Author Interviews, OBGYNE, PLoS / 25.01.2015

Charles Morrison PhD FHI 360 Clinical Sciences Durham, North CarolinaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Charles Morrison PhD FHI 360 Clinical Sciences Durham, North Carolina MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Morrison: The possible connection between hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition has been an open question for 25 years. Some studies have suggested that there is an increased risk associated with hormonal contraception, particularly with the 3-month injectable contraceptive called depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Other studies have found that no such risk exists. The World Health Organization (WHO) has held several technical consultations on this subject. WHO’s current guidelines state that “because of the inconclusive nature of the body of evidence on the possible increased risk of HIV acquisition, women using progestogen-only injectable contraception should be strongly advised to also always use condoms, male or female, and other HIV preventive measures.” Two meta-analyses focusing on hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition have recently been published. One of them, FHI 360’s collaborative study, is an individual participant data meta-analysis. It found that users of injectable DMPA were 50 percent more likely to become infected with HIV than women not using hormonal contraceptives. For women using a different injectable progestin, norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN), or combined oral contraceptives (COC), the study investigators did not find a significantly increased risk of acquiring HIV compared to those who were not using hormonal contraceptives. Furthermore, DMPA users were 43 percent and 32 percent more likely to become infected with HIV compared to oral contraceptives users and NET-EN users, respectively. It is important to point out a key secondary finding. The associations between hormonal contraception and risk of becoming infected with HIV were attenuated in studies that had a lower risk of methodological bias compared to those with higher risk of bias. This suggests that some of the risk found to be associated with hormonal contraception in fact may be attributed to inherent flaws in the nonrandomized studies themselves. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, OBGYNE, Opiods / 25.01.2015

Dr. Jennifer Lind PharmD, MPH Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDCMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jennifer Lind PharmD, MPH Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Lind:  CDC researchers published a new study estimating the proportion of women aged 15-44 years who filled a prescription for opioid pain medications.  Opioids are prescribed by healthcare providers to treat moderate to severe pain. They are also found in some prescription cough medications. Opioids include medications like codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, or morphine. For this study, researchers used data from two large insurance claims datasets—one on Medicaid and one on private insurance—and looked at data from 2008-2012. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Lind: Opioid medications are widely used among women of reproductive age in the United States, regardless of insurance type. On average, more than a third (39 percent) of women aged 15-44 years enrolled in Medicaid, and more than one fourth (28 percent) of those with private insurance filled a prescription for an opioid pain medication each year during 2008-2012. Taking these medications early in pregnancy, often before women know they are pregnant, can increase the risk for some birth defects (such as spina bifida) and other poor pregnancy outcomes (such as preterm birth or low birth weight). (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE / 21.01.2015

Anna Geraghty Department of Integrative Biology University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley,MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anna Geraghty Department of Integrative Biology University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: RFRP3 in mammals has been well characterized as a negative regulator of the hormonal reproductive axis. It shuts down release of gonadotropins necessary for successful reproduction, similar to how stress inhibits reproduction. Our lab has previously shown that stress can directly regulate RFRP3 levels in males-both acute and chronic stress lead to an upregulation of RFRP3 levels in the male rat. As a followup to that study, we were interested in looking at whether this response was similar in females, and how that may affect long term fertility. We found that chronic (18 days) of stress led to an increase in RFRP3 levels all all stages of the estrous cycle. This increase was also sustained for at least 4 days, or one whole estrous cycle, after the stress ended- the equivalent to a month menstrual cycle in humans. In rats that were stressed and then allowed to recover for 4 days, animals that were stressed were significantly less successful at reproducing- 76% success rate in controls compared to 21% in the stressed animals. This was a result of a combination of deficits in the mating process- less stressed animals successfully copulated, those that did successfully mate had fewer pregnancies, and gave birth to smaller litters. However, utilizing an inducible virus to knockdown RFRP levels in the hypothalamus specifically during the stress period prevented all of these problems- stressed animals without stress-induced RFRP3 increases looked indistinguishable to controls. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, JAMA, OBGYNE / 20.01.2015

