Author Interviews, Diabetes, OBGYNE, Weight Research / 16.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katherine Bowers, PhD, MPH Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology Cincinnati Children's Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Bowers: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1 in 68 children and the prevalence continues to rise. Past studies have suggested that conditions experienced by women during pregnancy (for example, obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)) may be associated with having a child with ASD. We collected medical record data from patients who resided in the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center’s primary catchment area and linked those data to data from birth certificates to identify metabolic risk factors. Two comparison groups were analyzed; one with developmental disabilities; and the other, controls without a reported ASD or other developmental disability. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses evaluated differences. We found that maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus were associated with an increased risk of Autism spectrum disorder in the offspring; however, no difference in risk of Autism spectrum disorder according to BMI and GDM was seen when comparing to the group with other developmental disabilities. The strongest observed association was the joint effect of obesity and GDM (compared to neither obesity nor GDM) :OR=2.53 (95% CI: 1.72, 3.73). (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 12.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maria C. Magnus Norwegian Institute of Public Health Oslo Norway Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Researchers have found that developing asthma can be linked to pregnant women and infants being exposed to paracetamol, (acetaminophen) by testing that the association was not simply linked to the complaint for which the person is taking paracetamol. The findings were published in the International Journal of Epidemiology Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, researchers in Norway compared associations between several conditions during pregnancy (with and without the use of paracetamol) and asthma developing in the 114,500 children in the study. They examined asthma outcomes at ages three and seven and evaluated the likelihood of the association being as a result of the three most common uses of paracetamol in pregnancy: pain, fever, and influenza. The results showed that 5.7 per cent of the children had current asthma at age three, and 5.1 per cent had asthma at age seven. The research found that there was a strong link between children who had asthma at age three who had been exposed to paracetamol as during pregnancy or infancy. The strongest association was seen if the mother used paracetamol during pregnancy for more than one complaint with a child having asthma at three years old. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Flu - Influenza, OBGYNE, Vaccine Studies / 04.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ikwo Oboho, MD, ScMLCDR United States Public Health Service Medical Epidemiologist, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionPriority Populations Treatment Team| HIV Care & Treatment Branch | Division of Global HIV/TB Atlanta, GA 30333 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Oboho: ·Pregnant women with flu are at high risk of serious illness and complications, including death. The study is based on data gathered from a nationwide flu surveillance network that includes 14 states. The analysis focused on pregnant women hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed flu over four recent flu seasons, from 2010 to 2014. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Dr. Oboho: · During the study period, 865 pregnant women were hospitalized with flu. Sixty-three of these patients, or about 7 percent, had severe illness.
  • After adjusting for underlying medical conditions, vaccination status, and pregnancy trimester, we found that early treatment with the antiviral drug oseltamivir was associated with a shorter hospital stay.
  • Among pregnant women with severe flu illness who were treated early with oseltamivir — within two days of the start of symptoms — the median length of stay was about five days shorter compared to hospitalized pregnant women with severe flu illness who were treated later
  • Pregnant women who were hospitalized with severe cases of flu illness were half as likely to have been vaccinated as women with non-severe illness.
(more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Rheumatology, Stanford / 03.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Julia Fridman Simard ScD Assistant Professor Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research & Policy Division of Immunology & Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Stanford School of Medicine Dr. Julia Fridman Simard ScD Assistant Professor Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research & Policy Division of Immunology & Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Stanford School of Medicine Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Simard: A number of studies have shown that women with lupus who get pregnant have more complications and adverse outcomes, although the methodologies across studies vary considerably. Using population-based data we were able compare the occurrence of these pregnancy complications in mothers with lupus to pregnancies from the general population. We were also interested in whether women in our data set who first presented with lupus up to five years post-partum had more pregnancy-related adverse events. Our descriptive study showed that preterm delivery, infant infection, and preeclampsia were more common in the first singleton pregnancies of women with lupus compared to the general population. These outcomes were also observed more often among women who appeared to present with lupus up to five years post-partum. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Kaiser Permanente, OBGYNE / 01.02.2016

