Author Interviews, Flu - Influenza, NEJM, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 15.12.2013

Ghassan Dbaibo, M.D., FAAP Professor and Vice-Chair for Research and Faculty Development Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine Head, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Director, Center for Infectious Diseases Research Professor, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics American University of Beirut Beirut, LebanonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ghassan Dbaibo, M.D., FAAP Professor and Vice-Chair for Research and Faculty Development Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine Head, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Director, Center for Infectious Diseases Research Professor, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics American University of Beirut Beirut, Lebanon MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dbaibo:
  • 55% efficacy (95% CI 39–67%) for prevention of all influenza
  • These results are comparable with other estimates of efficacy and effectiveness for trivalent inactivated flu vaccines in this age group
  •  73% efficacy (97.5% CI 47–86%) for prevention of moderate-to-severe influenza
  • By preventing moderate-to-severe influenza, vaccination prevented the most clinically consequential outcomes of infection, reducing hospitalisations by 75% and medical visits by 69%.
  • Seroprotection rates of more than 95% for each of the four influenza strains in the vaccine
  • An acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Exercise - Fitness / 15.12.2013

Dr. Merja K. Laine Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care University of Helsinki MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Merja K. Laine Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care University of Helsinki MedicalResearch.com: What is the background of your study? Answer: We were interesting to know does a top-level sport during young adulthood protect against disturbances in glucose regulation in later life. In Finland, a unique study program including former male elite athletes and their age- and area-matched controls already initiated in 1985. In 2008, we invited those subjects who participated in the study earlier and were still alive. (more…)
ADHD, Author Interviews, Radiology / 15.12.2013

Dr. Vitria Adisetiyo, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Research Fellow Medical University of South Carolina Center for Biomedical Imaging Charleston, SC 29425MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Vitria Adisetiyo, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Research Fellow Medical University of South Carolina Center for Biomedical Imaging Charleston, SC 29425 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Adisetiyo:  Using a non-invasive MRI method called magnetic field correlation imaging, we detected significantly reduced striatal and thalamic brain iron in medication-naive children and adolescents with ADHD compared to age-, gender- and IQ-matched typically developing controls. ADHD patients who had a history of psychostimulant medication treatment (e.g. Ritalin, Aderrall) had brain iron levels comparable to controls, suggesting brain iron may normalize with psychostimulants. Blood iron measures did not differ between patients and controls. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Ophthalmology / 15.12.2013

Fu-Shin X. Yu, Ph.D. Professor and Director of Research Kresge Eye Institute/Department of Ophthalmology Wayne State University School of Medicine Detroit, MI 48201MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Fu-Shin X. Yu, Ph.D. Professor and Director of Research Kresge Eye Institute/Department of Ophthalmology Wayne State University School of Medicine Detroit, MI 48201

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main results of your study? Dr. Fu-Shin X. Yu: Using genome-wide cDNA array, we identified a large group of gene differentially expressed in healing corneal cells of diabetes mellitus, when compared to normoglycemia, corneas. Gene ontology analysis suggests transforming growth factor (TGFβ) signaling as a major signaling pathway affected by hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus corneal epithelial cells. (more…)
ADHD, Author Interviews, Mental Health Research / 15.12.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Desiree Silva MB BS, FRACP, MPH Consultant Paediatrician Suite 210 Specialist Centre, Joondalup Health Campus 60 Shenton Avenue, Joondalup WA 6027MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Desiree Silva MB BS, FRACP, MPH Consultant Paediatrician Suite 210 Specialist Centre, Joondalup Health Campus 60 Shenton Avenue, Joondalup WA 6027 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Silva: Our study is one of the largest population based studies of 12,991 children with ADHD. We found that smoking in pregnancy, maternal urinary infections, preeclampsia, being induced and threatened pre-term labour increases the risk of ADHD with little gender differences.  Prematurity also increased the risk of ADHD including babies born late preterm and early term marginally increased the risk of ADHD. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 14.12.2013

