Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Race/Ethnic Diversity, UCSF / 12.11.2014

Paula Braveman, MD, MPH Director, Center on Social Disparities in Health Professor, Family and Community Medicine University of California San Francisco San Francisco, CA 94118 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Paula Braveman, MD, MPH Director, Center on Social Disparities in Health Professor, Family and Community Medicine University of California San Francisco San Francisco, CA 94118 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Braveman: There were a couple of striking findings from this study of preterm birth (PTB) among non-Latino White and Black women born in the U.S.. First, we found that women who were poor or socioeconomically disadvantaged in other ways (who had not or whose parents had not graduated from high school or who lived in neighborhoods (census tracts) with highly concentrated (25% or more of residents) poverty) had similarly high preterm birth rates. In addition, we found that while preterm birth rates among White women consistently improved as their socioeconomic status (SES) improved, higher-SES Black women generally did no better –and sometimes did worse—than lower-SES Black women. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Diabetes, OBGYNE / 30.10.2014

Dr. Cora Peterson PhD Health Economist at Centers for Disease Control MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr. Cora Peterson PhD Health Economist at Centers for Disease Control Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Peterson: Women with pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) have increased risk for adverse birth outcomes. Preconception care for women with pregestational diabetes mellitus reduces the frequency of such outcomes, most likely by improving glycemic control before and during the critical first weeks of pregnancy. Preconception care for women with pregestational diabetes mellitus includes the following activities:
  • medical or dietary blood sugar control, blood sugar monitoring, screening and treatment of complications due to diabetes,
  • counseling and education about the risks of diabetes in pregnancy, and
  • using effective birth control or contraceptives until appropriate levels of blood sugar are achieved.
In this study, CDC researchers estimated the number of preterm births, birth defects, and perinatal deaths (death between the time a baby is at least 20 weeks old in the mother’s womb to one week after the baby is born) that could be prevented and the money that could potentially be saved if preconception care was available to and used by all women with pregestational diabetes mellitus before pregnancy. Researchers estimated about 2.2% of births (88,081 births each year) in the United States are to women with pregestational diabetes mellitus, including women who know they have diabetes before they become pregnant and those who are unaware they have diabetes. Preconception care before pregnancy among women with known pregestational diabetes mellitus could potentially generate benefits of up to $4.3 billion by preventing preterm births, birth defects, and perinatal deaths. Up to an additional $1.2 billion in benefits could be produced if women who do not know they have diabetes were diagnosed and received preconception care. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Infections, OBGYNE / 27.10.2014

Prof. Zvi Laron Professor Emeritus of Pediatric Endocrinology TAU's Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Director of the Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel Head of the WHO Collaborating Center for the Study of Diabetes in Youth MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Zvi Laron Professor Emeritus of Pediatric Endocrinology TAU's Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Director of the Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel Head WHO Collaborating Center for the Study of Diabetes in Youth Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? What was most surprising about results? Prof. Laron: The main findings were the finding of specific antibodies to the pancreatic insulin secreting beta cells together with antibodies against rota-virus in both the mother at delivery and in the newborn's cord blood. We were not surprised, but pleased to find proof to our hypothesis that part, if not the majority of childhood onset Type 1 (autoimmune diabetes) starts "in utero". (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Environmental Risks, OBGYNE, Pulmonary Disease / 22.10.2014

Medical Research Interview with: Eva Morales, MD, PhD, MPH Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL) Barcelona Biomedical Research Park Barcelona, Spain Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Morales: We aimed to assess the consequences of exposure to outdoor air pollution during specific trimesters of pregnancy and postnatal lifetime periods on lung function in preschool children. We conducted a longitudinal study by using data from 620 mother-child pairs participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project – a population-based cohort study set up in several geographic areas in Spain. We found that exposure to outdoor air pollution during the second trimester of pregnancy in particular raises the risk of harm to a child’s lung function at preschool age. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Surgical Research / 08.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jason D. Wright, M.D. Sol Goldman Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Chief, Division of Gynecologic Oncology Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons New York, New York 10032 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wright: The use of robotic assisted ovarian surgery (oophorectomy and cystectomy) has increased rapidly and compared to laparoscopic alternatives, robotically assisted surgery is associated with a small increase in complication rates and substantially greater costs. (more…)
Author Interviews, NEJM, OBGYNE / 03.10.2014