Sheree L. Boulet, DrPH, MPH Division of Reproductive Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GeorgiaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sheree L. Boulet, DrPH, MPH Division of Reproductive Health Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Boulet:  Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection is generally considered a safe and effective treatment for male factor infertility; however, some studies have shown that ICSI is increasingly used in patients without male factor infertility without clear evidence of a benefit over conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF). In addition to increasing the cost of an IVF cycle, use of  Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection has been found to increase the risk for adverse infant outcomes such as birth defects, chromosomal abnormalities and autism. Using data from CDC’s National Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System, we found that use of ICSI increased by fourfold from 1996 through 2012 (from 15.4% to 66.9%). Furthermore, we found that use of  Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection did not improve reproductive outcomes such as rates of pregnancy, miscarriage and live birth, when compared with conventional IVF, regardless of whether male factor infertility was present. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, OBGYNE, Supplements / 15.01.2015

Jennifer Williams MSN, MPH, FNP-BC National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities CDC, Atlanta, Georgia MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jennifer Williams MSN, MPH, FNP-BC National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities CDC, Atlanta, Georgia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that can cause significant disability and death. Studies have shown that taking 400 mcg of folic acid daily before and during pregnancy can reduce the prevalence of neural tube defects. Therefore, in 1992, the US Public Health Service (USPHS) recommended that all women of childbearing age in the United States who are capable of becoming pregnant consume 400mcg of folic acid per day to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. To help women meet this requirement, in 1998 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated that folic acid be added to enriched grain products for the prevention of neural tube defects. This study looks at how many neural tube defects have been prevented annually since folic acid fortification. Using data from birth defects tracking systems, researchers found that since folic acid fortification, the birth prevalence of neural tube defects has decreased by 35% in the United States, which translates to about 1,300 babies that are born each year without a neural tube defect who might otherwise have been affected.  This study also reports that the number of babies born with a neural tube defect annually differs by the mother’s race/ethnicity. Hispanic mothers continue to be at the highest risk for having a baby with a neural tube defect. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE / 06.01.2015

Dr. Jennifer Kawwass MD Assistant Professor Emory UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jennifer Kawwass MD Assistant Professor Emory University Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? Dr. Kawwass: This study affirms that Assisted Reproductive Technology treatment is relatively safe and that reported complications remain rare.  In the US from 2000-2011, autologous and donor ART procedures were associated with low reported stimulation and surgical complication risks; no concerning trends or patterns were identified. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) was the most frequently reported complication among autologous and donor cycles, though less frequent in donor cycles.  Obstetric mortality which may or may not be related to Assisted Reproductive Technology was rare. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE / 02.01.2015

lauren coronaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lauren Corona BS Wayne State University School of Medicine Detroit, MI Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Hysterectomy is the most commonly performed major gynecologic surgery in the United States. This study sought to examine how often alternative treatment is considered prior to hysterectomy for benign indications and how often pathology in the surgical specimen supports the need for hysterectomy. We utilized data from the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative, a statewide hospital collaborative, and limited the analysis to patients having a hysterectomy for uterine fibroids, abnormal uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and/or pelvic pain. Alternative treatment to hysterectomy was not documented prior to surgery in 38% (i.e. no documentation that the patient declined, was unable to tolerate, or failed any alternative treatment). A progesterone intrauterine device (IUD) was the least utilized form of alternative treatment, documented in only 12% of patients. In addition, nearly 1 in 5 (18.3%) had pathology reported that did not support the need for hysterectomy—i.e. the uterus was described as normal or unremarkable or only had minor amounts of pathology. Women <40 years had the highest rate of unsupportive pathology at 38%. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE / 28.12.2014