MEDICALRESEARCH.COM INTERVIEW WITH: KRISTI REYNOLDS, PHD, MPH KAISER PERMANENTE RESEARCH RESEARCH & EVALUATION PASADENA, CA 91101 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Reynolds: Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are common, affecting up to 10 percent of all pregnant women, and include gestational hypertension, preeclampsia (which is a combination of high blood pressure and protein in the urine), and eclampsia, which includes seizures in women with severe preeclampsia. Research has shown that hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are associated with long-term cardiovascular disease risk, but little is known about the effect of these conditions in the early years after delivery. As part of our study, we examined the electronic health records of 5,960 women who had prenatal care and delivered a baby at the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Bellflower Medical Center between 2005 and 2010. Women with high blood pressure before their pregnancy were excluded from the analysis. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Reynolds: We found that women who had a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy were 2.4 times more likely – and women with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia 2.5 times more likely – to develop pre-hypertension or hypertension in the year after delivery than those who maintained a normal blood pressure during their pregnancy, after controlling for differences between the groups. In comparison to women with normal blood pressure during pregnancy, women with pregnancy-related hypertension tended to be slightly younger and overweight or obese before pregnancy. In addition, they were more likely to have had one or more children previously and to gain excess weight and develop gestational diabetes during their pregnancy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Microbiome, Nature, NYU, OBGYNE / 01.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maria Dominguez-Bello, PhD Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Division of Translational Medicine NYU Langone Medical Center and Jose Clemente, PhD Assistant Professor, Departments of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, and Medicine Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai   Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Humans and animals are a composite of their own cells and microbes. But where they get their microbes from? For mammals, labor and birth are major exposures to maternal vaginal bacteria, and infants are born already with a microbiota acquired from the mother. Mom’s birth canal is heavily colonized by bacteria that are highly related to milk: some will use milk components and become dominant during early development, an important window for maturation of the immune system, the intestine and the brain. Thus, the maternal vaginal microbiota is thought to be of high adaptive value for newborn mammals. Indeed, studies in mice confirm that microbes acquired at birth are important to develop adequate immune and metabolic responses, and the mature adult microbiome will continue to modulate host metabolism and immunity. Humans are the only mammals that interrupt the exposure to maternal vaginal microbiota, by delivering babies by Cesarean section. C-sections save lives of babies and moms, and they are estimated necessary in 10-15% of the cases. But most Western countries have rates above 30%, with the notable exception of the Scandinavian countries, Holland and Japan, which have excellent health systems and low maternal-infant mortality rates. Previous work by us an others has shown that infants born by C-section acquire different microbiota at birth, and those differences are sustained over time, altering the normal age-dependent maturation of the microbiome. The fundamental questions are then, can we restore the microbiota of Cesarean delivered babies? And if we can, does that reduce the associated disease risks? In relation to the first question, we present here the results of a pilot study in which infants born by Cesarean delivery were exposed to maternal vaginal fluids at birth. A total of 18 infants were recruited for the study. Seven of them were vaginally delivered, the remaining 11 were born by scheduled C-section. Among the C-section infants, 4 were exposed to maternal vaginal fluids at birth and 7 were not. We sampled all infants and their mothers for the first month of life across different body sites (oral, skin, anal, maternal vagina) and determined the microbiome composition on a total of over 1,500 samples. (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Vitamin D / 27.01.2016

More on Asthma on MedicalResearch.com MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hans Bisgaard, MD, DMSc Professor of Pediatrics The Faculty of Health Sciences University of Copenhagen Head of the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood University of Copenhagen and Naestved Hospital MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Bisgaard: Vitamin D deficiency has become a common health problem in westernized societies, possibly caused by a more sedentary indoor lifestyle and decreased intake of vitamin D containing foods. Vitamin D possesses a range of immune regulatory properties, and it has been speculated that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy may affect fetal immune programming and contribute to asthma pathogenesis. Asthma often begins in early childhood and is the most common chronic childhood disorder. Observational studies have suggested that increased dietary vitamin D intake during pregnancy may protect against wheezing in the offspring, but the preventive effect of vitamin D supplementation to pregnant women is unknown. In our double-blind, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted within the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood 2010 cohort we supplemented 2800 IU/d of vitamin D3 during the third trimester of pregnancy compared with 400 IU/d in the control group. Although the maternal supplementation did not result in a statistically significant reduction of risk of persistent wheeze in the offspring through age 3 years, the interpretation of the study is limited by a wide confidence interval that includes a clinically important protective effect. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 25.01.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jonathan Muraskas M.D. Professor of Pediatrics and OB/Gyne Neonatal and Maternal Fetal Medicine Director Neonatal-Perinatal Research Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine Loyola University Medical Center Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Muraskas: Multiple studies over the years have demonstrated that only 15% of cerebral palsy is due to the birthing process. In other words, a normal pregnancy is 7000 hours and lawyers frequently only focus on the last 2 hours. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Ovarian Cancer, Radiology / 22.01.2016

