Author Interviews, Lancet, Smoking / 20.09.2013

Dr. Chris Bullen MBChB MPH PhD FAFPM FNZCPHM Director School of Population Health, The University of Auckland Private Bag 92019 Auckland 1142, New Zealand Co-Director of the NZ Tobacco Control Research Turanga: A national programme of research to inform rapid smoking prevalence reduction. MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Chris Bullen MBChB MPH PhD FAFPM FNZCPHM Director School of Population Health, The University of Auckland Private Bag 92019 Auckland 1142, New Zealand Co-Director of the NZ Tobacco Control Research Turanga: A national programme of research to inform rapid smoking prevalence reduction. Web: http://www.turanga.org.nz/ MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bullen:
  • E-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, were modestly effective at helping smokers to quit, with similar levels of abstinence as with nicotine patches, and few adverse events.
  • ?At 6 months, verified abstinence was 7·3% with nicotine e-cigarettes, 5·8% with patches, and 4·1% with placebo e-cigarettes. However, there was insufficient statistical power to conclude superiority of nicotine e-cigarettes to patches or to placebo e-cigarettes.
  • No significant differences in rates of adverse events occurrence were found between the groups.
  • E-cigarettes, like the vapes found at MagicVaporizers, were very popular throughout the trial, with almost 90% of users stating they would recommend them to a friend trying to quit smoking.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, Lancet / 20.09.2013

Prof Aron Goldhirsch Department of Medicine European Institute of Oncology Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Aron Goldhirsch Department of Medicine European Institute of Oncology Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Goldhirsch: Two years of adjuvant trastuzumab after standard chemotherapy is not more effective than is 1 year of treatment with the drug for patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Lancet / 20.09.2013

Prof John R Yarnold Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT, UK MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof John R Yarnold Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT, UK   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Yarnold: A 3-week schedule of curative post-operative radiotherapy for women with breast cancer involving 15 treatments (fractions) delivered Monday to Friday each week, is at least as safe and effective as historical schedules given over 5 or 6 weeks. In fact the 3-week schedule is gentler on the healthy tissues than earlier standard regimens. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, OBGYNE / 20.09.2013

Prof Sally K Tracy DMid Midwifery and Women's Health Research Unit University of Sydney, Royal Hospital for Women Randwick, NSW, Australia MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Sally K Tracy DMid Midwifery and Women's Health Research Unit University of Sydney, Royal Hospital for Women Randwick, NSW, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Tracy: We recruited 1748 pregnant women, of all risk types, from two tertiary teaching hospitals in different states in Australia and allocated them to receive either caseload midwifery care (871) or standard maternity care (877). The study found more women in caseload midwifery experienced an unassisted vaginal birth without pharmacological analgesia, and fewer women experienced an elective caesarean. While the trial findings did not show a statistically significant difference in the rate of caesarean sections between either group, the overall rate fell by more than 20 percent from pre-trial levels. Newborn infants in both groups achieved similar physical assessment scores (Apgar scores). A slightly lower number of pre-term births and neonatal intensive care admissions among the midwifery caseload group was not statistically significant. Important secondary findings of the study include:
  • 30 percent more spontaneous onset of labour
  • less induction of labour
  • less severe blood loss, and
  • stronger likelihood of breastfeeding at discharge from hospital.
These small differences accounted for an overall difference of AU$566.74 less with caseload midwifery than with standard care. Caseload midwifery appeared to alter some of the pathways that recurrently contribute to increased obstetric intervention. Having this level of continuity of care works on the assumption that women will labour more effectively, need to stay in hospital less time and feel a stronger sense of satisfaction and personal control if they have the opportunity to get to know their midwife at the beginning of pregnancy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Mayo Clinic, Parkinson's, PLoS / 19.09.2013

Michelle M. Mielke, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Health Sciences Research Division of Epidemiology Mayo Clinic 200 First Street SW Rochester, MN 55905 MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Michelle M. Mielke, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Health Sciences Research Division of Epidemiology Mayo Clinic 200 First Street SW Rochester, MN 55905 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mielke: Among Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, plasma levels of ceramides and monohexylceramides were higher in patients with cognitive impairment or dementia compared to patients who were cognitively normal. Levels of these lipids were also higher in the combined group of PD patients compared to non-PD controls but the number of controls were small. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Lung Cancer / 19.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jie He, PhD, MD Director, Laboratory of Thoracic Surgery President, Cancer Institute & Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100021 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jie He: The main findings of the study is that we have identified IDH1 as an effective plasma biomarker for the diagnosis of NSCLCs, particularly with high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Cancer Research, CMAJ / 19.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bruno Heleno, PhD fellow Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, PO Box 2099, 1014 Copenhagen K, Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In a literature review of cancer screening trials of a wide range of screening interventions, we found that trials seldom report the information necessary to weigh benefits against harms. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Colon Cancer, NEJM / 19.09.2013