Dr. Jeff Peipert MD, PhD Institute for Public Health Robert J. Terry Professor, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, School of Medicine Washington University in St. Louis MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jeff Peipert MD, PhD Institute for Public Health Robert J. Terry Professor, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, School of Medicine Washington University in St. Louis Medical Research: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Peipert: In the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, over 70% of teenage girls and women who were provided no-cost contraception and were educated about the effectiveness and benefits of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods selected the intrauterine device (IUD) or contraceptive implant. This group of over 1400 young women aged 15-19 years had rates of pregnancy, birth, and abortion that were far below national rates for sexually experienced teens. (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, General Medicine, OBGYNE / 26.09.2014

Rebecca J. Schmidt, M.S., Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Public Health Sciences The MIND Institute School of Medicine University of California Davis Davis, California 95616-8638 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rebecca J. Schmidt, M.S., Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Public Health Sciences The MIND Institute School of Medicine University of California Davis Davis, California 95616-8638 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schmidt: Women who had children with autism reported taking iron supplements during pregnancy and breastfeeding less often than women who children who were typically developing. Mothers of children with autism also had lower average iron intake. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, OBGYNE / 11.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview With: Ruth C. E. Hughes Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of Otago, Christchurch Women’s Hospital Christchurch, New Zealand Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hughes: The increasing prevalence of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in women of childbearing age was the main driver behind our study. In clinical practice, we were finding that women with probable undiagnosed diabetes (and pre-diabetes) had already started developing pregnancy complications at the time they were diagnosed with gestational diabetes diagnosis in the late second trimester. It seemed logical to try to identify them in early pregnancy, with the idea that they might benefit from earlier intervention. We thus explored the usefulness of first trimester HbA1c measurements to identify women with unrecognised pre-existing diabetes. In our study, an HbA1c of 5.9% (41mmol/mol) was the optimal screening threshold for diabetes in early pregnancy. We found that a threshold of 6.5% (48mmol/mol), which is endorsed by the World Health Organization and American Diabetes Association for diagnosing diabetes in pregnancy, would miss almost 50% of women with probable pre-existing diabetes. Of great relevance, women with an early HbA1c of 5.9%-6.4% (41-46mmol/mol) had poorer pregnancy outcomes than those with an HbA1c <5.9% (<41mmol/mol), with a 2.5-3 fold higher relative risk of major congenital anomaly, preeclampsia, shoulder dystocia, and perinatal death. These women were also more likely to deliver before 37 weeks gestation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition, OBGYNE / 21.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Audrey J. Gaskins, Sc.D. Postdoctoral Research Fellow Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answers: In our large prospective cohort study, we found that higher adherence to several healthy dietary patterns (e.g. the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Fertility Diet) prior to pregnancy was not associated with risk of pregnancy loss. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, OBGYNE / 08.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steven Ball Telethon Kids Institute University of Western Australia West Perth, WA 6872, Australia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our study suggests that the amount of time between pregnancies has less of an effect on birth outcomes than previously thought. Relative to pregnancies that started 18-23 months after a previous birth, pregnancies that followed shorter spacing had very little increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight or small-for-gestational-age. Longer pregnancy spacing showed increased risk of low birth weight and small-for-gestational-age, but not of preterm birth. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, OBGYNE / 24.07.2014

Jason D. Wright, M.D. Levine Family Assistant Professor of Women's Health Florence Irving Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Division of Gynecologic Oncology Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons 161 Fort Washington Ave, 8th Floor New York, New York 10032 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jason D. Wright, M.D. Levine Family Assistant Professor of Women's Health Florence Irving Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Division of Gynecologic Oncology Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons 161 Fort Washington Ave, New York, New York 10032 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wright: This study is one of the first large scale studies to examine the risk of cancer specifically in women who underwent hysterectomy with electric power morcellation. Among 32,000 women treated at over 500 hospitals across the US we noted cancer in 27 per 10,000 women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, OBGYNE / 22.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Donna Parker, Sc.D., FAHA Director of Community Health and Research Center for Primary Care and Prevention Memorial Hospital of RI Pawtucket, RI 02860 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main findings of the study are that women with a history of one or more miscarriages or one or more stillbirths appear to be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We found that the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for coronary heart disease for one or more stillbirths was 1.27 (95 percent CI, 1.07-1.51) compared with no stillbirth; for women with a history of one miscarriage, the odds ratio was 1.19 (95 percent CI, 1.08-1.32); and for women with a history of two or more miscarriages, the odds ratio was 1.18 (95 percent CI, 1.04-1.34) compared with no miscarriage. However, we did not find a significant association of ischemic stroke and pregnancy loss. The association between pregnancy loss and CHD appeared to be independent of hypertension, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and white blood cell count. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, JAMA, OBGYNE / 19.07.2014

