Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 18.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com: Orly Vardeny, PharmD, MS Associate Professor of Pharmacy and Medicine University of Wisconsin-Madison MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We performed a post-hoc analysis of the RALES study to assess rates of hyperkalemia and hypokalemia among African American (AA) and non-AA study participants, and examined clinical outcomes by race. We found that AA had less overall increases in potassium compared to non-AA, and exhibited less hyperkalemia with spironolactone. AA subjects were also found to have higher rates of hypokalemia, even among those randomized to spironolactone. Moreover, AA participants appeared to derive less clinical benefit from spironolactone. While non-AA demonstrated reduced risk for death and the combined endpoint of death or heart failure hospitalizations when randomized to spironolactone, African Americans did not derive benefit, and the risk of these outcomes were not different between spironolactone and placebo among AA. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Weight Research / 17.08.2013

  MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michiyo Yamakawa MHSc Department of Epidemiology Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that breastfeeding was associated with decreased risk of  overweight and obesity at the age of 7 and 8 years compared with formula feeding. Moreover, the protective associations for obesity were greater than those for overweight. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Mental Health Research / 16.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ramon Trullas Research Professor CSIC Institute of Biomedical Research of Barcelona MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The findings reported in this manuscript that we consider can be underscored are: 1) Asymptomatic subjects at risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as well as symptomatic patients diagnosed with probable sporadic AD show a low concentration of circulating cell free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). 2) Pre-symptomatic subjects carrying pathogenic PSEN1 gene mutations which cause early onset familial AD, also exhibit low mtDNA content in CSF. 3) Reduced mtDNA content in CSF occurs in preclinical PSEN1 mutation carriers at least one decade before patients are expected to manifest clinical signs of dementia and well before any alteration in currently known AD biomarkers. 4)  Low mtDNA content in CSF distinguishes patients diagnosed with AD from either controls or patients with fronto-temporal lobar degeneration. These findings indicate that the amount of circulating cell-free mtDNA content in CSF may be a novel biomarker for the early detection of AD in the preclinical stage of AD. Moreover, the observation that low mtDNA content in the CSF is associated with both sporadic and familial forms of AD suggests that, independently of the etiology, regulation of mtDNA content is a converging factor in the pathophysiology of AD. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Nature / 16.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steve Estus PhD Dept. of Physiology University of Kentucky Office: Room 332 Sanders-Brown Building 800 S. Limestone Street Lexington, KY 40536-0230 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We report evidence for the function of a Alzheimer's genetic  risk factor.  This protective allele of the polymorphism decreases the splicing efficiency of exon 2 in CD33, a receptor protein that regulates microglial activation.  Loss of exon 2 appears to produce a dormant CD33 protein, resulting in increased microglial phagocytosis activity.  Overall, these findings confirm and extend recent papers in Neuron and Nature Neuroscience  (discussed further in our report) that described decreased CD33 activity with the protective SNP allele. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Heart Disease, Mayo Clinic, Surgical Research / 16.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rakesh M. Suri MD, D.Phil. Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What might clinicians “take home” from this study? Answers: a. The contemporary outcomes of surgical correction of mitral regurgitation are excellent based upon results observed in this large multinational, multi-institutional study, Mitral valve surgery now has a low peri-operative risk of death or complications, and a very high likelihood of saving a patient’s own heart valve (>90% - repair); thereby avoiding the need for replacement with an artificial valve substitute. b. All patients with severe degenerative mitral regurgitation are at risk for heart failure and/or death when surgical correction is delayed.  A safe period of “watchful waiting” in those with severe mitral regurgitation due to flail leaflets, even in the absence of traditional Class I triggers for surgery (symptoms or left ventricular dilation/dysfunction) does not exist. c. Prompt mitral valve surgery within months following the diagnosis of severe degenerative mitral regurgitation, even in those without symptoms, is associated with important and sustained long term benefits including a 40% decrease in death and 60% less heart failure risk, sustained many years following surgical intervention (more…)
Author Interviews, Clots - Coagulation, Surgical Research / 16.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Takahisa Fujikawa, MD, PhD, FACS. Director, Dept of Surgery, Kokura Memorial Hospital, 3-2-1 Asano, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-8555, JAPAN. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: A total of consecutive 1,075 patients undergoing abdominal laparoscopic surgery between 2005 and 2011, including 715 basic and 360 advanced laparoscopic surgeries, were reviewed. The perioperative management protocol consists of interruption of antiplatelet therapy (APT) one week before surgery and early postoperative re-institution in low thromboembolic risk patients (n=160, iAPT group), whereas preoperative APT was maintained in patients with high thromboembolic risk or emergent situation (n=52, cAPT group). Perioperative and outcome variables of cAPT and iAPT groups, including bleeding and thromboembolic complications, were compared to those of patients without APT (non-APT group, n=863).