Sylvie Mrug, PhD Departments of Psychology and Health Behavior University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama;MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sylvie Mrug, PhD Departments of Psychology and Health Behavior University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama;   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mrug: Experiencing early puberty and having a best friend who misbehaves at age 11 both contribute to more aggressive and delinquent behavior in adolescent girls. Although most of these effects are transient and disappear by age 16, early maturing girls are at risk for continually higher delinquent behavior. Early puberty also seems to make girls more vulnerable to negative peer influences. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences / 14.12.2013

Mike Head Network Manager Infectious Disease Research NetworkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mike Head Network Manager Infectious Disease Research Network MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The differences in total funding received between male and female principal investigators (PIs) is considerable. This can be partially explained by there being far more male senior scientists than female. But this in itself is not ideal, and there are two further causes for concern: 1. The median award size - male PIs receive larger awards than female PIs, across virtually every topic area and type of science. 2. The differences in median award size and total funding awarded by gender remain virtually unchanged across the fourteen years of this dataset. The gap is not closing. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension / 13.12.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Moa Wolff Center for Primary Health Care Research Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö 205 02, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wolff: We investigated the effects of two yoga interventions on blood pressure and quality of life in patients in primary health care diagnosed with hypertension. Our study showed that a short yoga program practiced daily at home had an antihypertensive effect, as well as a positive effect on self-rated quality of life compared to controls. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hepatitis - Liver Disease / 13.12.2013

Dr. Jason Grebely PhD The Kirby Institute University of South Wales, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jason Grebely PhD The Kirby Institute University of South Wales, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Grebely: Although 20%-40% of persons with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection demonstrate spontaneous clearance, the time course and factors associated with clearance remain poorly understood. This study investigated the time to spontaneous clearance and predictors among participants with acute HCV. Female sex, favorable IL28B genotype, and HCV genotype 1 were identified to be independent predictors of spontaneous clearance. This study provides important insights into factors affecting HCV viral control and offers guidance in clinical decision-making for the treatment of acute HCV infection. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, PLoS, Probiotics / 13.12.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Kamal Ivory Institute of Food Research Norwich Research Park Norwich, UK Gut Health & Food Safety ISP The Institute of Food Research receives strategic funding from BBSRC MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ivory: In the present study we show that administration of probiotics in the gut can induce changes at the nasal mucosa where the immune system meets pollen allergen. This implies a potential to alter the course of allergic rhinitis. However, in our single high dose pollen challenge in the clinic (out of pollen season), we did not measure any significant changes in the clinical parameters we had set. It is not clear if this was because a single challenge fails to replicate occurrence during natural seasonal exposure to pollen in terms of dosage and timing. That aside, the mode of action may vary from one probiotic organism to another and it is possible that a cocktail of probiotic organisms may be needed for clinical effectiveness. If funding becomes available, we would like to repeat the study during the pollen season. (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 11.12.2013

Dr David P. Turner PhD Assistant Professor Director of shRNA Technology Medical University of South Carolina Dept of Pathology & Lab Medicine Charleston SC 29425MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr David P. Turner PhD Assistant Professor, Director of shRNA Technology Medical University of South Carolina Dept of Pathology & Lab Medicine Charleston SC 29425 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Turner: Our research has identified a potential mechanistic link between sugar derived metabolites and cancer associated pathways which may be a biological consequence of the socioeconomic and biological factors that are known to drive cancer health disparity. African Americans develop and die more frequently of cancer than any other population in the US. We examined the levels of reactive metabolites known as advanced glycation end-products, or AGEs for short, in serum and tumor samples from African American and Non-Hispanic White prostate cancer patients. In both the serum and tumor tissue, the levels of AGE metabolites were consistently higher in the African American prostate cancer patients than their White counterparts. AGE functions as a ligand for the receptor for AGEs, or RAGE for short. We also identified that RAGE protein levels were  higher in African Americans with prostate cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Chemotherapy, Gastrointestinal Disease, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, MD Anderson / 10.12.2013

