MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Renée L. Mulder, PhD
Department of Pediatric Oncology
Emma Children's Hospital / Academic Medical Center
1100 DD Amsterdam The Netherlands
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Mulder: The glomerular function of childhood cancer survivors treated with nephrotoxic therapy declines very soon after treatment and does not recover. The glomerular function declines over time. This decline is comparable to survivors treated without nephrotoxic therapy. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Professor Tuan V. Nguyen
Osteoporosis and Bone Biology Program
Garvan Institute of Medical Research
384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst NSW 2010
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Nguyen: We analyzed polymorphisms of the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene in 934 elderly women of Caucasian background, and found that carriers of minor genotype (AA) of the SNP rs1121980 had a two-fold increase in the risk of hip fracture compared with carriers of major genotype (GG). Approximately 20% of women are carriers of the AA genotype. We estimate that about 17% of hip fracture cases could be attributed to the variation within the gene.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Satyam Sarma MD
Assistant Instructor, Cardiology
University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center
Inst. for Exercise and Environmental Medicine
7232 Greenville Ave. Dallas TX 75231
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Sarma: The main findings of our study were that as we age or live a sedentary lifestyle, fat tends to accumulate in the muscle of the heart. The accumulation of myocardial lipids were linked to abnormalities in diastolic function. With increasing levels of fat, the left ventricle became less distensible and had impaired tissue relaxation.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Fern R. Hauck, MD, MS
Spencer P. Bass, MD Twenty-First Century Professor of Family Medicine
Director, International Family Medicine Clinic
Department of Family Medicine
University of Virginia, PO Box 800729
Charlottesville, VA 22908-072
Co-author of "14 Ways to Protect Your Baby from SIDS"
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Hauck:We looked at data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, which followed mother from pregnancy through the first year of infant life. Mothers received several surveys that asked about infant feeding and bedsharing (sleeping with their infant in the same bed or other sleep surface). We found that mothers who bedshared for the longest time had the longest duration of breastfeeding compared with mothers who did not bedshare or bedshared for shorter times. Breastfeeding duration was also longer among mothers who were better educated, were white, had previously breastfed another child, had planned to breastfeed this baby, and had not returned to work in the first year after the baby was born.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Christian Hampp PhD
Division of Epidemiology-I, Office of Pharmacovigilance and Epidemiology
Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Silver Spring, Maryland
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Hampp: We investigated the use of prescription antiobesity drugs, including duration of use, in the United States from 2002 through 2011. We found that in 2011, approximately 2.74 million patients used antiobesity drugs, predominantly phentermine (2.43 million patients), while the use of prescription orlistat and sibutramine was relatively uncommon. Eighty-five percent of antiobesity drug users were female, 62% were aged 17-44 years, and 4.5% had a body mass index of ≤24.9 kg/m2. Duration of use was generally short and most patients only had one episode of antiobesity drug use during the observation period. The longest episode of use was ≤30 days in 47- 58% of patients. Approximately one quarter of patients used antiobesity drugs for longer than 90 days. Only 1.3- 4.2% of antiobesity drug users used them for >1 year.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mackram Eleid, MD
Division of Cardiovascular Diseases and Internal Medicine
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Eleid:Our study investigated the characteristics, outcomes and impact of aortic valve replacement in a large series of 1704 patients with severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area < 1 cm2) and preserved ejection fraction (EF > 50%) according to the flow-gradient classification that incorporates both stroke volume index and mean aortic valve gradient. The primary findings were that patients with low flow, low gradient AS have lower survival than other flow-gradient patterns (a 3.2-fold increase risk of mortality compared to normal flow, low gradient), and their survival is improved with aortic valve replacement. Conversely, patients with normal flow and low gradient had a favorable survival with medical management, suggesting a less advanced stage of disease compared to the other groups. Additionally, a novel observation from this study is that patients with low flow had a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation and previous heart failure events compared to other groups.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Martha Iwamoto, MD, MPH
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia;
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Iwamoto: We have been successful in decreasing invasive MRSA infections among infants younger than 3 months, mostly due to declines in hospital –onset infections in NICUs. However, more needs to be done among pediatric patients older than 3 months, especially those in the community settings and without recent healthcare exposures.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Natasha Tidwell
Graduate Research Assistant/Teaching Assistant
Department of Psychology
Texas A&M University - College Station
208 State Chemistry Building
Texas A&M Universit
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer:Basically, two studies demonstrated that men’s tendency to engage in “off limits” sexual behaviors more than women is linked to sex differences in impulse, not control.