  • No case suffering excessive intraoperative bleeding due to continuation of APT was observed. There were 10 postoperative bleeding complications (0.9%) and 3 thromboembolic events (0.3%), but surgery was free of both complications in cAPT group. No significant differences were found between the groups in operative blood loss, blood transfusion rate, and the occurrence of bleeding and thromboembolic complications.
  • Multivariable analyses showed that multiple antiplatelet agents (p=0.015) and intraoperative blood transfusion (p=0.046) were significant prognostic factors for postoperative bleeding complications.  Increased thromboembolic complications were independently associated with high New York Heart Association class (p=0.019) and history of cerebral infarction (p=0.048), but not associated with APT use. (more…)
Author Interviews, Fish, General Medicine, Rheumatology / 16.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniela Di Giuseppe Division of Nutritional Epidemiology Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm 171 77, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Women whose long-term intake of omega 3 PUFAs exceeded 0.21 g a day, equivalent to at least one serving of fatty fish or four servings of lean fish a week, had half the risk (52% lower) of rheumatoid arthritis of women who consumed less. (more…)
Biomarkers, Cancer Research / 16.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Martin Köbel M.D. Assistant Professor, Pathology and Lab Medicine
Calgary Laboratory Services 9 3535 Research Road Nw Calgary, Alberta T2L 2K8 Canada MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer:  Ovarian carcinomas are now divided into five histological types, which differ with respect to biology and clinical behaviour. However, the histological type assessment varies from center to center. Our study emphasizes the need for a standardized method to identify them. Until such consistent approach is established, histological types from various centers may not comprise the same entities and studies will give inconsistent results. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, HIV, McGill / 16.08.2013

Marina Klein, MD, MSc, FRCP(C) Associate Professor of Medicine McGill University Health Centre Division of Infectious Diseases and Chronic Viral Illness Service 3650 Saint Urbain Montreal, Quebec H2X 2P4MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marina Klein, MD, MSc, FRCP(C) Associate Professor of Medicine McGill University Health Centre Division of Infectious Diseases and Chronic Viral Illness Service 3650 Saint Urbain Montreal, Quebec H2X 2P4 Disease in HIV–Hepatitis C Coinfection: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis                MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Klein: We showed that people with HIV and hepatitis C infection who smoked marijuana did not tend to progress more rapidly to liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis or end-stage liver disease, even with increasing numbers of joints smoked per week. Previous studies that reported that marijuana was harmful to the liver were likely biased because they did not ensure that marijuana smoking occurred before the development of liver problems. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Infections, Lancet, Probiotics / 15.08.2013

Prof. Steve Allen Professor of Paediatrics and International Health; RCPCH International Officer and David Baum Fellow Room 314, The College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK.Prof. Steve Allen Professor of Paediatrics and International Health; RCPCH International Officer and David Baum Fellow Room 314, The College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Overall, diarrhoea occurred in just over 10% participants and diarrhoea caused by C. difficile in about 1%. These outcomes were equally common in those taking the microbial preparation and those taking placebo. Other outcomes (e.g. common GI symptoms, length of hospital stay, quality of life) were also much the same in the two groups. So, there was no evidence that the microbial preparation had prevented diarrhoea or had led to any other health benefit. In agreement with previous research, serious adverse events were also similar in the two groups – so we found no evidence that the microbial preparation caused any harm. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, OBGYNE, Weight Research / 15.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rebecca M Reynolds, Professor of Metabolic Medicine Endocrinology Unit, BHF/University Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh EH14 6TJ, UK MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that the adult offspring of women who were obese at the start of pregnancy were 35% more likely to die prematurely than offspring of normal-weight women. We also found that children born to mothers who were overweight when they became pregnant had an 11% increased risk of premature death.  Adult offspring of mothers who were obese were also at increase risk of hospital admissions for cardiovascular events. (more…)