Jared Baeten, MD PhD Professor, Departments of Global Health and Medicine Adjunct Professor, Department of Epidemiology University of Washington Seattle, WA 98104 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jared Baeten, MD PhD Professor, Departments of Global Health and Medicine Adjunct Professor, Department of Epidemiology University of Washington Seattle, WA 98104 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Baeten: Among heterosexual African couples in which the male was HIV positive and the female was not, receipt of antiretroviral pre-exposure preventive (PrEP) therapy did not result in significant differences in pregnancy incidence, birth outcomes, and infant growth compared to females who received placebo. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 08.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Olds, Ph.D. Professor of Pediatrics and Director Prevention Research Center for Family and Child Health University of Colorado Department of Pediatrics Aurora, Colorado 80045 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Olds, Ph.D. Professor of Pediatrics and Director Prevention Research Center for Family and Child Health University of Colorado Department of Pediatrics Aurora, Colorado 80045 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Olds: We’ve conducted a randomized controlled trial of a program of nurse home visiting for low-income women with no previous live firths during pregnancy and the first two years of the child’s life, with randomization of participants beginning in 1990. In our most recent follow-up of mothers and children in Memphis, those who received nurse-visitation were less likely to have died over a 2-decade period following the child’s birth than those in the control group. Death among mothers and children in these age ranges in the US is rare and extraordinarily important for what it tells us about the health of the population studied in this trial. For children, the reduction in death was present for preventable causes, that is, sudden infant death syndrome, injuries, and homicide. All of the child deaths for preventable causes were in the control group, for whom the rate was 1.6%. None of the nurse-visited children died of preventable causes. The reductions in maternal mortality were found for two nurse-visited groups combined for this report: one received prenatal and newborn visitation and a second received visitation during pregnancy and through child age two. Overall, mothers assigned to the control group were nearly 3 times more likely to die than those assigned to the two nurse-visited conditions. The relative reduction in maternal mortality was particularly pronounced for deaths linked to maternal behaviors -- suicide, drug overdose, injuries, and homicide; for these external causes of death, 1.7% of the mothers in the control group had died, compared to 0.2% of those visited by nurses. (more…)
Diabetes, Endocrinology, OBGYNE / 26.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Anju Joham PhD student, SPHPM Endocrinologist, Monash Health MedicalResearch: What is the background for your study? Dr. Joham: This research led by Professor Helena Teede and Dr Anju Joham, from the School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine at Monash University analysed a large-scale epidemiological study, called the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women’s Health (ALSWH). Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a condition affecting nearly 20% of Australian women. Women with PCOS may experience irregular menstrual cycles, reduced fertility, increased risk of diabetes, high cholesterol and psychological features such as depression and reduced quality of life. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Joham: Approximately 6000 women aged between 25-30 years were monitored for nine years, including nearly 500 women with diagnosed PCOS. Our research found that there is a clear link between PCOS and type 2 diabetes. The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes was three to five times higher in women with PCOS. In analysing the key contributing factors to the increased diabetes risk, we found that having PCOS was in itself a key contributing factor. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, OBGYNE / 23.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ali Abbara Imperial College London, United Kingdom Dr. Abbara: What are the main findings of the study? MedicalResearch: We found that a novel blood test for kisspeptin was able to identify asymptomatic pregnant women who were at increased risk of subsequent miscarriage. Blood kisspeptin performed better than the more commonly measured pregnancy hormone BHCG in identifying women at increased risk of miscarriage. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Heart Disease, NEJM, OBGYNE / 19.06.2014