In Study 1, we asked participants to reflect on previous times they succumbed to sexual temptations they felt were inappropriate some way. Based on their responses, we found that men both experienced stronger impulses and engaged in behavior based on these impulses more than women did. However, there was no reported difference in how much men and women exerted self-control.
MedicalResearch.com Interview withSelma Salihovic, Doctoral student
Center for Developmental Research
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Salihovic: Although previous research has examined the stability of psychopathic traits, our study offer a more nuanced perspective on development. Rather than asking whether psychopathic traits simply increase or decrease in adolescence, we asked about patterns of change for youths with different initial level of psychopathic traits. In this way, we could tease apart those youths with extreme levels from those with low and more transient levels, and follow their unique trajectories over four years. We could see that even among the youths with the highest levels there was a decreasing trend in two out of three core aspects of psychopathy. Although the degree of change was small, it was still a naturally occurring pattern for these youths, which raises the question whether an intervention designed to reduce these levels would have provided even a steeper decrease.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr Anoop Shah MBChB
Cardiology Research fellow
Centre of Cardiovascular sciences
University Of Edinburgh
Little France Edinburgh
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer:Many studies have shown the effect of air pollution on cardiac mortality and myocardial infarction. Less studies have shown a similar effect on patients with heart failure. We therefore systemically reviewed and pooled data across 12 countries involving over 4 million patients with heart failure. We showed that air pollution has a close temporal association with either being hospitalized or dying from heart failure. Most of the effects of air pollution on patients with heart failure were acute. Most of the data that we analyzed came from developed countries across Europe and the USA. There was a significant paucity of data from rapidly urbanizing nations such as India and China.
MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Argonde van Harten
From the Alzheimer Center
School for Mental Health and Neurosciences, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: We found cerebrospinal fluid biomarker evidence of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) predicted cognitive decline in patients with subjective complaints. These patients have cognitive complaints, but are cognitively normal at baseline. Preclinical AD predicted decline in memory performance, executive functions and global cognition over time. Most patients, however, had no evidence of preclinical AD and their cogntive functions generally remained stable over two years. Their memory performance improved.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Marc L. Benton, MD, FCCP, FAASM
Morristown Medical Center and Atlantic Sleep & Pulmonary Associates,
300 Madison Ave. Third Floor
Madison, NJ 07940
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Benton: When compared to a group of matched controls, 12 male golfers who had moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) demonstrated statistically significant improvement in their ability to play golf (as measured by changes in the Handicap Index, the standardized indicator of golfing performance) after undergoing CPAP treatment for their condition. Treatment adherence among the group placed on CPAP was unusually high.
Dr. Chris Bullen MBChB MPH PhD FAFPM FNZCPHM Director
School of Population Health, The University of Auckland
Private Bag 92019 Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Co-Director of the NZ Tobacco Control Research Turanga: A national programme of research to inform rapid smoking prevalence reduction.
Web: http://www.turanga.org.nz/ MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Bullen:
E-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, were modestly effective at helping smokers to quit, with similar levels of abstinence as with nicotine patches, and few adverse events.
?At 6 months, verified abstinence was 7·3% with nicotine e-cigarettes, 5·8% with patches, and 4·1% with placebo e-cigarettes. However, there was insufficient statistical power to conclude superiority of nicotine e-cigarettes to patches or to placebo e-cigarettes.
No significant differences in rates of adverse events occurrence were found between the groups.