Keith P. West, Jr., Dr.P.H., R.D. Professor and Director Program and Center in Human Nutrition Department of International Health Bloomberg School of Public Health Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland 21205MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Keith P. West, Jr., Dr.P.H., R.D. Professor and Director Program and Center in Human Nutrition Department of International Health Bloomberg School of Public Health Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland 21205 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. West: Deficiencies in vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) that must be provided by the diet, are a major public health concern in undernourished societies.  In rural South Asia, where some 35 million babies are born each year, maternal micronutrient deficiencies are common and may increase risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight or stillbirth and infant mortality.  Further, a newborn of low birth weight faces higher risks of poor postnatal growth, infection and mortality.  Where prenatal care exists, iron-folic acid supplements are often prescribed as standard care to prevent iron deficiency anemia.  But it is likely that many micronutrient deficiencies emerge from an inadequate diet, raising the possibility that a supplement that provides each day a recommended dietary allowance of most essential vitamins and minerals  could measurably improve the health of the mother, fetus and infant.  Because prenatal multinutrient supplements are rarely taken in low income countries, it is important to assess their potential to  improve health before recommending this practice.  We did this be conducting a large prenatal supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh, randomizing  44,567 pregnant women in their 1st trimester to receive a supplement with 15 vitamins and minerals or only iron and folic acid, followed their pregnancies and survival of their 28,516 infants to 6 months of age. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. West:  The multiple micronutrient supplement had the effect of extending the length of gestation compared to the iron-folic acid supplement, by about 2 days on average.  This was enough to lower risk of preterm birth, below 37 weeks,  by 15%.  The extra time in the womb also allowed the fetus to grow a little larger, increasing birth weight (by 54 grams or about 2 ounces) as well as length and other measures of size, leading to a 12% reduction in low birth weight.  In addition, there was an 11% reduction in risk of stillbirth.  These are all indications of a healthier pregnancy.  Although we observed a 14% lower mortality from all causes in girls, there was not a similar effect in boys, leading to no overall effect.  We are continuing to investigate possible reasons for this difference. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, HPV, OBGYNE, Vaccine Studies / 22.12.2014

dr-pedro-moroMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pedro Moro MD MPH Immunization Safety Office, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Moro: Gardasil® is a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine recommended for all girls and boys at age 11 or 12, and teens and young adults who did not get the vaccine when they were younger. Because there is limited safety data available on use of the vaccine during pregnancy, it is not currently recommended for pregnant women. However, some pregnant women will inadvertently receive Gardasil® because they do not yet know that they are pregnant at the time of vaccination. The study reviewed non-manufacturer reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) about pregnant women who received Gardasil®. VAERS is a national vaccine safety surveillance program co-administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). VAERS accepts reports of health problems that occur after any US-licensed vaccine (these are called adverse events). VAERS may also accept reports not describing any health problem but vaccination errors (for example, administration of a vaccine not recommended to a particular group of people like pregnant women). VAERS is an early-warning system and cannot generally assess if a vaccine caused an adverse event. After reviewing all non-manufacturer reports of Gardasil vaccination during pregnancy, this study found no unexpected patterns of safety issues for pregnant woman who received Gardasil®, or for their babies. This finding is reassuring and reconfirms the safety of this vaccine for pregnant women, as was previously reported by the pregnancy registry maintained by Gardasil®’s manufacturer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, JAMA, OBGYNE, UC Davis / 10.12.2014

Cheryl K. Walker, MD Associate Professor Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology Faculty, The MIND Institute School of Medicine, University of California, Davis MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cheryl K. Walker, MD Associate Professor Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology Faculty, The MIND Institute School of Medicine, University of California, Davis Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Walker: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurobehavioral condition identified in 1 in 68 U.S. children and is part of a broader group of developmental disabilities that affects 1 in 6 children.  Growing evidence suggests that Autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay originate during fetal life.  Preeclampsia is a complicated and frequently dangerous pregnancy condition that appears to arise from a shallow placental connection and may increase the risk of abnormal neurodevelopment through several pathways. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Walker: Children with Autism spectrum disorder were more than twice as likely to have been exposed to preeclampsia compared with children with typical development.  Risk for ASD was increased further in children born to mothers with more severe presentations of preeclampsia.  Mothers of children with developmental delay were more than 5 times more likely to have had severe forms preeclampsia – often with evidence of reduced placental function – compared with mothers of children with typical development. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, OBGYNE, Weight Research / 03.12.2014