Primary Care / 15.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Richard Adair Medicine Clinic, 2800 Chicago Avenue South, #250, Minneapolis, MN 55407 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Layperson "care guides" working in primary care offices can help chronic disease patients reach recommended care goals at a reasonable cost. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, JAMA, Vitamin D / 14.08.2013

Miles D. Witham, PhD Aging and Health, University of Dundee, Dundee, United KingdomMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Miles D. Witham, PhD Aging and Health, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We gave high dose vitamin D3 (100,000 units) or placebo every 3 months to people aged 70 or over, who all had isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). The main focus of the trial was to test whether vitamin D supplementation could reduce blood pressure in this group of patients – this pattern of blood pressure, whether the systolic (top number) is high, and the diastolic (bottom number) is normal, is very common in older people. Previous studies have suggested a link between low vitamin D levels and higher blood pressure, but no trial has yet tested this idea in older patients with ISH. Despite the treatment causing a significant increase in circulating vitamin D levels, we saw no significant reduction in blood pressure with vitamin D supplementation, despite the trial running for a year. We tested whether certain groups might still benefit – e.g. those with very high blood pressure or very low vitamin D levels, but even these groups did not show a reduction in blood pressure. We also tested whether vitamin D supplementation reduced the health and stiffness of arteries – both important predictors of future heart attack or stroke. Unfortunately, vitamin D did not affect these measures either, and didn’t reduce cholesterol or glucose levels. On the more positive side, vitamin D supplements did appear safe, and the number of falls in the vitamin D group was slightly lower than in those people who received placebo. This is reassuring, as an earlier study (Sanders et al) had suggested that very high doses of vitamin D might make falls more likely, in contrast to previous low dose studies that show a protective effect of vitamin D against falls. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Parkinson's, University of Pennsylvania / 13.08.2013

Alice Chen-Plotkin, MD Assistant Professor Department of Neurology University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: Interview with Alice Chen-Plotkin, MD Assistant Professor Department of Neurology University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Parkinson's disease (PD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease.  Many neurons die, but the neurons that make dopamine (dopaminergic neurons) are particularly vulnerable.  We think that the disease actually starts well before the time when people show clinical symptoms.  We were therefore interested in finding proteins from the blood that correlated with better or worse dopaminergic neuron integrity.  Since it's hard to access the dopaminergic neurons directly, we looked at a tracer that labels the ends of the dopaminergic neurons in people who do not have Parkinson's disease but are at high risk for developing it, and we also looked at the age at onset of PD in people who are already symptomatic.  Screening just under 100 different proteins from the blood, we found that higher plasma levels of apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) were correlated with better tracer uptake in the people who did not yet have PD, and with older ages at onset in the people who already had PD.  These data suggest that plasma ApoA1 may be a marker for PD risk, with higher levels being relatively protective. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Nature / 13.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tina Costacou, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Epidemiology University of Pittsburgh MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The generation of reactive oxygen species is a natural and essential feature of human physiology, although excess production of free radicals has been related to the development and progression of diabetes complications. Simply put, a “balance” is required between the pro- and the anti-oxidant forces to maintain good health. Our aim in this study of people with type 1 diabetes was to evaluate whether an individual’s antioxidant vitamin levels in blood can modify the heart disease risk conferred by increased oxidative stress. Indeed, we observed that higher concentrations of α-tocopherol (a form of vitamin E) in blood overtime were related to lower risk of developing coronary heart disease, whereas greater oxidative stress (as measured by urinary 15-isoprostane F2t) was related to greater risk of disease. Interestingly, the ratio of α-tocopherol to urinary 15-isoprostane F2t, which we used as a measure of an individual’s ability to respond to / counteract oxidative stress, also was a strong predictor of subsequent coronary heart disease development. Our findings thus point to a different way of assessing a person’s risk for developing