Harrys A. Torres, MD, FACP Assistant Professor Director of Hepatitis C Clinic Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Harrys A. Torres, MD, FACP Assistant Professor, Director of Hepatitis C Clinic Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Torres: The main findings of the study were that patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who were successfully treated with antivirals and attained sustained virologic response (SVR) did not have a relapse of HCV infection after receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy for cancer. Patients in the study received different chemotherapeutic agents, including rituximab and systemic corticosteroids. Durability of SVR was maintained up to 14 years after chemotherapy in cancer patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Transplantation / 10.12.2013

Rachel Patzer, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Emory University School of Medicine Department of Surgery, Division of TransplantationMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rachel Patzer, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Emory University School of Medicine Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Patzer: We found significant racial/ethnic differences in important health outcomes among pediatric and adolescent patients who received a liver transplantation at a large transplant center in the Southeastern U.S., where rates of mortality and graft failure were higher among minorities compared to white patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Psychological Science, Sexual Health / 10.12.2013

Catherine H. Mercer Ph.D. Senior Lecturer UCL Centre for Sexual Health & HIV Research Research Department of Infection & Population Health University College London London U.K.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Catherine H. Mercer Ph.D. Senior Lecturer UCL Centre for Sexual Health & HIV Research Research Department of Infection & Population Health University College London London U.K. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mercer: Firstly, the National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, Britain’s nationally-representative surveys of sexual behaviour (or Natsal for short), have captured substantial changes in sexual attitudes and lifestyles over the past 60 years, having collected data from over 45,000 people born between the 1930s and the 1990s – a period spanning much of the 20th Century. Secondly, the recent changes in behaviour that we have observed - so over the past decade - have however been considerably more marked for women than men, with the gender gap in reported behaviour narrowing, and in some cases, disappearing altogether. Thirdly, we’ve seen a greater acceptance of more diverse sexual lifestyles, such as same-sex sexual partnerships, but greater intolerance of what many people might consider as ‘disrespectful’ sexual partnerships, including non-exclusivity in marriage. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Compliance, JACC, Outcomes & Safety, UT Southwestern / 10.12.2013

Dr. Wanpen Vongpatanasin, MD Professor of Medicine Director, Hypertension Section Cardiology Division UT Southwestern Medical CenteMedicalResearch.com Interview with; Dr. Wanpen Vongpatanasin, MD Professor of Medicine Director, Hypertension Section, Cardiology Division UT Southwestern Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Vongpatanasin: We found that more than 50% of patients with resistant hypertension were non-adherent to at least one drug prescribed by their primary care physicians for blood pressure control. When we provided this information back to the patients, as part of care in our hypertension specialty clinic, we found that many patients report difficulty taking prescribed medications due to either associated side effects or cost of the medication. When we adjusted patient's medications to fit their needs, BP levels were substantially improved during subsequent visits without increasing the number of medications. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mayo Clinic, Menopause, Sugar / 06.12.2013

Maki Inoue-Choi, PhD, MS, RD Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, NIH Rockville, MD 20850MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maki Inoue-Choi, PhD, MS, RD Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, NIH Rockville, MD 20850 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In our study, postmenopausal women who reported higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages were more likely to develop estrogen-dependent type I endometrial cancer, the most common type of this cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Radiology / 06.12.2013

Nicholas M Perry MD London Breast InstituteMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nicholas M Perry MD London Breast Institute MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study? Dr. Perry: The main findings from the study were that automated density readings outperformed radiologists, and that women under the age of 50 had a more significant risk of breast cancer from higher breast density. Also, and quite surprising was the appearance of a completely different age- density pattern in women with breast cancer. Whereas the women in the study without cancer showed a normal and steady decline in breast density with age, those with cancer showed a completely different curvi-linear pattern, which was evident in women as young as 30. The message is that breast density remains an important factor for both the current breast screening methodologies, and for future research into investigation and management. (more…)
Author Interviews, Sleep Disorders, University of Pittsburgh, Weight Research / 06.12.2013