Stefan Johansson, MD PhD consultant neonatologist Stockholm, SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Stefan Johansson, MD PhD consultant neonatologist Stockholm, Sweden Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Johansson: Maternal obesity (BMI ≥ 30) has previously been linked to increased infant mortality. However, research has not produced consistent results. For example, there are disagreements whether infants to overweight mothers (BMI 25-29) are at increased risk, and research on BMI-related specific causes of death is scarce. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, OBGYNE / 24.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Karin B. Michels, ScD, PhD Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology Harvard Medical School Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Michels: We were interested in studying the long-term effects of oral contraceptive use on mortality. Given the widespread use of oral contraceptives, this is an important question pertaining to millions of women worldwide.  We explored this question in the large Nurses’ Health Study, a cohort of 121,700 women in the US, who have been followed for 38 years. We found that oral contraceptive use does not impact overall mortality. However, breast cancer mortality was slightly increased, especially with long-term use of oral contraceptives. (more…)
OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 16.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ian R. Macumber MD Pediatric Nephrology, Seattle Children's Hospital Seattle, Washington Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Macumber: The main finding is that there is a strong association between maternal obesity and odds of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) in offspring.  This relationship remains strong when looking at offspring with renal malformation (excluding non-renal congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract), or in offspring with isolated congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (no congenital anomalies elsewhere in the body).  There is a dose-response relationship to this association, with the offspring of extremely obese mothers have even higher odds of having congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Statins / 14.11.2014

Mostafa Borahay, MD, FACOG Assistant Professor, Director of Simulation Education Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of Texas Medical BranchMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mostafa Borahay, MD, FACOG Assistant Professor, Director of Simulation Education Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of Texas Medical BranchCo-director of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery University of Texas Medical Branch Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Borahay: Uterine fibroids are the most common type of tumor in the female reproductive system, accounting for half of the 600,000 hysterectomies done annually in the U.S. Their estimated annual cost is up to $34 billion in the U.S. alone. Despite this, the exact cause of these tumors is not well understood, as there are several genetic, familial and hormonal abnormalities linked with their development. Even more, we currently don’t have a satisfactory medical treatment for these tumors. Our team investigated the impact of simvastatin on human uterine fibroid cell growth. Statins, such as simvastatin, are commonly prescribed to lower high cholesterol levels. Statins work by blocking an early step in cholesterol production. Beyond these well-known cholesterol-lowering abilities, statins also combat certain tumors. Statins have previously been shown to have anti-tumor effects on breast, ovarian, prostate, colon, leukemia and lung cancers. However, the effect of statins on uterine fibroids was unknown. We found that simvastatin impedes the growth of uterine fibroid tumor cells. We also studied the way simvastatin works to suppress these tumors. Simvastatin was shown to inhibit ERK phosphorylation, which is a critical step in the molecular pathway that prompts the growth of new cells. In addition, simvastatin stops the progression of tumor cells that have already begun to grow and induces calcium-dependent cell death mechanisms in fibroid tumor cells. Therefore, we identified a novel pathway by which simvastatin induces the death of uterine fibroid tumor cells. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Race/Ethnic Diversity, UCSF / 12.11.2014