Dr. Krista Huybrechts MD PhD Brigham & Women’s Hospital Department of Medicine Division of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics Boston, MA 02120 MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Dr. Krista Huybrechts MD PhD Brigham & Women’s Hospital Department of Medicine Division of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics Boston, MA 02120 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Huybrechts: In this cohort study including 949,504 pregnant women enrolled in Medicaid, we examined whether the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with increased risks for congenital cardiac defects. In order to control for potential confounding by depression and associated factors, we restricted the cohort to women with a depression diagnosis and used propensity score adjustment to control for depression severity and other potential confounders. We found no substantial increased risk of cardiac malformations attributable to SSRIs. Relative risks for any cardiac defect were 1.25 (95%CI, 1.13-1.38) unadjusted, 1.12 (1.00-1.26) depression-restricted, and 1.06 (0.93-1.22) depression-restricted and fully-adjusted. We found no significant associations between the use of paroxetine and right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (1.07, 0.59-1.93), or the use of sertraline and ventricular septal defects (1.04, 0.76-1.41); two potential associations that had been of particular concern based on previous research findings. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, OBGYNE / 17.06.2014

Sergio R. Ojeda, D.V.M. Division Head and Senior Scientist Division of Neuroscience Division of Neuroscience, OR National Primate Research Center/Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton OR 97006 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sergio R. Ojeda, D.V.M. Division Head and Senior Scientist Division of Neuroscience Division of Neuroscience, OR National Primate Research Center/Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton OR 97006 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ojeda: The study shows that a receptor for two growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] and neurotrophin 4/5 [NT4/5]) that are known to be important for development of the nervous system is also essential for maintaining oocyte integrity and survival in the mammalian ovary. Intriguingly, the full-length form of this receptor (known as NTRK2-FL) is not expressed in oocytes until the time of the first ovulation. At this time, the pre-ovulatory gonadotropin discharge stimulates granulosa cells of ovarian follicles to produce not only more BDNF, but also more of a peptide known as kisspeptin, to induce the formation of NTRK2-FL in oocytes. To date, kisspeptin was known to be only critical for the hypothalamic control of reproduction. To induce NTRK2-FL, BDNF binds to truncated NTRK2 receptors (NTRK2-T1), which are abundant in oocytes throughout prepubertal development. Kisspeptin, on the other hand, does so by activating its receptor KISS1R, also expressed in oocytes. Once present after the first ovulation, NTRK2-FL is able to activate a survival pathway in oocytes following gonadotropin stimulation, presumably at every cycle. In the absence of NTRK2-FL, oocytes die, follicular structure disintegrates and a condition of premature ovarian failure ensues. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dartmouth, OBGYNE / 11.06.2014

Rachel Thompson PhD Postdoctoral Research Fellow The Dartmouth Center for Health Care Delivery Science Dartmouth College MedicalResearch.com: Interview with Rachel Thompson PhD Postdoctoral Research Fellow The Dartmouth Center for Health Care Delivery Science Dartmouth College MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Thompson: This study, which surveyed 417 women aged 15-45 years and 188 contraceptive care providers in 2013, found important differences in what matters most to these two groups when it comes to discussing and deciding on a contraceptive method. Women’s most important question when choosing a contraceptive was “Is it safe?” – this was in the top three questions for 42% of women but only 21% of providers. Alternatively, providers’ most important question was “How is it used?”. Information on side effects and how a method actually works to prevent pregnancy was also a higher priority for women than for providers. (more…)
Author Interviews, FASEB, Nutrition, OBGYNE / 06.06.2014