E-cigarettes, like the vapes found at MagicVaporizers, were very popular throughout the trial, with almost 90% of users stating they would recommend them to a friend trying to quit smoking.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Aron Goldhirsch
Department of Medicine
European Institute of Oncology
Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Prof. Goldhirsch: Two years of adjuvant trastuzumab after standard chemotherapy is not more effective than is 1 year of treatment with the drug for patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof John R Yarnold
Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging
The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust
Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT, UK
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Prof. Yarnold: A 3-week schedule of curative post-operative radiotherapy for women with breast cancer involving 15 treatments (fractions) delivered Monday to Friday each week, is at least as safe and effective as historical schedules given over 5 or 6 weeks. In fact the 3-week schedule is gentler on the healthy tissues than earlier standard regimens.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Sally K Tracy DMid
Midwifery and Women's Health Research Unit
University of Sydney, Royal Hospital for Women
Randwick, NSW, Australia
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
Prof. Tracy: We recruited 1748 pregnant women, of all risk types, from two tertiary teaching hospitals in different states in Australia and allocated them to receive either caseload midwifery care (871) or standard maternity care (877).
The study found more women in caseload midwifery experienced an unassisted vaginal birth without pharmacological analgesia, and fewer women experienced an elective caesarean. While the trial findings did not show a statistically significant difference in the rate of caesarean sections between either group, the overall rate fell by more than 20 percent from pre-trial levels.
Newborn infants in both groups achieved similar physical assessment scores (Apgar scores). A slightly lower number of pre-term births and neonatal intensive care admissions among the midwifery caseload group was not statistically significant.
Important secondary findings of the study include:
30 percent more spontaneous onset of labour
less induction of labour
less severe blood loss, and
stronger likelihood of breastfeeding at discharge from hospital.
These small differences accounted for an overall difference of AU$566.74 less with caseload midwifery than with standard care.
Caseload midwifery appeared to alter some of the pathways that recurrently contribute to increased obstetric intervention. Having this level of continuity of care works on the assumption that women will labour more effectively, need to stay in hospital less time and feel a stronger sense of satisfaction and personal control if they have the opportunity to get to know their midwife at the beginning of pregnancy. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com: Interview with:Michelle M. Mielke, Ph.D.
Department of Health Sciences Research
Division of Epidemiology
Mayo Clinic 200 First Street SW
Rochester, MN 55905
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Mielke: Among Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, plasma levels of ceramides and monohexylceramides were higher in patients with cognitive impairment or dementia compared to patients who were cognitively normal. Levels of these lipids were also higher in the combined group of PD patients compared to non-PD controls but the number of controls were small.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Jie He, PhD, MD
Director, Laboratory of Thoracic Surgery
President, Cancer Institute & Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100021
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Jie He: The main findings of the study is that we have identified IDH1 as an effective plasma biomarker for the diagnosis of NSCLCs, particularly with high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Mark W. Ketterer, PhD, ABPP
Senior Bioscientific Staff
Henry Ford Hospital/A2
Detroit, MI 48202
Clinical Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences
Department of Psychiatry Wayne State University
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study:Dr. Ketterer: A survey of 84 patients admitted to Henry Ford Hospital found 54% to have Moderate-Severe Cognitive Impairment (CI).
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bruno Heleno, PhD fellow
Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, PO Box 2099, 1014 Copenhagen K, Denmark
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Answer: In a literature review of cancer screening trials of a wide range of screening interventions, we found that trials seldom report the information necessary to weigh benefits against harms.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aasma Shaukat, M.D., M.P.H.