Paula Braveman, MD, MPH Director, Center on Social Disparities in Health Professor, Family and Community Medicine University of California San Francisco San Francisco, CA 94118MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Paula Braveman, MD, MPH Director, Center on Social Disparities in Health Professor, Family and Community Medicine University of California San Francisco San Francisco, CA 94118 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Braveman: There were a couple of striking findings from this study of preterm birth (PTB) among non-Latino White and Black women born in the U.S.. First, we found that women who were poor or socioeconomically disadvantaged in other ways (who had not or whose parents had not graduated from high school or who lived in neighborhoods (census tracts) with highly concentrated (25% or more of residents) poverty) had similarly high preterm birth rates.  In addition, we found that while preterm birth rates among White women consistently improved as their socioeconomic status (SES) improved, higher-SES Black women generally did no better –and sometimes did worse—than lower-SES Black women. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Diabetes, OBGYNE / 30.10.2014

Dr. Cora Peterson PhD Health Economist at Centers for Disease ControlMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr. Cora Peterson PhD Health Economist at Centers for Disease Control Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Peterson: Women with pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) have increased risk for adverse birth outcomes. Preconception care for women with  pregestational diabetes mellitus reduces the frequency of such outcomes, most likely by improving glycemic control before and during the critical first weeks of pregnancy. Preconception care for women with  pregestational diabetes mellitus includes the following activities:
  • medical or dietary blood sugar control, blood sugar monitoring, screening and treatment of complications due to diabetes,
  • counseling and education about the risks of diabetes in pregnancy, and
  • using effective birth control or contraceptives until appropriate levels of blood sugar are achieved.
In this study, CDC researchers estimated the number of preterm births, birth defects, and perinatal deaths (death between the time a baby is at least 20 weeks old in the mother’s womb to one week after the baby is born) that could be prevented and the money that could potentially be saved if preconception care was available to and used by all women with  pregestational diabetes mellitus before pregnancy. Researchers estimated about 2.2% of births (88,081 births each year) in the United States are to women with pregestational diabetes mellitus, including women who know they have diabetes before they become pregnant and those who are unaware they have diabetes. Preconception care before pregnancy among women with known pregestational diabetes mellitus could potentially generate benefits of up to $4.3 billion by preventing preterm births, birth defects, and perinatal deaths. Up to an additional $1.2 billion in benefits could be produced if women who do not know they have diabetes were diagnosed and received preconception care. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Infections, OBGYNE / 27.10.2014

Prof. Zvi Laron Professor Emeritus of Pediatric Endocrinology TAU's Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Director of the Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel Head of the WHO Collaborating Center for the Study of Diabetes in YouthMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Zvi Laron Professor Emeritus of Pediatric Endocrinology TAU's Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Director of the Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel Head WHO Collaborating Center for the Study of Diabetes in Youth Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? What was most surprising about results? Prof. Laron: The main findings were the finding of specific antibodies to the pancreatic insulin secreting beta cells together with antibodies against rota-virus in both the mother at delivery and in the newborn's cord blood. We were not surprised, but pleased to find proof to our hypothesis that part, if not the majority of childhood onset Type 1 (autoimmune diabetes) starts "in utero". (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Environmental Risks, OBGYNE, Pulmonary Disease / 22.10.2014

Medical Research Interview with: Eva Morales, MD, PhD, MPH Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL) Barcelona Biomedical Research Park Barcelona, Spain Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Morales: We aimed to assess the consequences of exposure to outdoor air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal lifetime periods on lung function in preschool children. We conducted a longitudinal study by using data from 620 mother-child pairs participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project – a population-based cohort study set up in several geographic areas in Spain. We found that exposure to outdoor air pollution during the second trimester of pregnancy in particular raises the risk of harm to a child’s lung function at preschool age. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Surgical Research / 08.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jason D. Wright, M.D. Sol Goldman Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Chief, Division of Gynecologic Oncology Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons New York, New York 10032 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wright: The use of robotic assisted ovarian surgery (oophorectomy and cystectomy) has increased rapidly and compared to laparoscopic alternatives, robotically assisted surgery is associated with a small increase in complication rates and substantially greater costs. (more…)
Author Interviews, NEJM, OBGYNE / 03.10.2014