More on Ovarian Cancer on MedicalResearch.com MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dirk Timmerman, MD PhD Department of Development and Regeneration Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University Hospitals Leuven Leuven, Belgium Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Timmerman: Ovarian cancer is the most aggressive and lethal gynecological malignant neoplasm. The prognosis of ovarian cancer is poor, with only about 40% of patients still alive five years after being diagnosed. The preoperative characterization of an adnexal tumor is fundamental for selecting the optimal management strategy. An accurate differentiation between benign and malignant masses can lead to optimal referral of patients with malignant diseases to gynecological oncology centers for further diagnostics and treatment, which positively influences the prognosis. On the other hand, it may help in safely selecting patients with benign ovarian masses for minimally invasive or fertility sparing surgery, and in some cases maybe even conservative follow-up. The International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) study is the largest diagnostic accuracy study of its kind. Transvaginal ultrasound is a cheap and very accessible imaging technique. Using ultrasound features, which are easy to assess by a trained examiner, we proposed a model to define the individual risk of malignancy for each patient presenting with an adnexal tumor. This could considerably impact on the morbidity and mortality associated with adnexal pathology. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 19.01.2016

More on Obgyne on MedicalResearch.com MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sandra Schulte (candidate Medicine) University Hospital Bonn Dept. Ped. Endocrinology and Diabetology MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Low birth weight, unfavourable intrauterine conditions and post-natal catch-up-growth are associated with impaired growth, accelerated pubertal maturation and metabolic disturbances later in life. However, normally, study designs cannot rule out the influence of different genetic backgrounds and familiar environments between their subjects and control groups. Therefore, we recruited a very special study cohort, solely composed of monozygotic twins. These twins had significant differences in birthweight, due to twin-to-twin-transfusion-syndrome (TTTS). Because of irregular placental anastomoses, one twin, the recipient, receives more blood becoming hypertensive and polyuric, leading to polyhydramnios and ultimately congestive heart failure and hydrops fetalis. In contrast, the donor twin becomes hypovolemic, hypotensive and oliguric, leading to oligohydramnios and growth restriction. We followed 30 pairs of these twins regularly from birth up to this current follow-up at a mean age of 14.6 years, to examine the impact of a lower birthweight on auxologic development and pubertal maturation later in life. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cleveland Clinic, OBGYNE, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 15.01.2016

More on Racial Disparities in Health Care on MedicalResearch.com MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Emily A. DeFranco, D.O., M.S. Associate Professor Maternal-Fetal Medicine Center for Prevention of Preterm Birth, Perinatal Institute Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center University of Cincinnati College of Medicine Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Medical Sciences Building, Room 4553B Cincinnati, OH Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. DeFranco: The Infant Mortality Rate in the state of Ohio is higher than many other states. Additionally, there is a large disparity in the IMR with black infants impacted to a higher degree compared to white infants. For this reason, we are particularly interested in identifying factors that contribute to this disparity in order to identify potential areas where public health efforts can be focused. We know that preterm birth is a major contributor to infant mortality, and that all babies born alive prior to 23 weeks of gestational age, i.e. "previable", die after birth and contribute to the infant mortality rate. In this study, we wanted to assess whether black women are more likely to have early preterm births at less than 23 weeks, and if so whether that may be part of the explanation of why black mothers are at higher risk of experiencing an infant mortality. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. DeFranco: In this study, we found that black mothers were more likely to deliver than white mothers at very early preterm gestational ages, less than 23 weeks. We also found that the earlier the delivery, the larger the disparity with black mothers being at higher risk for the earliest deliveries compared to white mothers. From this data, we estimated that in Ohio, 44% of all infant mortality in black mothers is caused by previable preterm birth, whereas only 28% of infant mortality in white mothers is attributed to the same cause. We concluded that very early preterm birth in black mothers is a large contributor to the racial disparity observed in the infant mortality dilemma here in Ohio. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Diabetes, NIH, OBGYNE / 13.01.