Dr G. Neil Thomas, 
Regional Director, NIHR Research Design Service West Midlands 
 Deputy Director, Master of Public Heath Programme 
Reader in Epidemiology Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics
 School of Health and Population Sciences
 College of Medical and Dental Sciences The University of Birmingham
 Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TTMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr G. Neil Thomas, 
Regional Director, NIHR Research Design Service West Midlands Deputy Director, Master of Public Heath Programme 
Reader in Epidemiology Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics
 School of Health and Population Sciences
 College of Medical and Dental Sciences The University of Birmingham
 Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Thomas: This population of severely obese individuals (mean BMI 47kg/m2) from a regional specialist weight management service poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were strongly associated with poorer quality of life (Impact of Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Hospital Readmissions, Sleep Disorders / 06.12.2013

Dr. Takatoshi Kasai, MD, PhD Department of Cardiology and Cardio-Respiratory Sleep Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Takatoshi Kasai, MD, PhD Department of Cardiology and Cardio-Respiratory Sleep Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kasai: Sleep disordered breathing, determined using predischarge nocturnal pulse oximetry, is prevalent and is an independent predictor of the combined end point of readmission and mortality in hospitalized patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction after acute decompensated heart failure. (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, BMJ, Pediatrics / 06.12.2013

Dr. Meghan Azad, PhD Banting Postdoctoral Fellow Department of Pediatrics University of AlbertaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Meghan Azad, PhD Banting Postdoctoral Fellow Department of Pediatrics University of Alberta MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Azad: In this study, our goal was to evaluate the clinical evidence for using probiotics (live "healthy bacteria") to prevent childhood asthma.  We reviewed the results of 20 clinical trials involving over 4000 infants, where probiotics were administered during pregnancy or the first year of life, and found no evidence to support the use of probiotics for asthma prevention.  Children receiving probiotics were just as likely to develop asthma as children receiving placebo.  Similarly, there was no effect of probiotic supplementation on the development of wheezing. (more…)
Diabetes, Diabetologia / 06.12.2013

Mr Peter Tennant Research Associate (Epidemiology) Institute of Health & Society, Newcastle University, Baddiley-Clark Building, Richardson Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4AX.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mr Peter Tennant Research Associate (Epidemiology) Institute of Health & Society, Newcastle University, Baddiley-Clark Building, Richardson Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4AX.  MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: For women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of stillbirth or late miscarriage (3%) was around four times greater than in women without the condition, while the risk of their infant dying during the first year of life (0.7%) was nearly twice as high. There was no difference in risk between women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. A woman's blood glucose concentration around the start of pregnancy, estimated from her glycated haemoglobin concentration (HbA1c), was the most important predictor of risk. The risk increased by 2% for each 1mmol/mol (0.1% in traditional DCCT units) increase in HbA1c above the target of 53mmol/mol (7%) recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA). If all the women in our study had achieved that ADA target before pregnancy, we estimate that around 40% of the stillbirths, late miscarriages, and infant deaths could have been avoided. (more…)
Author Interviews, NEJM, OBGYNE / 06.12.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aniket D. Kulkarni, M.B., B.S., M.P.H Women's Health and Fertility Branch Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, Georgia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kulkarni: Our study estimates the contribution of fertility treatments and natural conception to multiple births. Fertility treatments include IVF and non-IVF treatments. Non-IVF treatments primarily include ovulation induction and ovarian stimulation coupled with timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI). All estimated proportions were adjusted for maternal age which makes this study unique. The incidence of twin births nearly doubled and the incidence of triplet and higher-order births quadrupled over the last 4 decades. Our study estimates that by 2011, a total of 36% of twin births and 77% of triplet and higher-order births resulted from conception assisted by fertility treatments, after adjusting for maternal age. After initial increase, the incidence of triplet and higher order births decreased by 29% from 1998 to 2011. The decrease in triplet and higher order births has coincided with a 70% reduction in the transfer of 3 or more embryos during IVF and a 33% decrease in the proportion of triplet and higher order births attributable to IVF. The decline in the number of embryos transferred during IVF became possible due to monitoring of ART treatments and outcomes and the work of professional societies, which have repeatedly revised practice guidelines to include recommendations for lowering the number of embryos transferred. In contrast, non-IVF fertility treatments of ovulation induction and ovarian stimulation are estimated to contribute the increasing number of multiple births. Hence there is a need for surveillance of births from non-IVF fertility treatments. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Sexual Health / 06.12.2013