Dr. Jeff Peipert MD, PhD Institute for Public Health Robert J. Terry Professor, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, School of Medicine Washington University in St. LouisMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jeff Peipert MD, PhD Institute for Public Health Robert J. Terry Professor, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, School of Medicine Washington University in St. Louis Medical Research: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Peipert: In the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, over 70% of teenage girls and women who were provided no-cost contraception and were educated about the effectiveness and benefits of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods selected the intrauterine device (IUD) or contraceptive implant.  This group of over 1400 young women aged 15-19 years had rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion that were far below national rates for sexually experienced teens. (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, General Medicine, OBGYNE / 26.09.2014

Rebecca J. Schmidt, M.S., Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Public Health Sciences The MIND Institute School of Medicine University of California Davis Davis, California 95616-8638MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rebecca J. Schmidt, M.S., Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Public Health Sciences The MIND Institute School of Medicine University of California Davis Davis, California 95616-8638 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schmidt: Women who had children with autism reported taking iron supplements during pregnancy and breastfeeding less often than women who children who were typically developing.  Mothers of children with autism also had lower average iron intake. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, OBGYNE / 11.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview With: Ruth C. E. Hughes Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of Otago, Christchurch Women’s Hospital Christchurch, New Zealand Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hughes: The increasing prevalence of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in women of childbearing age was the main driver behind our study.  In clinical practice, we were finding that women with probable undiagnosed diabetes (and pre-diabetes) had already started developing pregnancy complications at the time they were diagnosed with gestational diabetes diagnosis in the late second trimester. It seemed logical to try to identify them in early pregnancy, with the idea that they might benefit from earlier intervention.  We thus explored the usefulness of first trimester HbA1c measurements to identify women with unrecognised pre-existing diabetes. In our study, an HbA1c of 5.9% (41mmol/mol) was the optimal screening threshold for diabetes in early pregnancy.  We found that a threshold of 6.5% (48mmol/mol), which is endorsed by the World Health Organization and American Diabetes Association for diagnosing diabetes in pregnancy, would miss almost 50% of women with probable pre-existing diabetes.  Of great relevance, women with an early HbA1c of 5.9%-6.4% (41-46mmol/mol) had poorer pregnancy outcomes than those with an HbA1c <5.9% (<41mmol/mol), with a 2.5-3 fold higher relative risk of major congenital anomaly, preeclampsia, shoulder dystocia, and perinatal death.  These women were also more likely to deliver before 37 weeks gestation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition, OBGYNE / 21.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Audrey J. Gaskins, Sc.D. Postdoctoral Research Fellow Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answers: In our  large prospective cohort study, we found that higher adherence to several healthy dietary patterns (e.g. the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Fertility Diet) prior to pregnancy was not associated with risk of pregnancy loss. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, OBGYNE / 08.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steven Ball Telethon Kids Institute University of Western Australia West Perth, WA 6872, Australia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our study suggests that the amount of time between pregnancies has less of an effect on birth outcomes than previously thought. Relative to pregnancies that started 18-23 months after a previous birth, pregnancies that followed shorter spacing had very little increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight or small-for-gestational-age.  Longer pregnancy spacing showed increased risk of low birth weight and small-for-gestational-age, but not of preterm birth. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, OBGYNE / 24.07.2014