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cuilin Zhang MD, PhD Senior Investigator, Epidemiology Branch Division of Intramural Population Health Research NICHD/National Institutes of Health Rockville, MD 20852 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Zhang: Potatoes are the third most commonly consumed food crop in the world. In the United States, about 35% of women of reproductive age consume potatoes daily, accounting for 8% of daily total energy intake. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy characterized by glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM is at the center of a vicious circle of 'diabetes begets diabetes' across generations. Potato foods are typically higher in glycemic index and glycemic load, but data are lacking regarding whether potato consumption is associated with the risk of Gestational diabetes mellitus. Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Zhang: Women who eat more potatoes before pregnancy may have higher risk of gestational diabetes—the form of diabetes that occurs or first diagnosed during pregnancy—compared to women who consume fewer potatoes. Substituting potatoes with other vegetables, legumes or whole grains may help lower gestational diabetes risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 11.01.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Annie Gatewood Hoen, PhD Assistant Professor of Epidemiology and of Biomedical Data Science and Juliette Madan, MD, MS Associate Professor of Pediatrics The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center Lebanon, NH 03756 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: When newborns are delivered they begin the process of acquiring vast numbers of bacteria that are critical for healthy nutrition and for immune training for a lifetime of health. Diseases such as obesity, heart disease, colitis, autism, and even cancer risk is associated with particular patterns in the gut microbiota; interestingly breast milk exposure is associated with decreased risk of many of these diseases. The intestinal microbiome plays a critical role in development, and delivery mode (cesarean section versus vaginal delivery) and feeding method (breast milk vs. formula) are important determinants of microbiome patterns. We observed the intestinal microbiome in 6 week old infants and how it relates to delivery type and feeding. We were particularly interested in examining patterns in the microbiome in infants who received combination feeding of both breast milk and formula, an area that has been understudied. We prospectively studied 102 infants and, with gene sequencing of bacteria, identified important patterns in microbiome composition that differed greatly based upon delivery method and between feeding groups. Babies who were combination fed (formula and breast milk) had an intestinal microbiome that was more similar to babies who were exclusively formula fed than breast fed babies. We identified individual bacteria that were differentially abundant between delivery mode and feeding groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, OBGYNE, Pharmacology / 07.01.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Brittany M. Charlton, ScD Instructor Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School Researcher, Harvard Chan School Department of Epidemiology Boston, MA 02115 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Charlton: Even though oral contraceptives can be over 99% effective with perfect use, almost 10% of women become pregnant within their first year of use. Many more women will stop using oral contraceptives when planning a pregnancy and conceive within just a few months. In both of those examples, a woman may inadvertently expose her offspring during pregnancy to exogenous sex hormones. We conducted a nationwide cohort study in Denmark in order to investigate whether oral contraceptive use shortly before or during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of major birth defects in the offspring. Our main finding was that there was no increased risk of having a birth defect associated with oral contraceptive exposure. These results were also consistent when we broke down the birth defects into different subgroups, like limb defects. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, NEJM, OBGYNE / 06.01.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Stefan Verlohren, MD, PhD Consultant and Senior Lecturer Maternal-Fetal Medicine Klinik für Geburtsmedizin / Department of Obstetrics Charité Campus Mitte Berlin Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Verlohren: Preeclampsia affects 2–5% of pregnancies worldwide, and is a potentially life threatening syndrome for both mother and child. Treatment options for preeclampsia are very limited, with delivery being the only ‘cure’; however, early detection and monitoring are beneficial for improving maternal and fetal outcomes. Development of preeclampsia is very difficult to predict: its clinical presentation is variable and its signs and symptoms overlap with other conditions. There has been an unmet medical need for improved prediction of preeclampsia, i.e. predicting which women will develop preeclampsia and which will not. Women with suspected preeclampsia are often hospitalized until preeclampsia and related adverse outcomes are ruled out. Others who require hospitalization may be overlooked because their symptoms were nonspecific (e.g. headache). Preeclampsia has been linked with impaired function of the placenta. Placental development is highly dependent on blood vessel formation; before and during preeclampsia, levels of molecules involved in blood vessel inhibition or growth are altered in the maternal bloodstream. In particular, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) (a molecule that inhibits blood vessel growth) is increased and placental growth factor (PlGF) (a molecule that encourages blood vessel growth) is decreased. This study has established that the ratio of these two molecules (sFlt-1:PlGF) can be used to predict whether preeclampsia will develop or not. The sFlt-1:PlGF ratio can be calculated with a blood test (the Elecsys® sFlt-1 immunoassay and Elecsys® PlGF immunoassay). PROGNOSIS has validated the sFlt-1:PlGF ratio cutoff level of 38 for prediction of preeclampsia. For women with suspected preeclampsia, the Elecsys® immunoassay sFlt-1:PlGF ratio of 38 or below has a high negative predictive value to rule out preeclampsia or adverse fetal outcomes in the next week. A Elecsys® immunoassay sFlt-1:PlGF ratio of more than 38 indicates that preeclampsia or fetal adverse outcomes may develop in the next four weeks. In conjunction with other diagnostic and clinical information, the Elecsys® immunoassay sFlt-1:PlGF ratio can be used to guide patient management. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, OBGYNE, Pharmacology / 06.01.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anick Bérard PhD FISPE Research chair FRQ-S on Medications and Pregnancy and Director, Réseau Québécois de recherche sur le médicament (RQRM) and Professor, Research Chair on Medications, Pregnancy and Lactation Faculty of Pharmacy University of Montreal and Director, Research Unit on Medications and Pregnancy Research Center CHU Ste-Justine Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Bérard: Paroxetine (one of the most used antidepressant during pregnancy) has been studied extensively over the past 10-12 years. In 2005, a black box warning was put on the Paxil label to caution against use during pregnancy due to the increased risk of cardiac defects. The ACOG 2010 guidelines also suggested switching to other antidepressants during pregnancy. Over the past decade, many studies, including meta-analyses, were performed on on paroxetine use during pregnancy and the risk of cardiac malformations - but results were sometimes statistically significant or not, although a consistent increased risk was observed. It was thought that these variations could be explained by different study designs, patient populations, and because maternal depression was not always taken into account correctly. Hence, we undertook another meta-analysis (the most recent and updated) to quantify the risk of cardiac defects overall as well as specific cardiac defects associated with paoxetine use during pregnancy and to assess the impact of study designs, maternal depression and patient population on the effect of the risk. We found that women using paroxetine during the first trimester of pregnancy (critical time-window for malformations) were 23% more at risk of having a child with malformations (15 studies combined) - baseline risk of malformation is 3-5% and thus a 23% increased risk is 3.69-6.15% absolute risk; women using paroxetine during the first trimester of pregnancy were 28% more at risk of having a child with cardiac malformations (18 studies combined) - baseline risk of cardiac malformation is 1% and thus a 28% increased risk is 1.28% absolute risk. We found that paroxetine was increasing the risk of many specific cardiac defects as well. Although the estimates varied depending on the comparator group, study design, and malformation detection period, a trend towards increased risk was observed. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Cost of Health Care, Medicare, OBGYNE / 04.01.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Sarah Elizabeth Little, MD Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Brigham and Women's Hospital Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Little: This study investigates the variation in cesarean delivery rates across hospital services areas (a geographic unit designed by the Dartmouth Atlas to represent local markets for primarily hospital-based medical services). We looked at whether variation in cesarean delivery rates was related to broader variation in overall medical spending and utilization in that area, which we measured with Medicare spending and hospital use at the end-of-life. We found that an area’s cesarean delivery rate was correlated with these other measures; in other words, the hospital services areas that are doing the most cesarean deliveries are the same ones that are spending more and doing more to non-obstetric patients as well. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Surgical Research / 03.01.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gabriele Saccone, MD Department of Neuroscience Reproductive Sciences and Dentistry School of Medicine University of Naples Federico II Naples, Italy Vincenzo Berghella, MD Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine Thomas Jefferson University Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr Saccone: Preterm birth (PTB) is the number one cause of perinatal mortality in many countries, including the US. The annual societal economic burden associated with Preterm birth in the US was at least $26.2 billion in 2006, or about $51,600 per infant born preterm. Defining risk factors for prediction of PTB is an important goal for several reasons.
  • First, identifying women at risk allows initiation of risk-specific treatment.
  • Second, it may define a population useful for studying particular interventions.
  • Finally, it may provide important insights into mechanisms leading to Preterm birth.Prior surgery on the cervix, such as cone biopsy and LEEP procedures, is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous PTB. History of uterine evacuation for abortion, by either induced termination of pregnancy (I-TOP) or treatment of spontaneous abortion (SAB) by suction dilation and curettage (D&C) or by dilation and evacuation (D&E), which may involve mechanical and/or osmotic dilatation of the cervix, has been associated with an increased risk of PTB in some studies, but not in others. Our systematic review and meta-analysis pooled data from 36 studies including 1,047,683 women with prior abortion. We found that history of surgical abortion is an independent risk factor for Preterm birth and also other obstetric complications including low birth weight and small for gestational age, while prior medical abortion with first-trimester mifepristone or mid-trimester misoprostol was not associated with an increased risk of PTB. The biological plausibility to explain our findings is not completely clear. However, three main hypotheses can be made.
  • The increased risk of Preterm birth could result from the overt or covert infection following surgically uterine evacuation,
  • as well as from mechanical trauma to the cervix leading to increased risk of cervical insufficiency.