Antonio E. Frias, MD Associate Professor | Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine Oregon Health & Science University Director, Diabetes and Pregnancy Program Assistant Scientist | Oregon National Primate Research Center Portland, Oregon 97239 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Antonio E. Frias, MD Associate Professor | Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine Oregon Health & Science University Director, Diabetes and Pregnancy Program Assistant Scientist | Oregon National Primate Research Center Portland, Oregon 97239 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Frias: Resveratrol supplementation in pregnant nonhuman primates fed a Western-style diet improved maternal metabolism, restored placental blood flow, reduced placental inflammation and improved lipid deposition in the fetal liver. However, there was an unexpected disruption of fetal pancreatic development that is very concerning. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, OBGYNE / 02.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with : Dr. Francesco Fiorentino MedicalResearch.com Interview with : Dr. Francesco Fiorentino CEO and Lab Director ROME - ITALY MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Fiorentino: This study describes findings from first and second of a three-phase strategy to validate the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for comprehensive aneuploidy screening, as a preclinical step toward its routine use in the diagnosis of chromosomal aneuploidy on embryos. The first phase involved a large preclinical validation study on single cells, and demonstrated that the NGS-based 24-aneuploidy screening protocol was accurate and reliable. The results provided 100% consistency for aneuploid embryo call with array-CGH, the highly validated method of aneuploidy screening. The second phase of the study, instead, focused on the clinical application of the NGS-based protocol for the detection of all chromosomes in embryos. A prospective trial involving analysis of human embryos at the blastocyst stage of development was designed for this purpose, in order to establish similar levels of chromosome-specific NGS copy number assignment concordance compared with 24sure array as those observed in the first phase of the study. Consistency of NGS-based aneuploidy detection was assessed matching the results obtained with array-CGH–based diagnoses, Embryos obtained from 55 consecutive clinical PGS cycles, blindly assessed in parallel with both NGS and array-CGH techniques, displayed 100% concordance for aneuploid embryo call. Consistency obtained during this investigation was similar to those obtained in the first phase of the study that used NGS to examine single cell samples, demonstrating the reliability of the NGS-based method in detection of chromosome aneuploidy also in embryos at blastocyst stage derived from clinical preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) cycles. The clinical outcomes obtained in this study from preimplantation genetic screening cycles performed with the NGS approach were very encouraging, resulting in a clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer of 63.8% (mean age 38.5+2.1 years) and an ongoing implantation rate of 64.0%, values that are comparable with recent results from other comprehensive chromosome screening approaches. In conclusion, the results achieved in this study demonstrate the reliability of the NGS-based protocol for detection of whole chromosome aneuploidies, mosaicism occurrences and segmental changes in embryos. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, OBGYNE, Vaccine Studies / 29.05.2014

Ai Kubo, MPH PhD Kaiser Permanente Division of Research 2000 Broadway Oakland, CA 94612 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ai Kubo, MPH PhD Kaiser Permanente Division of Research 2000 Broadway Oakland, CA 94612 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kubo: The main findings of the study are three folds: 1) The CDC guideline works for the majority of infants in preventing vertical transmission, if the immunizations are done according to the recommended schedule. 2) It takes an organized effort to case-manage each mother-infant pairs in order to achieve almost complete immunization rates and very low transmission rates. 3) Highest risk group was mothers with extremely high viral load and e-antigen positivity. This group of women may benefit from additional therapy to prevent the vertical transmission. However, for others, the risk of transmission is extremely low as long as the infants are immunized according to the guideline. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, OBGYNE / 22.05.2014

Wei Bao MD, PhD Postdoc fellow, Epidemiology Branch Division of Intramural Population Health Research NICHD/National Institutes of Health Rockville, MD 20852 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wei Bao MD, PhD Postdoc fellow, Epidemiology Branch Division of Intramural Population Health Research NICHD/National Institutes of Health Rockville, MD 20852 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wei Bao: This study, to our knowledge, is the first attempt to examine the associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which is a high-risk population of T2DM. The main findings are: (1) Physical activity is inversely associated with risk of progression from GDM to T2DM. Each 5-metabolic equivalent hours per week increment of total physical activity, which is equivalent to 100 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity or 50 minutes per week of vigorous physical activity, was related to a 9% lower risk of T2DM; this inverse association remained significant after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI). (2) An increase in physical activity is associated with a lower risk of progression from gestational diabetes mellitus to T2DM. Compared with women who maintained their total physical activity levels, women who increased their total physical activity levels by 7.5 MET-h/wk or more (equivalent to 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activityor 75 minutes per week of vigorous physical activity) had a 47% lower risk of T2DM; the association remained significant after additional adjustment for BMI. (3) Prolonged time spent watching TV, as a common sedentary behavior, is associated with an increased risk of progression from gestational diabetes mellitus to T2DM. Compared with women who watched TV 0 to 5 hours per week, those watched TV 6 to 10, 11 to 20, and 20 or more hours per week had 28%, 41%, and 77%, respectively, higher risk of T2DM. The association was no longer significant after additional adjustment for BMI. (more…)
ADHD, Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Smoking / 21.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nathalie E. Holz, MA Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Holz: Using data from a prospective community sample followed since birth, we investigated the impact of prenatal maternal smoking on lifetime Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and on brain structure and inhibitory control assessed with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the adult offspring. Those who were prenatally exposed to tobacco not only exhibited more ADHD symptoms, but also showed decreased activity in the inhibitory control network encompassing the inferior frontal gyrus as well as the anterior cingulate cortex. Activity in these regions was inversely related to lifetime ADHD symptoms and novelty seeking, respectively. In addition volume in the inferior frontal gyrus was decreased in these participants. (more…)
Author Interviews, Baylor College of Medicine Houston, JAMA, OBGYNE, Vaccine Studies / 16.05.2014