Jason D. Wright, M.D. Levine Family Assistant Professor of Women's Health Florence Irving Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Division of Gynecologic Oncology Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons 161 Fort Washington Ave, 8th Floor New York, New York 10032MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jason D. Wright, M.D. Levine Family Assistant Professor of Women's Health Florence Irving Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Division of Gynecologic Oncology Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons 161 Fort Washington Ave, New York, New York 10032 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wright: This study is one of the first large scale studies to examine the risk of cancer specifically in women who underwent hysterectomy with electric power morcellation. Among 32,000 women treated at over 500 hospitals across the US we noted cancer in 27 per 10,000 women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, OBGYNE / 22.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Donna Parker, Sc.D., FAHA Director of Community Health and Research Center for Primary Care and Prevention Memorial Hospital of RI Pawtucket, RI 02860 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main findings of the study are that women with a history of one or more miscarriages or one or more stillbirths appear to be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We found that the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for coronary heart disease for one or more stillbirths was 1.27 (95 percent CI, 1.07-1.51) compared with no stillbirth; for women with a history of one miscarriage, the odds ratio was 1.19 (95 percent CI, 1.08-1.32); and for women with a history of two or more miscarriages, the odds ratio was 1.18 (95 percent CI, 1.04-1.34) compared with no miscarriage. However, we did not find a significant association of ischemic stroke and pregnancy loss. The association between pregnancy loss and CHD appeared to be independent of hypertension, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and white blood cell count. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, JAMA, OBGYNE / 19.07.2014

Jared Baeten, MD PhD Professor, Departments of Global Health and Medicine Adjunct Professor, Department of Epidemiology University of Washington Seattle, WA 98104MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jared Baeten, MD PhD Professor, Departments of Global Health and Medicine Adjunct Professor, Department of Epidemiology University of Washington Seattle, WA 98104 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Baeten: Among heterosexual African couples in which the male was HIV positive and the female was not, receipt of antiretroviral pre-exposure preventive (PrEP) therapy did not result in significant differences in pregnancy incidence, birth outcomes, and infant growth compared to females who received placebo. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 08.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Olds, Ph.D. Professor of Pediatrics and Director Prevention Research Center for Family and Child Health University of Colorado Department of Pediatrics Aurora, Colorado   80045MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Olds, Ph.D. Professor of Pediatrics and Director Prevention Research Center for Family and Child Health University of Colorado Department of Pediatrics Aurora, Colorado   80045 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Olds: We’ve conducted a randomized controlled trial of a program of nurse home visiting for low-income women with no previous live firths during pregnancy and the first two years of the child’s life, with randomization of participants beginning in 1990. In our most recent follow-up of mothers and children in Memphis, those who received nurse-visitation were less likely to have died over a 2-decade period following the child’s birth than those in the control group.  Death among mothers and children in these age ranges in the US is rare and extraordinarily important for what it tells us about the health of the population studied in this trial. For children, the reduction in death was present for preventable causes, that is, sudden infant death syndrome, injuries, and homicide.  All of the child deaths for preventable causes were in the control group, for whom the rate was 1.6%.  None of the nurse-visited children died of preventable causes. The reductions in maternal mortality were found for two nurse-visited groups combined for this report: one received prenatal and newborn visitation and a second received visitation during pregnancy and through child age two.  Overall, mothers assigned to the control group were nearly 3 times more likely to die than those assigned to the two nurse-visited conditions.  The relative reduction in maternal mortality was particularly pronounced for deaths linked to maternal behaviors -- suicide, drug overdose, injuries, and homicide; for these external causes of death, 1.7% of the mothers in the control group had died, compared to 0.2% of those visited by nurses. (more…)
Diabetes, Endocrinology, OBGYNE / 26.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Anju Joham PhD student, SPHPM Endocrinologist, Monash Health MedicalResearch: What is the background for your study? Dr. Joham: This research led by Professor Helena Teede and Dr Anju Joham, from the School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine at Monash University analysed a large-scale epidemiological study, called the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women’s Health (ALSWH). Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a condition affecting nearly 20% of Australian women. Women with PCOS may experience irregular menstrual cycles, reduced fertility, increased risk of diabetes, high cholesterol and psychological features such as depression and reduced quality of life. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Joham:   Approximately 6000 women aged between 25-30 years were monitored for nine years, including nearly 500 women with diagnosed PCOS. Our research found that there is a clear link between PCOS and type 2 diabetes. The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes was three to five times higher in women with PCOS. In analysing the key contributing factors to the increased diabetes risk, we found that having PCOS was in itself a key contributing factor. (more…)