Aasma Shaukat, M.D., M.P.H. Dept. of Medicine GI Division, MMC 36 University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aasma Shaukat, M.D., M.P.H. Dept. of Medicine GI Division, MMC 36 University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Shaukat: The study showed that screening for colon cancer using stool cards consistently reduces risk of death from colon cancer by one-third through thirty years. The benefit of screening in larger in men compared to women, and for women the benefit seems to start at age 60. However, screening did not make people live longer. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA / 19.09.2013

H. Blair Simpson, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University Director of the Anxiety Disorders Clinic and the Center for OCD and Related Disorders at the New York State Psychiatric Institute 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 69 New York, NY 10032 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: H. Blair Simpson, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University Director of the Anxiety Disorders Clinic and the Center for OCD and Related Disorders at the New York State Psychiatric Institute New York, NY 10032 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Simpson: This is the first RCT to compare two recommended SRI augmentation strategies for adults with OCD. Adding EX/RP to SRIs was superior to risperidone and to pill placebo in reducing OCD symptoms and improving insight, functioning, and quality of life. Risperidone was not superior to placebo on any outcome. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Orthopedics, Pain Research, University of Michigan / 19.09.2013

 Chad M. Brummett, M.D. Assistant Professor, University of Michigan Health System Department of Anesthesiology Division of Pain Medicine 1500 East Medical Center Drive, 1H247 UH, Box 5048 Ann Arbor, MI 48109 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chad M. Brummett, M.D. Assistant Professor, University of Michigan Health System Department of Anesthesiology Division of Pain Medicine 1500 East Medical Center Drive, 1H247 UH, Box 5048 Ann Arbor, MI 48109 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Brummett: The study found that 42% of new patients presenting to a tertiary care pain clinic with a primary spine pain diagnosis met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) survey criteria for fibromyalgia, which is a measure of widespread body pain and comorbid symptoms (e.g. trouble thinking, fatigue, mood symptoms, etc.). Patients categorized as fibromyalgia-positive using the survey measure were distinctly different from those not meeting criteria. In a multivariate regression model, independent predictors of being categorized as fibromyalgia-positive were female sex, higher neuropathic pain scores, anxiety, and lower physical function. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Infections, Outcomes & Safety, Urinary Tract Infections / 18.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mohamad Fakih, MD, MPH Medical Director, Infection Prevention and Control St John Hospital and Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Fakih: Urinary catheters are commonly used in the hospital. Although they help in the management of the sickest patients, they also present a risk for infection and other harms to the patient. The Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) have made catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) publicly reportable, and no longer reimburse hospitals for these infections if they occur in hospital setting. The definition of CAUTI is based on the surveillance definition of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We looked at clinician practice, including the Infectious Diseases specialist’s impression and compared them to the NHSN definition. We found a significant difference between what clinicians think is a urinary catheter infection and give antibiotics for it compared to the NHSN definition. The NHSN definition predicted clinical infection by the Infectious Diseases specialist in only about a third of the cases. We also found that Infectious Disease specialists considered patients to have true CAUTI in only half of what clinicians treated as CAUTI. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Diabetes / 18.09.2013

Dr. Yunsheng Ma MD, PHD, MPH Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine Department of Medicine University of Massachusetts Medical School 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Yunsheng Ma MD, PHD, MPH Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine Department of Medicine University of Massachusetts Medical School 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ma: Regardless of race/ethnicity, diabetes increases the risk of mortality the same compared to non-diabetes among different race/ethnicity. However, since there are higher prevalence of diabetes in Black and Hispanic, death rate due to diabetes is much higher in Black and Hispanic, this is because the diabetes prevalence rates are much higher in these population. Therefore, diabetes prevention is key to reduce diabetes related mortality disparities among racial/ethnic groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Pediatrics, Psychological Science / 18.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gianluca Gini, PhD and Tiziana Pozzoli, PhD Department of Developmental and Social Psychology University of Padua, Padua, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Results of this meta-analysis show that bullied children are twice as likely as non-bullied children to experience psychosomatic symptoms (e.g., headache, stomachache, backache, abdominal pain, dizziness, sleeping problems, poor appetite, bedwetting, skin problems, vomiting), especially in samples that included an higher proportion of boys. Importantly, the same result was found not only with cross-sectional studies but also in a meta-analysis of six studies that employed a longitudinal design. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, CMAJ, JAMA, Mayo Clinic, Parkinson's / 18.09.2013