  • Moreover, surgical procedures including curettage during D&E may result in scar tissue that may increase the probability of faulty placental implantation.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Hospital Acquired, Infections, OBGYNE, Outcomes & Safety / 30.12.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Muhammad A. Halwani, MSc, PhD Faculty of Medicine, Al Baha University Al Baha, Saudi Arabia. Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The study idea was based on examining the current rate of post cesarean section infections that were detected in the hospital at the time. It was hypothesized that the detected infections were actually less than the real number identified. Therefore, we challenged the traditional surveillance method that was applied in the hospital with a new enhanced methodology which is telephone follow-ups for patients who under go C-section operations. Our main finding proved that this new applied method was able to detect more cases than the traditional one. Using phone calls as a gold standard, the sensitivity of the standard methodology to capture SSI after cesarean increased to 73.3% with the new methodology identifying an extra five cases. These patients represented 26.3% (5 of 19) of all the patients who developed SSI. In other words, for every 100 C-section procedures there were 2.6% missed cases which the new method was able to detect. The duration of the calls ranged from 1 to 5 minutes and were well received by the patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, OBGYNE / 23.12.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Janet Rowan Obstetric Physician National Women's Health, Auckland Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Rowan: Clinicians are interested in screening during early pregnancy to identify women with previously unrecognised diabetes, as these women have increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. HbA1c is a simple and reproducible measure of glucose elevations, but its usefulness as an early pregnancy screening test is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine whether pregnant women with an HbA1c of 41-49mmol/mol (5.9-6.6%) are a high risk subgroup and whether treating these women from early pregnancy improves outcomes compared with identifying them during routine screening for gestational diabetes (GDM) from 24 weeks’ gestation. This observational study compared women referred to the diabetes clinic <24 weeks’ who had an early pregnancy HbA1c of 41-49mmol/mol (5.9-6.6%) with women who, at the time of diagnosis of GDM ≥24 weeks’ (typically by 75gOGTT), had an HbA1c of 41-49mmol/mol (5.9-6.6%). Both groups were compared with women diagnosed with GDM who had a lower HbA1c at diagnosis. (more…)
Abuse and Neglect, Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE / 04.12.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alex Haynes, MD, MPH Assistant Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School Assistant in Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital Division of Surgical Oncology Associate Program Director, Safe Surgery, Ariadne Labs Research Associate Harvard School of Public Health and George Molina, MD, MPH Surgical Research Resident Massachusetts General Hospital Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We have previously done work looking at the global volume of operations, and in particular the surgical volume at a country level. This work was based on the hypothesis that a certain level of surgical care is necessary for healthy populations. In doing this work, we found that cesarean delivery makes up a large proportion of all operations that happen globally. In the mid-1980’s, based on existing data the World Health Organization made the recommendation that at a country-level, the cesarean delivery rate should not exceed 10 to 15 per 100 live births. We wanted to see if this recommendation was still applicable using current data. In order to answer this question, we used multiple imputation to estimate country-level cesarean delivery rates for all 194 countries in the world in 2012 to investigate the association between country-level cesarean delivery rates and maternal and neonatal mortality. We found that at a population level, as the cesarean delivery rate increased up to about 19 per 100 live births, there was a decrease in country-level maternal and neonatal mortality. However, as country-level cesarean delivery rates rose above this level there were no associated changes in maternal or neonatal mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews, Karolinski Institute, Lancet, OBGYNE, Weight Research / 03.12.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Sven Cnattingius Professor in reproductive epidemiology Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine Karolinska University Hospital Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Prof. Cnattingius: Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risks of stillbirth and infant mortality. Weight gain between pregnancies increases risks of other obesity-related complications, including preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and preterm birth. Weight gain appear to increase these risks especially in women who start off with normal weight. As these complications increases risks of stillbirth and infant mortality, we wanted to study the associations between weight change between successive pregnancies and risks of stillbirth and infant mortality (deaths during the first year of life). Medical Research: What are the main findings? Prof. Cnattingius: The main findings include:
  • Weight gain increases risk of stillbirth in a dose-response manner.
  • In women starting off with normal weight (BMI <25), weight gain increases risk of infant mortality in a dose-response manner.
  • In women starting off with overweight or obesity (BMI >25), weight loss reduces the risk of neonatal mortality (deaths during the first four weeks of life).