Dept. of Medicine
GI Division, MMC 36
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN 55455
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Shaukat: The study showed that screening for colon cancer using stool cards
consistently reduces risk of death from colon cancer by one-third through
thirty years. The benefit of screening in larger in men compared to women,
and for women the benefit seems to start at age 60. However, screening did
not make people live longer. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:H. Blair Simpson, M.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University
Director of the Anxiety Disorders Clinic and the Center for OCD and Related Disorders at the New York State Psychiatric Institute
New York, NY 10032
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Simpson: This is the first RCT to compare two recommended SRI augmentation strategies for adults with OCD. Adding EX/RP to SRIs was superior to risperidone and to pill placebo in reducing OCD symptoms and improving insight, functioning, and quality of life. Risperidone was not superior to placebo on any outcome.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Richard Saitz, MD MPH
Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology
Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health
Clinical Addiction Research and Education Unit, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Saitz: Chronic care management in primary care did not improve health outcomes (abstinence from cocaine, opioids or heavy drinking; or any other clinical outcomes, like addiction consequences, emergency or hospital use, health-related quality of life, addiction severity) for people with alcohol or other drug dependence.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chad M. Brummett, M.D.
Assistant Professor, University of Michigan Health System
Department of Anesthesiology
Division of Pain Medicine
1500 East Medical Center Drive, 1H247 UH, Box 5048
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Brummett: The study found that 42% of new patients presenting to a tertiary care pain clinic with a primary spine pain diagnosis met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) survey criteria for fibromyalgia, which is a measure of widespread body pain and comorbid symptoms (e.g. trouble thinking, fatigue, mood symptoms, etc.). Patients categorized as fibromyalgia-positive using the survey measure were distinctly different from those not meeting criteria. In a multivariate regression model, independent predictors of being categorized as fibromyalgia-positive were female sex, higher neuropathic pain scores, anxiety, and lower physical function.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Mohamad Fakih, MD, MPH
Medical Director, Infection Prevention and Control
St John Hospital and Medical Center
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Fakih: Urinary catheters are commonly used in the hospital. Although they help in the management of the sickest patients, they also present a risk for infection and other harms to the patient. The Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) have made catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) publicly reportable, and no longer reimburse hospitals for these infections if they occur in hospital setting. The definition of CAUTI is based on the surveillance definition of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We looked at clinician practice, including the Infectious Diseases specialist’s impression and compared them to the NHSN definition. We found a significant difference between what clinicians think is a urinary catheter infection and give antibiotics for it compared to the NHSN definition. The NHSN definition predicted clinical infection by the Infectious Diseases specialist in only about a third of the cases. We also found that Infectious Disease specialists considered patients to have true CAUTI in only half of what clinicians treated as CAUTI.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Tasnime Akbaraly PhD
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Akbaraly: The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic inflammation and a range of aging phenotypes, assessed approximately 10 years later in a large British population of men and women -The Whitehall II Study-. As inflammation characterises a wide range of pathological processes, we considered several aging phenotypes, including cardiovascular disease (fatal and non-fatal), non-cardiovascular mortality and successful aging which encompasses optimal functioning across different physical, mental, and cognitive domains
We found that chronic inflammation characterized by high levels of interleukin-6 (>2 pg/mL) twice over the 5-year exposure period nearly halved the odds of successful aging after 10–years of follow-up compared to maintaining low levels of interleukin-6 (<1pg/mL twice over the exposure period). Chronic inflammation was also associated with increased odds of future cardiovascular disease and non-cardiovascular mortality in a dose-response fashion. These associations were found to be independent of socio-economic factors, health behaviours (smoking, physical activity), and conditions such as obesity as well as the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and acute inflammation. (more…)
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Yunsheng MaMD, PHD, MPH
Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
Department of Medicine
University of Massachusetts Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Ma: Regardless of race/ethnicity, diabetes increases the risk of mortality the same compared to non-diabetes among different race/ethnicity. However, since there are higher prevalence of diabetes in Black and Hispanic, death rate due to diabetes is much higher in Black and Hispanic, this is because the diabetes prevalence rates are much higher in these population. Therefore, diabetes prevention is key to reduce diabetes related mortality disparities among racial/ethnic groups.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Matthew P. Lungren, MD
Duke University Medical Center
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Lungren:In the single center study, knee MRIs are more likely to be normal when the referring doctor has a financial stake in the imaging center or the equipment used; these data suggest that some of these examinations may be unnecessary.
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