disease. Currently in clinical practice, physicians assess an individual’s risk factors (e.g. oxidative stress) for a pathologic condition (e.g. heart disease) to make inferences about the person’s risk to develop this condition and take preventive measures if needed (e.g. assign a treatment regimen). Our findings, however, suggest that an individual’s risk for disease may be better evaluated by simultaneously assessing factors representing the risk and those representing protection from or resistance to the risk. Thus, though two individuals may have similarly high levels of oxidative stress, there may be differences in the concentration of antioxidant vitamins between the two (and vice versa), which may put them at different risk categories, with one person potentially requiring vitamin supplementation while the second not needing to use supplements. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Johns Hopkins, Stem Cells / 13.08.2013

Harvard Stem Cell Institute's Kornelia Polyak, MD, PhD, MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kornelia Polyak, MD, PhD Professor of Medicine Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02215 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Polyak: We found that when comparing normal breast tissue of women who have not had children (nulliparous) and those who had children in their early 20s, the largest changes are in breast epithelial progenitors. The frequency of these cells is lower in parous women (women who had children) and the properties are also altered in a way that they are less likely to proliferate. Women with high risk of breast cancer, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, have very high frequency of these cells, and also parous women who did get cancer have more than those who did not. These results indicate that the frequency of these cells may predict breast cancer risk. (more…)
Diabetes, Neurological Disorders / 12.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Orit Twito Department of Endocrinology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: An HbA1c level above 7.5% (58mmol/mol) is associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality and with a lower revascularization rate in elderly patient with new onset diabetes mellitus. HbA1c above 8.5 %( 69nmol/mol) was associated with even higher mortality rate, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Vitamin K / 12.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gerdien Dalmeijer Postdoc | Julius Centrum | Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht Kamernummer STR. 6.119 | Huispostnummer STR. 6.131 | Postbus 85500| 3508GA UTRECHT MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main findings of our prospective study among type 2 diabetes patients show that high circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP) concentrations, reflecting a poor vitamin K status, are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, especially with peripheral arterial disease and heart failure. These results suggest that a poor vitamin K status is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected? Answer: To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the association of circulating MGP species with the risk of cardiovascular events; thus far only the association between dp-ucMGP and calcification has been investigated. Several studies but not all have shown that high dp-ucMGP concentrations are associated with increased calcification. We now extend these findings by showing the high circulating dp-ucMGP concentration is also associated with increased CVD risk, especially with peripheral arterial disease and heart failure. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Kidney Disease, Nature, University of Pennsylvania / 12.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Wen-Ya Ko, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow, First author of the paper  Department of Genetics School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania 426 Clinical Research Building 415 Curie Boulevard Philadelphia, PA 19104-6145Dr. Wen-Ya Ko, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow, First author of the paper Department of Genetics School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania 426 Clinical Research Building 415 Curie Boulevard Philadelphia, PA 19104-6145 Dr. Sarah Tishkoff, Ph.D., Senior author of the paper  David and Lyn Silfen University Professor Departments of Genetics and Biology School of Medicine School of Arts and Sciences University of PennsylvaniaDr. Sarah Tishkoff, Ph.D., Senior author of the paper David and Lyn Silfen University Professor Departments of Genetics and Biology School of Medicine School of Arts and Sciences University of Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