(more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 01.12.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Mairead Black MBChB, MRCOG, MSc Research Fellow, Wellcome Trust Clinical Lecturer, Obstetrics and Gynaecology School of Medicine and Dentistry, Division of Applied Health Sciences University of Aberdeen Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Cornhill Road Aberdeen AB25 2ZD Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Black: The current thinking is, if a baby is exposed to labour, then it is also exposed to ‘good bacteria’ that mothers pass on during the birth, and they are also exposed to a degree of natural stress at the time of birth that might make them more resistant to developing future illnesses. The World Health Organisation formerly recommended that no more than 15 percent of deliveries should be C-sections. However rates in some countries have soared – China and Brazil have rates in excess of 50%, whilst in the UK the figure is 26% with almost half of these being planned in advance. The main purpose of this study was to explore whether health outcomes in children up to very early adulthood differ according to how they are delivered and whether avoiding labour entirely, i.e. via a planned C-section, could put children at a disadvantage compared to those delivered vaginally or by emergency C-section, where most will have been exposed to labour. The study analysed data from over 300,000 births between 1993 and 2007 across Scotland, using routinely collected data from seven linked databases. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 30.11.2015

Medical research.com Interview with: Rada K. Dagher, Ph.D. Assistant Professor University of Maryland School of Public Health Department of Health Services Administration College Park, MD 20742 MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Dr. Dagher: In the United States, 51% of all pregnancies are unintended, and these happen disproportionately among racial and ethnic minorities. For example, in 2008, rates of unintended pregnancies were 69% among African American women, 56% among Hispanic women, and 40% among White women. Our study utilized 2006-2010 data from a nationally representative dataset, the National Survey of Family Growth, to investigate the reasons behind these racial/ethnic disparities. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Dagher: The main findings of this study are as follows. Age and marital status differences explained both racial and ethnic disparities, where being single and younger than 20 years old at the time of conception contributed to the differences in unintended pregnancy between African American and White women, and between Hispanic and White women. However, there were also unique factors explaining the differences in unintended pregnancy between African Americans and Whites (respondent’s mother’s age at first birth, income, and insurance status) and the differences between Hispanics and Whites (U.S. born status and educational level). These findings provide support for culturally-tailored public health interventions that target at-risk groups of women such as younger, unmarried, lower income, lower educated, non-U.S. born women and those with public insurance, in order to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in unintended pregnancy. MedicalResearch: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? Dr. Dagher: Our findings suggest that interventions to reduce racial and ethnic differences in unintended pregnancy should take into account multiple factors at multiple levels of influence. For example, at the policy level, the Affordable Care Act has mandated that health plans cover women’s preventative health care, including contraceptives, without cost sharing. Thus, primary care providers could educate their patients about these new policy provisions and encourage them to take advantage of them, especially patients at higher risk of unintended pregnancy such as women who are younger than 20, unmarried, non-U.S. born, have lower income, and those with public insurance. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, OBGYNE / 29.11.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gordon C S Smith, MD PhD DSc FMedSci Professor & Head of Department, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Cambridge University Cambridge UK Medical Research: What were the key findings of the study? Dr. Smith: We demonstrated that using ultrasound to scan all women in the last 3 months of pregnancy increased the detection of small babies. Our routine approach to antenatal care identified 1 in 5 small babies. Our research approach on the same patients, where all women were scanned in the last third of pregnancy, resulted in 3 in 5 small babies being detected. We also found that, when we identified small babies, there was a scan measurement which helped us to distinguish which of those small babies were at increased risk of complications. Medical Research: What's the problem with small babies? Dr. Smith: We have known for many years that small babies are at increased risk of subsequent complications, both in the short term and long term. For example, they are more likely than normal sized babies to have difficulties during labour due to shortage of oxygen. We assume that this is because their growth has been restricted. This leads to them being less well prepared to face the stress of labour. We think that the poor growth usually occurs because of a problem in the way the placenta functions. The placenta, also known as the afterbirth, is the organ which allows the transfer of nutrients and oxygen to the baby. If the placenta isn’t functioning properly it is likely to impair the growth of the baby in the womb. If we suspect during a pregnancy that the baby is small, it influences a number of aspects of the care of the mother. For example, we might deliver the baby earlier, we might recommend delivery in a high risk unit. It might also influence decisions about whether a mother has a caesarean delivery, or how the baby is monitored during labour. (more…)