Dr Kirstin R Mitchell PhD Lecturer in Sexual and Reproductive Health Dept of Social and Environmental Health Research Faculty of Public Health & Policy London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine 15-17 Tavistock Place  London WC1H 9SHMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Kirstin R Mitchell PhD Lecturer in Sexual and Reproductive Health Dept of Social and Environmental Health Research Faculty of Public Health & Policy London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mitchell: We explored the distribution of sexual function in the British population using a probability sample survey (the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles [Natsal-3]) of 15 162 individuals aged 16–74 years. We measured sexual function using the Natsal-SF, a novel validated measure, which assessed problems with individual sexual response, sexual function in a relationship context, and self-appraisal of sex life. Men and women in the oldest age groups surveyed (55 – 74) were more likely to have low overall sexual function than those in the youngest age group (16 – 24). After taking account of age differences, low sexual function was associated in both men and women with being unemployed, with current depression, and with poor general health. It was also associated with higher numbers of lifetime partners (women only), paying for sex (men only), and reporting same-sex partners, as well as with other aspects of sexual health, such as being diagnosed with an STI and experiencing sex against their will. Low sexual function was associated with relationship breakdown, and with people not being happy with their relationship. Within relationships, the most common problem was an imbalance in level of interest in sex between partners, which affected around a quarter of both men and women. Just under one in five men and women said their partner had experienced sexual difficulties in the last year, and this proportion increased with age, particularly among women. Lack of interest in sex was one of the most commonly reported problems for both men and women, affecting three in every twenty (15%) men, and with women twice as likely as men to say that this had been an issue in the last year. Difficulty reaching climax (16%) and vaginal dryness (13%) were among common problems for women; and reaching a climax more quickly than desired (15%), and difficulty getting or keeping an erection (13%) among men. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Education, End of Life Care, JAMA, Stanford / 06.12.2013

J. Randall Curtis, MD, MPH Professor of Medicine Director, UW Palliative Care Center of Excellence Section Head, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Harborview Medical CenterA. Bruce Montgomery, M.D. – American Lung Association Endowed Chair in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104MedicalResearch.com Interview with: J. Randall Curtis, MD, MPH Professor of Medicine Director, UW Palliative Care Center of Excellence Section Head, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Harborview Medical CenterA. Bruce Montgomery, M.D. – American Lung Association Endowed Chair in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Curtis: We examined the effect of a communication-skills intervention for internal medicine and nurse practitioner trainees on patient- and family-reported outcomes.  The study was funded by the National Institutes of Nursing Research of the National Institutes of Heatlh.  We conducted a randomized trial with 391 internal medicine and 81 nurse practitioner trainees at two universities.  Participants were randomized to either an 8-session simulation-based, communication-skills intervention or to usual education.  We collected outcome data from a large number of patients with life-limiting illness and their families, including 1866 patient ratings and 936 family ratings.  The primary outcome was patient-reported quality of communication and, overall, this outcome did not change with the intervention.  However, when we restricted our analyses to only patients who reported their own health status as poor, the intervention was associated with increased communication ratings. Much to our surprise, the intervention was associated with a small but significant increase in depression scores among post-intervention patients.  Overall, this study demonstrates that among internal medicine and nurse practitioner trainees, simulation-based communication training compared with usual education improved communication skills acquisition, but did not improve quality of communication about end-of-life care for all patients.  However, the intervention was associated with improved patient ratings of communication for the sickest patients. Furthermore, the intervention was associated with a small increase in patients’ depressive symptoms, and this appeared most marked among patients of the first-year residents. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, JAMA, University of Pennsylvania / 06.12.2013