 Answer: In humans the APOL1 gene codes for Apolipoprotein L1, a major component of the trypanolytic factor in serum.  The APOL1 gene harbors two risk alleles (G1 and G2) associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) among individuals of recent African ancestry. We studied APOL1 across genetically and geographically diverse ethnic groups in Africa. We have discovered a number of novel variants at the APOL1 functional domains that are required to lyse trypanosome parasites inside human blood vessels. We further identified signatures of natural selection influencing the pattern of variation on chromosomes carrying some of these variants. In particular, we have identified a haplotype (a cluster of genetic variants linked along a short region of a chromosome), termed G3, that has evolved adaptively in the Fulani population who have been practicing cattle herding which has been historically documented as early as in the medieval ages (but which could have begun thousands of years earlier).  Many of the novel variants discovered in this study are candidates to play a role conferring protection against trypanosomiasis and/or to play a role in susceptibility of CKD in humans. (more…)
Annals Thoracic Surgery, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Transplantation, Vanderbilt / 12.08.2013

Simon Maltais MD PhD Vanderbilt University Medical Center Division of Cardiovascular Surgery 1215 21st Ave S, MCE 5th Flr Nashville, TN 37232-8808.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Simon Maltais MD PhD Vanderbilt University Medical Center Division of Cardiovascular Surgery 1215 21st Ave S, MCE 5th Flr Nashville, TN 37232-8808. MedicalResearch.com: What did your study evaluate and why is this important? Answer: We performed a rigorous, retrospective review of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) data base to evaluate donor, recipient, and technical characteristics associated with graft survival in patients undergoing mechanical circulatory support (MCS) device explantation at the time of heart transplantation surgery. Donor and recipient characteristics has been well described in the medical literature for routine heart transplantation, however these characteristics in patients who were supported with a long term MCS device at the time of heart transplant was not known.  Additionally, due to chronic donor heart shortages, an increasing number of patients with advanced heart failure are being bridged with MSC devices until a suitable donor heart can be obtained. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, McGill, Sugar, Weight Research / 09.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com  Interview with: Caroline Franck, MSc Dvisions of Cardiology and Clinical Epidemiology McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that, although subsidies are needed to protect farmers from production risks, the current allocation of payments encourages the sustained overproduction of a handful of grains and oilseeds. Overproduction contributes to making the end products cheaper, which are then processed into energy-dense and high-fat/sugar foods. Obesity should be treated as a systems problem, in which farm production plays an important role. (more…)
Author Interviews, JNCI, Lung Cancer, Sloan Kettering / 09.08.2013

Prasad Adusumilli MD, FACS Associate Member, Thoracic Surgery Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center New YorkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prasad Adusumilli MD, FACS Associate Member, Thoracic Surgery Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center New York MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The current standard of care of for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma, the common form of lung cancer is curative-intent surgery either by limited resection, LR (removal of tumor with clear margins) or lobectomy, LO (removal of one-third to one-half of the lung harboring the tumor). Although lung-sparing LR is preferable, there is a reported incidence of 30-40% of recurrences within the same lung. The causative factor/s for these local recurrences is not known. In our study, we analyzed recurrence patterns and pathological features in patients who underwent 476 LO and 258 LR performed at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York. We investigated the morphological patterns in pathology specimens utilizing the recently proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer / European Respiratory Society / American Thoracic Society (IASLC/ERS/ATS) classification. We noticed that presence of micropapillary morphology was associated with three times higher recurrences in patients undergoing LR compared to LO, these recurrences were lower when there is an adequate margin (2 cm) resected beyond the tumor. In patients undergoing LO, the recurrences were 75% less. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, PNAS, University of Pennsylvania / 08.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Frederic D. Bushman, Ph.D.  Professor, Department of Microbiology Department of Microbiology Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania 426A Johnson Pavilion 3610 Hamilton Walk Philadelphia, PA 19104MedicalResearch.com Interview with Frederic D. Bushman, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Microbiology Department of Microbiology Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania 426A Johnson Pavilion 3610 Hamilton Walk Philadelphia, PA 19104   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bushman: Viral populations in the human gut are huge, and some of the viruses change rapidly over time. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, Infections, JNCI, Lymphoma / 08.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Satish Gopal, MD, MPH Program in Global Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center UNC Project-Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Private Bag A-104, Lilongwe, Malawi MedicalResearch.com: What is the primary message our physician readers should take away from the piece?” Answer: Lymphoma is one of the leading causes of HIV-associated death in the modern ART era. In our analyses of a large multicenter US cohort, survival for HIV-associated lymphoma patients receiving routine care has not clearly improved since the modern ART era began, and remains significantly worse than SEER outcomes for the same lymphoma subtypes in the general population. This was somewhat surprising in an era of normalizing life expectancy for HIV-infected patients on ART, and quite different from the outstanding results achieved for this population in recent clinical trials conducted by AMC and NCI. (more…)
General Medicine, JAMA, University of Pennsylvania / 08.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Edna B. Foa, PhD Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Foa: Naltrexone was effective in decreasing the percentage of days drinking in people with alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder during active treatment.  Six months after treatment discontinuation, participants who received prolonged exposure therapy for PTSD drank less than those who did not receive prolonged exposure.  Participants who received a combined treatment of prolonged exposure and naltrexone had the lowest drinking level after six-month treatment discontinuation. The main message of the study is that simultaneous treatment of alcohol dependence and PTSD yield superior outcome than each treatment alone. Importantly, the findings indicated that prolonged exposure therapy was not associated with increased drinking or alcohol craving, a concern that has been voiced by some investigators. In fact, reduction in PTSD severity and drinking was evident for all four treatment groups. This finding contradicts that common view that trauma-focuses therapy is contraindicated for individuals with alcohol dependence and PTSD, because it may exacerbate PTSD symptoms and thereby lead to increased alcohol use. (more…)
Author Interviews, Psychological Science / 08.08.2013

Kathleen Vohs, Professor of Marketing and Land O' Lakes Professor of Excellence in Marketing Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that being in a tidy environment led people toward doing what’s expected of them or what’s considered the right thing to do -- so, for instance, people in a tidy room donated more money to charity and chose healthy over unhealthy snacks. Being in a messy room, though, made people more creative. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 07.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lindsey Enewold PhD, MPH Division of Military Epidemiology and Population Sciences John P. Murtha Cancer Center Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Rockville, Maryland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
 Answer: With increasing time since breast cancer diagnosis women were less likely to receive surveillance mammography. Minority women were equally or more likely than non-Hispanic white women to receive surveillance mammography within an equal access healthcare system. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, JAMA / 07.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Samir Gupta, MD, MSCS San Diego Veterans Affairs Healthcare System Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine Moores Cancer Center University of California San Diego MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Dr. Gupta: In a randomized, comparative effectiveness study among uninsured individuals not up to date with screening, we found that mailed outreach invitations to complete colonoscopy outreach, and mailed outreach to complete a non-invasive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) tripled screening rates compared to usual care. Additionally, we found that outreach was almost twice as effective with offers for FIT versus colonoscopy screening. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology, Pain Research / 07.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jelle Vehof PhD Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology King’s College London, St Thomas’ Hospital, Waterloo, London, England Department of Ophthalmology & Epidemiology University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Vehof: The current study provides the first empirical evidence that individuals with dry eye disease show altered pain sensitivity. Specifically, this study demonstrates that subjects with DED pain and discomfort complaints have lower pain threshold and pain tolerance of heat-based stimulus compared to those without. These findings support the hypothesis that a subset of persons with DED is more sensitive to pain. (more…)