Addiction, Alcohol, Author Interviews, Cannabis, OBGYNE, Ophthalmology, Pediatrics / 28.11.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Benjamin Thompson PhD School of Optometry and Vision Science Faculty of Science, University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Thompson: Our investigation was part of the longitudinal Infant Development and Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study that was designed to investigate the effect of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on neurodevelopment. Although the negative impact of prenatal drug exposure on a wide range of neurodevelopmental outcomes such cognitive and motor function is established, the effect on vision is not well understood. To address this issue, vision testing was conducted when children in the New Zealand arm of the IDEAL study turned four and half years of age. Although the primary focus of the IDEAL study was the impact of methamphetamine on neurodevelopment, the majority of children enrolled in the study were exposed to a range of different drugs prenatally including marijuana, nicotine and alcohol. Many children were exposed to multiple drugs. This allowed us to investigate the impact of individual drugs and their combination on the children’s visual development. Alongside standard clinical vision tests such as visual acuity (the ‘sharpness’ of vision) and stereopsis (3D vision), we also tested the children’s ability to process complex moving patterns. This test, known as global motion perception, targets a specific network of higher-level visual areas in the brain that are thought to be particularly vulnerable to neurodevelopmental risk factors. (more…)
Author Interviews, NEJM, OBGYNE / 26.11.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arri Coomarasamy, MBChB, MD, FRCOG Professor of Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine University of Birmingham Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Professor Coomarasamy: Progesterone is a natural hormone that is essential to maintain a healthy pregnancy, and more than 60 years ago clinicians and researchers began to ask if progesterone supplementation in the first trimester of pregnancy could help to reduce the risk of miscarriage for women with a history of recurrent miscarriage. The evidence achieved in some small controlled clinical trials conducted before the PROMISE (progesterone in recurrent miscarriage) trial suggested a benefit from progesterone therapy, but without sufficient certainty to usefully guide clinical practice. Five years after it began, the PROMISE trial has provided a definitive result. It is clear, it is important, and it is not the result that many anticipated. Our study of more than 800 women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage has shown that those who received progesterone treatment in early pregnancy were no less likely to miscarry than those who received a placebo (or dummy treatment). This was true whatever their age, ethnicity, and medical history. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Outcomes & Safety / 25.11.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr William L Palmer Honorary research fellow Dr Foster Unit, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Palmer: For the majority of women and their newborns, their care will be safe and result in good outcomes. However, previous research has suggested that outcomes across a range of healthcare areas might be worse at weekends. We therefore undertook to investigate whether there was an association between day of delivery and complications, using a range of different outcomes: perinatal mortality and - for both women and neonate - injury, infection and emergency readmission rates. Our analysis was based on every delivery to public health services in the NHS in England across a two-year period so accounting for some 1.3 million births. To account for possible differences in case-mix and maternal characteristics we controlled for a range of factors including gestational age, delivery type, maternal age, birth-weight, and pre-existing diabetes or hypertension. (more…)
Author Interviews, Kaiser Permanente, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 24.11.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Erica P. Gunderson, PhD, MPH, MS, RD Senior Research Scientist, Division of Research, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Conditions Section Kaiser Permanente Northern California Oakland, CA 94612 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Gunderson: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a disorder of glucose tolerance affecting 5-9 percent of all U.S. pregnancies (approximately 250,000 annually), with a 7-fold higher risk of progression to type 2 diabetes. Strategies during the postpartum period for prevention of diabetes focus on modification of lifestyle behaviors, including dietary intake and physical activity to promote weight loss. Lactation is a modifiable postpartum behavior that improves glucose and lipid metabolism, and increases insulin sensitivity, with favorable metabolic effects that persist post-weaning. Despite these metabolic benefits, evidence that lactation prevents type 2 diabetes remains inconclusive, particularly among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Among women with GDM, evidence that lactation prevents diabetes is based on only two studies with conflicting findings. The Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM Pregnancy, also known as the SWIFT Study, is the first to measure breastfeeding on a monthly basis during the first year after delivery and the first to enroll a statistically significant number of women with gestational diabetes, and to evaluate social, behavioral and prenatal risk factors that influence development of type 2 diabetes, as well as breastfeeding initiation and success. (more…)
Author Interviews, Coffee, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 20.11.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark A. Klebanoff, MD Center for Perinatal Research The Research Institute Nationwide Children's Hospital Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Klebanoff: Caffeine is among the substances most commonly consumed by pregnant women. There are numerous sources of caffeine in the diet—regular (non-decaf) coffee, regular tea, many soft drinks, energy drinks, and some power bars. Even chocolate contains some caffeine. It’s also included in some over the counter pain relievers, and in over the counter ‘keep awake’ pills such as No-Doz. As a result of its wide availability, most pregnant women consume at least some caffeine. In spite of over 30 years of research, whether moderate amounts of caffeine (up to 200 milligrams, the amount contained in about 2 normal-sized cups of coffee, per day) during pregnancy are harmful is uncertain. However almost all previous research has been about events related to pregnancy, such as difficulty becoming pregnant, miscarriage, birth defects, and the size of the newborn. Whether maternal caffeine use during pregnancy has an impact on things later in childhood, such as obesity and neurologic development, has hardly been studied. We used a biomarker, measured in the mother’s blood during pregnancy, for caffeine use, and found that more caffeine use was not associated with the child’s body mass index at either 4 or 7 years of age, and that at blood levels of the marker that we saw in the vast majority, caffeine was not associated with the child’s IQ, nor with behavioral abnormalities at those ages. (more…)