Rodolfo Savica, MD, MSc Department of Neurology, College of Medicine Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rodolfo Savica, MD, MSc Department of Neurology, College of Medicine Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Savica: This study is the first in North America to explore the incidence of DLB and PDD in a population based sample. We found that the overall incidence of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), considered the second leading cause of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer`s disease, is lower than that of Parkinson`s disease (PD), increases steeply with age, and is markedly higher in men than in women. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Social Issues / 18.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Matthew S. Pantell, MD, MS Department of Pediatrics University of California, San Francisco MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pantell: First of all, our study confirms the strong association between social isolation and mortality in a nationally representative sample from the US. Furthermore, it shows that, within the same national sample, social isolation is a similarly strong predictor of mortality as compared to smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. Examining individual components of social isolation, our study shows that, among both women and men, not living with a partner and not participating in religious activities frequently are strong individual predictors of mortality. Finally, our work shows that infrequent social contact is associated with mortality among women, and not participating in social clubs/organizations is associated with mortality among men. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Exercise - Fitness, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 18.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ronald J. Iannotti, PhD Prevention Research Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland Trends in Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Diet, and BMI Among US Adolescents, 2001–2009 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Iannotti: Although average BMI percentile increased from 2001 to 2005 it did not increase from 2005 to 2009. This is consistent with some recent studies that suggest the increase in overweight and obesity may be leveling off. We suggest that we may be 'bending the curve'. During the same period, physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables increased while television watching and consumption of sweets and sweetened beverages decreased. We cannot say whether television watching was replaced with more time spent on computers but we did not find an increase in computer use from 2005 to 2009. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, MRI, Stroke / 17.09.2013

Tobias Saam, MD Institute of Clinical Radiology Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ Hosp Munich, Germany MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tobias Saam, MD Institute of Clinical Radiology Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ Hosp Munich, Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Saam: The results of our meta-analysis suggest that despite a large degree of detected heterogeneity of the published studies, the presence of intraplaque hemorrhage by MRI in patients with carotid artery disease is associated with an approximately 5.6-fold higher risk for cerebrovascular events, such as TIA or stroke, as compared to subjects without intraplaque hemorrhage. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ / 17.09.2013

Shoshana M. Rosenberg, ScD, MPH Researcher, Susan F. Smith Center for Women's Cancers Dana-Farber Cancer Institute MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shoshana M. Rosenberg, ScD, MPH Researcher, Susan F. Smith Center for Women's Cancers Dana-Farber Cancer Institute   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) have been increasing among all breast cancer patients, however this trend has been most pronounced among the youngest women with breast cancer. Because of this trend, we sought to better understand why the youngest women - those diagnosed at age 40 or younger - were deciding to have this surgery. Many women not considered "high-risk", e.g., those without a cancer pre-disposing mutation, cited a desire to prevent the breast cancer from spreading as well as a desire to improve survival as reasons for undergoing the procedure, indicating they overestimate the benefit of having this surgery, as CPM does not affect these outcomes. While CPM does reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in the unaffected breast, in women who are not considered "high-risk", this risk is relatively low, however many women overestimated this risk as well. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Melanoma / 17.09.2013

Ze'ev Ronai, Ph.D., Professor and scientific director of Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute La Jolla San Diego, Calif. MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ze'ev Ronai, Ph.D. Professor and scientific director of Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute La Jolla San Diego, Calif. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This study provides the first direct evidence of the importance of the PDK1 enzyme in the development of melanoma and in the metastasis of this aggressive tumor type. We demonstrate, with a genetic mouse melanoma model (harboring the Braf/Pten mutations commonly seen in human melanomas) and/or pharmacological inhibitors against PDK1, that melanoma requires this enzyme for its development, and more so – for its ability to metastasize. Since PDK1 is key kinase that regulates a number of protein kinases, which are currently being assessed in clinical trials (including AKT), our finding points to a new set of targets that could be more amenable for effective combination therapy in melanoma. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Johns Hopkins, Pain Research, Pharmacology / 16.09.2013

