incentives can help patients to achieve better adherence to anti-psychotic maintenance medication. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 18.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. med. Jelena Kornej Department of Electrophysiology, Heart Center, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany & University of Birmingham Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, City Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding of our analysis was that thromboembolic events after atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation are rare, but all three stroke risk stratification scores, i.e. CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and R2CHADS2 were associated with thromboembolic risk in anticoagulated population. Furthermore, patients with AF recurrences had increased risk for thromboembolic complications. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, Nature / 18.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Kees-Jan Kan PhD Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Department of Psychological Methods, University of Amsterdam MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We asked ourselves how well theories of intelligence actually predict empirical results. To this end, we reviewed and scrutinized the predictions from intelligence theories and collected relevant results that have been published in the scientific literature over the last decades. The results pertained to intelligence test scores from thousands of subjects across the world. We found that on essential aspects the empirical results were opposite of the predictions from the mainstream theories of intelligence, in which intelligence is interpreted as a biological trait. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Hospital Readmissions, JACC, Outcomes & Safety / 18.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Saul Blecker, MD, MHS Department of Population Health, NYU School of Medicine Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Blecker: Inpatient quality of care has focused primarily on patients with acute heart failure, commonly identified by principal discharge diagnosis code. However, patients with heart failure are commonly hospitalized for other causes and should benefit from many of the same treatments. We found that in our sample, as compared to patients with a principal diagnosis of heart failure, heart failure patients hospitalized with a non–heart failure diagnosis had lower rates of guideline-concordant care, including assessment of left ventricular function and prescription for an ACE inhibitor or ARB, at time of discharge. This is important as our study suggests that these therapies were associated with reduced mortality for patients hospitalized with heart failure, regardless of the reason for hospitalization. (more…)
Author Interviews, Weight Research / 18.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jussi Naukkarinen, M.D., Ph.D Research Scientist Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM) Nordic EMBL Partnership for Molecular Medicine Helsinki Finland and National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) Division of Welfare and Health Promotion Public Health Genomics Unit and University of Helsinki School of Medicine Dept. of Medical Genetics MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found in this sample of relatively young, Finnish twins that there are clearly two different kinds of obesity. While most individuals with BMIs in the "obese" category will go on to develop the usual pathologies associated with obesity (namely diabetes, hypertensio, dyslipidemia), a fraction of the obese population seems to be spared. These "metabolically healthy obese" individuals displayed a number of features that were associated with a healthy metabolic profile despite considerable overweight: a capacity for hyperplasia of the adipose tissue (as opposed to just hypertrophy) seemed to be associated with maintained mitochondrial function, lack of inflammation and liver fat. (more…)
Author Interviews, Eating Disorders, Weight Research / 17.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with Stephan Zipfel MD Professor of Medicine & Dean of Medical Education Head Department of Internal Medicine VI (Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy) University Medical Hospital Tuebingen President of the German College of Psychosomatic Medicine (DKPM) Co-Director of the centre for nutritional Medicine Tuebingen-Hohenheim 72076 Tuebingen / Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Zipfel: Outpatient treatment of adults with anorexia nervosa by either enhanced cognitive-behaviour therapy, focal psychodynamic therapy, or optimised treatment as usual led to relevant weight gains and a decrease in general and eating disorder-specific psychopathology during the course of treatment. These positive effects continued beyond treatment until 12-month follow-up. Most patients completed treatment and the acceptance of both specific therapy approaches was high among both patients and therapists. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education / 17.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eva Aagaard, MD Associate Professor of Medicine, Assistant Dean for Lifelong Learning, Director of the Academy of Medical Educators, Director of the Center for Advancing Professional Excellence, and Director of Faculty Development in General Internal Medicine at the University of Colorado MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Aagaard: We obtained feedback on, and assessed the construct validity and perceived feasibility and utility of, draft Internal Medicine Milestones for Patient Care and Systems-Based Practice used a mixed methods study involving competency committee members in Internal Medicine residency programs. An initial survey assessed participant and program demographics; focus groups obtained feedback on the draft milestones and explored their perceived utility in resident assessment, and an exit survey elicited input on the value of the draft milestones in resident assessment. Thirty-four participants from 17 programs completed surveys and participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Overall, the milestones were perceived as useful in formative and summative assessment of residents. Participants raised concerns about the length and complexity of some draft milestones and suggested specific changes. The focus groups also identified a need for faculty development. In the exit survey, most participants agreed that the Patient Care and Systems-Based Practice Milestones would help competency committees assess trainee progress toward independent practice. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia / 17.