Flor M. Munoz, MD Department of Pediatrics Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Flor M. Munoz, MD Department of Pediatrics Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Munoz: 1. Tdap vaccine was safe and well tolerated during pregnancy 2. Women who are pregnant have adequate responses to the Tdap vaccine, similar to those of women who are not pregnant. 3. Antibodies to pertussis are efficiently transferred to the fetus through the placenta so that babies of mothers who were vaccinated during pregnancy had significantly higher concentrations of antibody at birth and up to 2 months of age, when compared to infants of mothers who were vaccinated post-partum. 4. Higher antibody concentrations in the first two months of life are likely to provide protection against pertussis during this period of high vulnerability 5. Infants of mothers who were vaccinated during pregnancy had adequate responses to their routine pertussis vaccines at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, and had expected and adequate responses to their 4th dose of vaccine at 1 year of age. The absolute concentration of antibodies to some of the pertussis antigens might be modestly lower after the primary series of vaccines in some infants of mothers who were vaccinated during pregnancy, but this difference does not persist after the 4th dose. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, CMAJ, OBGYNE / 13.05.2014

Professor, Full SGS Member Director, Clinical Epidemiology Unit Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre G106-2075 Bayview Avenue Toronto, ON Dr. Donald Redelmeier, MD Professor, Full SGS Member Director, Clinical Epidemiology Unit Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Toronto, ON MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Redelmeier: We identified every woman in Ontario, Canada, who gave birth to a newborn baby between 2006 and 2011 and then evaluated each driver for the months before, during, and after pregnancy. This amounted to about half a million women who accounted for almost 8000 serious crashes that sent the driver to hospital. We found that the second trimester of pregnancy led to a 42% increase in the risk of a serious motor vehicle crash. The increased risk included diverse populations, distinct obstetrical cases, different crash characteristics. The risk equated to about twice the population norm but was still below male drivers at this age. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, OBGYNE / 05.05.2014

Jessica A. Grieger (BSc(hons), R Nutr, PhD) Post-doctoral research fellow Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jessica A. Grieger (BSc(hons), R Nutr, PhD) Post-doctoral research fellow Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Grieger: The study aimed to identify associations between maternal dietary patterns in the 12 months before conception on fetal growth and preterm delivery. We report that a one standard deviation increase in the scores on the high-protein/fruit pattern was associated with decreased likelihood for preterm birth, whereas a one standard deviation increase on the high-fat/sugar/takeaway pattern was associated with increased likelihood for preterm birth as well as shorter gestation and birth length. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, BMJ, OBGYNE / 30.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Kate Bramham Division of Women's Health King's College London Women's Health Academic Centre KHP London, SE1 7ER MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bramham: This meta-analysis of nearly 800,000 pregnancies from 55 studies has shown that women with chronic hypertension have a significantly increased incidence of pregnancy complications including superimposed pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery, low birth weight infants, perinatal loss and neonatal unit admission. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, OBGYNE / 28.04.2014

Professor Khalid Khan MMEd, MRCOG, MSc, FCPS, MBBS Women's Health Research Unit | Multi-disciplinary Evidence Synthesis Hub The Blizard Institute | 58 Turner Street | London | E1 2AB MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Khalid Khan MMEd, MRCOG, MSc, FCPS, MBBS Women's Health Research Unit | Multi-disciplinary Evidence Synthesis Hub The Blizard Institute | 58 Turner Street | London | E1 2AB MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Khan: The risk of cesarean section was 12% lower among women undergoing induction of labor in comparison to the one that were managed expectantly. The subgroup comparison showed that the effect was significant in term and post-term however not in preterm gestations. Furthermore, induction of labor was associated with 50% and 14% reduction in risk of fetal death and admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, respectively. (more…)