Matthew Daubresse, MHS Research Data Analyst Center for Drug Safety and Effectiveness Johns Hopkins School of Public Health 615 N. Wolfe Street, Suite W6023 Baltimore, MD 21205 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Over the past decade, prescriptions for non-opioid medications remained stable or declined among ambulatory pain visits in the United States. In visits for new-onset musculoskeletal pain, non-opioid prescribing decreased from 38% of visits in 2000 to 29% of visits in 2010. During this time, opioid prescriptions nearly doubled. Few patient, provider, and visit characteristics were associated with the likelihood of opioid receipt, suggesting increases in opioid prescribing have occurred generally across different groups of patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Baylor College of Medicine Houston, CMAJ, Heart Disease, JAMA / 16.09.2013

Faisal G. Bakaeen, MD FACS Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TexasThe Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Faisal G. Bakaeen, MD FACS Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TexasThe Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, Texas   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bakaeen: The relative use of off-pump CABG peaked at 24% in 2003, followed by a slow decline after that to about 19%. In addition, the conversion rate from off- to on-pump decreased with time and has stayed below 3.5% in recent years. Perioperative mortality rates decreased over time for both on- and off-pump CABG and have stayed below 2% since 2006. The mortality associated with converted cases was high regardless of the surgery year. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dental Research, JAMA / 16.09.2013

Mine Tezal, DDS, PhD Oral Biology University at Buffalo NYS Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mine Tezal, DDS, PhD Oral Biology University at Buffalo NYS Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tezal: We observed an inverse association between dental caries and head and neck cancer (HNSCC), which persisted among never smokers and never drinkers. Besides untreated caries, two other objective measures of long-standing caries history (endodontic treatments and crowns) were also inversely associated with HNSCC with similar effect sizes, supporting the validity of the association. Missing teeth was associated with increased risk of HNSCC in univariate analyses, but after adjustment for potential confounders, its effect was attenuated and was no longer statistically significant. (more…)
Author Interviews, Baylor College of Medicine Houston, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Cost of Health Care, JAMA / 16.09.2013

Laura A. Petersen, MD, MPH MEDVAMC Associate Chief of Staff, Research Director, VA HSR&D Center of Excellence (152) 2002 Holcombe Blvd. Houston TX 77030 Professor of Medicine Chief, Section of Health Services Research Baylor College of Medicine www.houston.hsrd.research.va.govAshley Motter HSR&D Center of Excellence Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Laura A. Petersen, MD, MPH MEDVAMC Associate Chief of Staff, Research Director, VA HSR&D Center of Excellence (152) Houston TX 77030 Professor of Medicine Chief, Section of Health Services Research Baylor College of Medicine HSR&D Center of Excellence Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center Houston, Texas 77030 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Petersen: VA physicians randomized to the individual incentive group were more likely than controls to improve their treatment of hypertension. The adjusted changes over the study period in Veterans meeting the combined BP/appropriate response measure were 8.8 percentage points for the individual-level, 3.7 for the practice-level, 5.5 for the combined, and 0.47 for the control groups. Therefore, a physician in the individual group caring for 1000 patients with hypertension would have about 84 additional patients achieving blood pressure control or appropriate response after 1 year. The effect of the incentive was not sustained after the washout period. Although performance did not decline to pre-intervention levels, the decline was significant. None of the incentives resulted in increased incidence of hypotension compared with controls. While the use of guideline-recommended medications increased significantly over the course of the study in the intervention groups, there was no significant change compared to the control group. The mean individual incentive earnings over the study represented approximately 1.6% of a physician’s salary, assuming a mean salary of $168,000. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 15.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elisa Ebrille, MD Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine Fiorenzo Gaita, M.D. Director Division of Cardiology Department of Medical Sciences University of Turin, Turin, Italy MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We evaluated 33 patients with long-standing atrial fibrillation and valvular heart disease who underwent valve surgery and concomitant cryoablation (pulmonary veins isolation, mitral isthmus and roof line lesions) from 2000 to 2002. The surgically created ablation lesion was validated with electroanatomic mapping. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation was performed in cases with lesion incompleteness and these patients were followed for over 10 years.
  • A hybrid approach, combining surgical ablation procedure consisting of pulmonary veins isolation and creation of left atrial linear lesions (mitral isthmus and roof lines), along with endocardial ablation, when necessary, led to a significant clinical improvement in patients with long-standing atrial fibrillation and valvular heart disease during a long-term follow-up (> 10 years).
  • With the hybrid approach, pulmonary veins isolation and transmural left atrial linear lesions were obtained in a high percentage of patients (79%). When achieved and electrophysiologically demonstrated, the complete ablation scheme was effective in more than 80% of patients in maintaining sinus rhythm throughout follow-up. (more…)
Author Interviews, Outcomes & Safety / 13.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cori L. Ofstead, MSPH President and CEO OFSTEAD & ASSOCIATES 400 Selby Avenue, Suite V |Blair Arcade West Saint Paul, MN 55102-4520 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ofstead: Our researchers found evidence that endoscope reprocessing lapses, which involved a failure to properly clean and disinfect endoscopes after patient use, were very common. These lapses occurred in hospitals, clinics, and ambulatory surgery centers, and involved various steps of the process. In many cases, the reprocessing problems persisted for months or years before being discovered. Over the past several years, thousands of patients have been exposed to contaminated endoscopes, which had significant implications for both patients and their medical providers. For example, we found quite a few cases where exposed patients had to be notified that proper procedures were not followed. In some cases, testing confirmed transmission of pathogens with an increase in morbidity and mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, MRI, Nature, Stroke / 13.09.2013