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Richard A. Oram, BMBCh, BA(hons), MRCP NIHR Exeter Clinical Research Facility University of Exeter Medical School, Barrack Road, Exeter, UK MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Historically people with Type 1 diabetes were thought to progress to make absolutely none of their own insulin. Modern assays allow us to measure very low levels of insulin, and using these we can find very tiny amounts of insulin production in most people with Type 1 diabetes even if they have had the disease for many years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks / 16.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com interview with: Kesava Reddy, PhD, MHA University Cancer and Diagnostic Centers, Houston, Tex MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Reddy: Crude oil spills affect the human health through their exposure to the inherent hazardous chemicals such as para-phenols and volatile benzene. Evidence show that oil spill exposure is associated with multiple adverse health effects and increased cancer risk. In this study, we assessed the adverse health effects of the Gulf oil spill exposure in subjects participating in the clean-up operation along the coast of Louisiana. The findings were compared with those not exposed to the oil spill. We found that platelet counts were notably decreased in the oil spill exposed group. In addition, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were substantially lower in the exposed group, while hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were increased compared to the unexposed subjects. Furthermore, considered indicators of hepatic damage, the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), levels in the exposed subjects were also elevated. Participants in the oil spill cleanup activity also reported somatic symptoms, with headache reported most frequently, followed by shortness of breath, skin rash, cough, dizzy spells, fatigue, painful joints, night sweats, and chest pain. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Heart Disease, Radiology / 16.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com: Prof. Dr. Gunnar Brix Division of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection Federal Office for Radiation Protection Institut für Med. Strahlenhygiene 85764 Neuherberg MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We investigated the cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk of more than 1200 patients with ischemic heart diseases (IHD) from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging procedures performed 3 month before and 12 month after the date of diagnosis. The major findings were:
- 87% of patient exposure resulted from heart catheter procedures.
- The average cumulative effective dose was 13.3 mSv in males and 10.3 mSv in females. The highest dose was nearly 100 mSv.
- The estimated average attributable life-time risk of male and female patients to develop a radiation-induced cancer in their remaining life was 0.09 % and 0.07 %, respectively. This correspond to 1 excess cancer in about 1100 male and 1400 female IHD patients. The highest risk was 0.9 %.
- The effective dose is inadequate to characterize individual radiation risks, since neither the age nor the sex of the patient is taken into account. According to our results, cancer risks can vary by a factor of more than 10 for comparable values of the effective dose. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Elizabeth V. Asztalos, MD, M.Sc., FRCPC Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre 2075 Bayview Ave., Room M4 230 Toronto, ON M4N 3M5 MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This study was focused to see if there were differences in the main neurodevelopmental outcomes of children whose mothers had participated in the original MACS trial. We found that there were no differences in the main outcomes of the trial as it related to the aspects of death and/or developmental. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 15.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ali Rowhani-Rahbar PhD, MD, MPH Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center, Oakland, California University of Washington Department of Epidemiology Health Sciences Seattle, WA 98195 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study? Answer: We found that the magnitude of increased risk of fever and seizures following immunization with the first dose of measles-containing vaccines during the second year of life depends on age. Specifically, the risk of seizures attributable to the vaccine during the 7 to 10 days following vaccination was significantly greater among children 16-23 months of age (9.5 excess cases per 10,000 doses) than among children 12-15 months of age (4.0 excess cases per 10,000 doses). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 14.10.2013
insulin resistance, but that duodenal switch normalizes the curve, whereas gastric bypass causes wide spikes in insulin and glucose. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Heart Disease, Weight Research / 14.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christian K. Roberts Exercise and Metabolic Disease Research Laboratory, Translational Sciences Section, School of Nursing University of California, Los Angeles, CA MedicalResearch.com: How would you best summarize the main findings/results of this study? Answer: Our main finding was that HDL functioned better in its antioxidant role in subjects who participated in resistance exercise training (i.e. weight training) a minimum of 4 days a week, regardless of their weight—one group was lean (BMI <25) and the other overweight/obese (BMI >27) —than those who didn’t exercise (overweight, BMI >27, and untrained). In addition, HDL had similar effectiveness as an antioxidant in the overweight-trained group as in the as lean-trained group. Although indices of weight were associated with dysfunctional HDL, differences in fitness may be a better measure of who has healthier functioning HDL. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA / 14.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com with: Professor Djillali Annane MD, PhD Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France CH d’Etampes, Etampes, France MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The CRISTAL trial was designed in 2002 to clarify whether correction of acute hypovolemia in critically ill patients with colloids may increase the risk of death as compared to resuscitation with crystalloids. The trial has enrolled 2857 patients in 57 ICUs in France, Belgium, Canada and North Africa. The relative risk of death was at 28 day of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.88 to 1.04; P=0.26), and at 90 day of 0.92 (95%CI: 0.86 to 0.99; P=0.03) in favor of colloids. Colloids-treated patients had more days alive and off mechanical ventilation and off vasopressor both within 7 days and 28 days of randomization. There was no evidence for increased risk of kidney injury with colloids. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Mineral Metabolism, Stroke / 14.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Abhishek Sharma, M.B.B.S. Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, N.Y. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Evidence from RCT's and observational studies suggests a significantly increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) requiring hospitalization, but no increase in risk of stroke or cardiovascular mortality with the use of bisphosphonate. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology / 14.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Liora Lazar The Jesse Z and Sara Lea Shafer Institute for Endocrinology and Diabetes National Center for Childhood Diabetes Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel 14 Kaplan St., Petah Tikva 49202, Israel MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lazar: The study aims to assess the reproductive outcome and social adjustment of former Central precocious puberty (CPP) women between the 3rd and 5th decades of life. The main findings of this study are: 1. Clinical hyperandrogenism was more prevalent among former CPP women, both treated and untreated, as compared to controls. 2. Fertility problems were more prevalent only among untreated–CPP women. 3. Educational achievements and marital status were similar in former CPP women and their controls. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marieke de Groot, PhD Senior Researcher University of Groningen/University Medical Center Groningen VU University Amsterdam, department of Clinical Psychology The EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research (EMGO+) MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We investigated the long term course of bereavement through suicide in a community-based sample of 153 first-degree relatives and spouses of 74 suicide cases. Outcome measures were complicated grief, depression and suicide ideation. We found that outcomes are mutually strongly associated over the 8-10 years course. A history of attempted suicide predicts a increased risk of suicide ideation during the bereavement course. Depression is more likely predicted by factors generally associated with a increased risk of depression such as female gender and low mastery, whereas complicated grief is more likely predicted by the trauma of losing a child due to suicide. No significant associations were found between outcomes and the use of help resources except for mutual (or peer) support, which is associated with a increased risk of complicated grief. Time is the only factor (included in this study) predicting decrease of the risk of depression and complicated grief. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Clots, JAMA / 13.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mila Ju, MD Resident, Division of Vascular Surgery Northwestern University 676 N. Saint Clair St., Ste 650 Chicago, IL 60611 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ju: By using combined data from Hospital Compare, American Hospital Association, and Medicare claims databases, we found that better hospital venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis adherence rates were weakly associated with worse risk-adjusted VTE event rates. Moreover, hospitals with higher intensity of detecting VTE with imaging studies (such as venous duplex, chest computer tomography, etc.) had more VTE events (13.5 in highest VTE imaging quartile vs 5.0 in lowest VTE imaging quartile) per 1000 discharges. Our study suggests that VTE rates might be influenced by surveillance bias and not reflecting the true quality of care provided by the hospitals. (more…)
Author Interviews, HPV, Vaccine Studies / 12.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lisen Arnheim Dahlström, Associate Professor (Docent) Institutionen för medicinsk epidemiologi och biostatistik Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This is a Swedish/Danish population-based study comparing serious disease outcomes in girls immunized with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine against the unvaccinated population. The main finding of this study was that none of the 53 outcomes included in the study were more common in the vaccinated population compared to the non-vaccinated population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Heart Disease / 11.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ankur Pandya PhD Assistant Professor of Public Health in the Division of Health Policy Department of Public Health at Weill Cornell Medical College MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pandya: Our study looked at the impact of some of the future risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the United States. Using nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves from 1973 to 2010 we forecasted disease risk and prevalence from 2015 to 2030. We found that despite continued improvements in the disease’s treatment and declining smoking rates, increasing obesity rates, the aging population, and declining mortality from the disease should cause a rise in health care costs, disability, and reductions in the quality of life associated with increased disease prevalence. (more…)
Author Interviews, Thyroid, University of Pennsylvania / 11.10.2013
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Goldenberg MD, FACS Professor of Surgery and Oncology Director of Head and Neck Surgery Associate Director of Surgical Services- Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery The Pennsylvania State UniversityThe Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Goldenberg: The incidence of thyroid cancer is on the rise and has nearly tripled in the last thirty years. Some authors have attributed this increase in incidence to improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques and imaging allowing for diagnosis of small insignificant thyroid cancers. Others do not agree and state that is a real rise in this disease. Many patients have their cancer discovered by accident when they undergo a diagnostic study for some other reason- such as trauma, neck pain, or carotid artery studies (for clogged arteries). We aimed to compare incidentally discovered versus non incidentally discovered thyroid cancers to determine whether the thyroid cancers in both groups harbor different characteristics. (more…)