James Guevara, MD, MPH Associate Professor of Pediatrics & Epidemiology Senior Diversity Search Advisor, Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania,Director of Interdisciplinary Initiatives PolicyLab: Center to Bridge Research, Practice, & Policy The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia,Philadelphia, PA  19104MedicalResearch.com Interview with: James Guevara, MD, MPH Associate Professor of Pediatrics & Epidemiology Senior Diversity Search Advisor, Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania,Director of Interdisciplinary Initiatives PolicyLab: Center to Bridge Research, Practice, & Policy The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia,Philadelphia, PA  19104 MedicalResearch.com: What did the study attempt to address? Dr. Guevara: Medical schools have sought to build more diverse faculty in their institutions through faculty development programs targeted to underrepresented minority faculty members. This study was conduct by THE CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL OF PHILADELPHIA'S POLICYLAB  and The University of Pennsylvania and sought to determine if there was an association between minority faculty development programs and the representation, recruitment, and promotion of underrepresented minority faculty. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Infections / 05.12.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael D. April, MD, DPhil San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium.Department Harvard Medical School The Medical Practice Evaluation Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. April: Using a mathematical model, this study quantified the survival benefits associated with antiretroviral therapy to HIV-infected people in South Africa since 2004.  Our results highlight the astounding benefits of treatment.  In short, antiretroviral therapy has saved 2.8 million years of life in South Africa to date and is projected to save an additional 15.1 million years of life by 2030. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Nature / 05.12.2013

Alessandra d’Azzo PhD Department of Genetics, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, Tennessee 38105MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alessandra d’Azzo PhD Department of Genetics, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. d’Azzo: We have discovered a connection between a rare childhood disorder and Alzheimer’s disease that usually affects older people. The culprit is a metabolic enzyme called NEU1 that normally controls the recycling or disposal of proteins in a specific cell compartment, the lysosome. When NEU1 is defective, children develop the severe metabolic disease, sialidosis. Our study suggests that NEU1 also plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Based on this discovery, we decided to increase NEU1 enzyme activity in the brain of an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model that shows features characteristic of the human disease, namely the accumulation of toxic protein aggregates or plaques. Remarkably, we could significantly diminish the number of plaques in the brain of these mice by increasing NEU1 enzyme activity. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, Emergency Care / 04.12.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Brian Grunau MD Emergency Physician, St. Paul's Hospital Clinical Assistant Professor, UBC Department of Emergency Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Grunau: Among 2819 consecutive Emergency Department visits of patients with allergic reactions or anaphylaxis, five clinically important biphasic reactions were identified (0.18%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07% to 0.44%), with two occurring during the ED visit and three post-discharge. There were no fatalities.  When examining patients who satisfied the definition for anaphylaxis and those who did not separately, clinically important biphasic reactions occurred in 2 patients (0.40%; 95% CI 0.07% to 1.6%) and 3 patients (0.13%; 95% CI 0.03% to 0.41%), respectively. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pain Research / 04.12.2013

Morten Sejer Hansen Department of Anaesthesia 4231 Centre of Head and Orthopaedics, Rigshospitalet Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, DenmarkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Morten Sejer Hansen Department of Anaesthesia 4231 Centre of Head and Orthopaedics, Rigshospitalet Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Out-of-hospital administration of intranasal fentanyl in doses of 50 and 100 microgram appears to be safe and well tolerated, with a low incidence of side effects Secondly, intranasal fentanyl appeared effective in a wide range of patients, although no firm conclusions on analgesic efficacy can be provided due to the lack of a placebo control. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research / 03.12.2013

Ian Kronish, MD, MPHMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ian Kronish, MD, MPH Assistant Professor of Medicine Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health Division of General Medicine Columbia University Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kronish: Among primary care patients with persistently uncontrolled blood pressure despite medication treatment, we found that medication non-adherence was more than twice as common in patients with PTSD (68%) as compared to patients without PTSD (26%). The association between PTSD and medication non-adherence remained present after adjustment for key covariates including regimen complexity and depression. Recent research shows that PTSD not only contributes to psychological distress, but is also associated with increased risk for incident and recurrent cardiovascular disease. The data from our study suggest that medication non-adherence may be an important mechanism by which PTSD increases risk for cardiovascular disease. (more…)