Fabian Bamberg, MD, MPH Department of Clinical Radiology Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Germany MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Fabian Bamberg, MD, MPH Department of Clinical Radiology Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bamberg: Our study shows that there is a substantial and heterogenous degree of subclinical cardiovascular disease burden in patients with diabetes undergoing whole-body MRI. These whole-body MRI findings have significant prognostic relevance. For instance, our results show that patients without any pathologic findings experience no adverse cardiovascular event over a period of six years while the risk for a heart attack or stroke increases with the degree of disease burden. (more…)
Alcohol, Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 13.09.2013

Svetlana Popova, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D. Senior Scientist, Social and Epidemiological Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Assistant Professor, Epidemiology Division Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Assistant Professor, Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto Graduate Faculty Associate Member, Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto CAMH, 33 Russell Street, Room # T507 Toronto Ontario, Canada M5S 2S1 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Svetlana Popova, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D. Senior Scientist, Social and Epidemiological Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Assistant Professor, Epidemiology Division Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Assistant Professor, Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto Graduate Faculty Associate Member, Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto CAMH, 33 Russell Street, Room # T507 Toronto Ontario, Canada M5S 2S1 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Popova: We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of internationally published and unpublished studies that reported the prevalence of FAS and/or FASD in all types of child care systems (e.g., orphanage, foster care, boarding school, adoption centre, or child welfare system). The primary objective was to estimate a pooled (combined) prevalence for FAS and FASD in various child care systems using data from existing studies that used an Active Case Ascertainment method (when researchers/clinicians actively seek and diagnose FASD cases). The available data was analyzed by using a standard statistical technique (called meta-analysis). This study revealed that the vast majority of existing studies report that the prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) in the various child-care settings in the different countries is extremely high. Our analysis of these studies demonstrated that the pooled prevalence of FAS in child care settings (6%) was found to be approximately 9-30 times higher than the prevalence of FAS in the general population of North America, which is reported to range from 2 to 7 cases per 1,000 individuals in the USA and 1 per 1,000 in Canada. Thus, children in care represent a high-risk population for FASD. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Stroke / 13.09.2013

Dr. Eung Y. Kim Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Department of Neurology, and Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Medical Research Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Eung Y. Kim Department of Radiology Gachon University Medical Center Incheon, South Korea.   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The extent of calcification involving intracranial artery significantly correlates with that of coronary artery in patients with ischemic stroke. The Agatston score measured in the intracranial arteries may be an independent predictor of asymptomatic coronary artery disease in patients with ischemic stroke. (more…)
Author Interviews, Case Western, Cleveland Clinic, Respiratory / 13.09.2013

Pranab K. Mukherjee, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Center for Medical Mycology Department of Dermatology University Hospitals Case Medical Center Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106-5028 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pranab K. Mukherjee, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Center for Medical Mycology Department of Dermatology University Hospitals Case Medical Center Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106-5028 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We performed a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial to assess the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of a cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)-based oral spray in the prevention of acute upper respiratory tract infections (URIs).
  • The tested CPC spray (ARMS-I, developed by Arms Pharmaceutical LLC, Cleveland, OH) was safe and exhibited high tolerability and acceptability among study participants
  • The product exhibited a trend to protect against URIs (55% relative reduction compared to the placebo), based on confirmed URIs, post-medication exit interviews, and daily electronic diaries completed by study participants
  • There was statistically significant reduction in frequency of cough and sore throat in the active group
  • The number of days (duration) of cough was significantly reduced in the active group compared to placebo arm
  • URI-associated viruses (influenza, rhinovirus and coronavirus) were detected in three individuals, all in the placebo arm. No virus was detected in the active arm/
  • No drug-related adverse events or oral lesions were observed
  • Previous vaccination status of the study participants did not affect the study outcome.
(more…)