Author Interviews, JAMA / 26.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Karin J. H. Verweij, PhD Department of Developmental Psychology and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research,  VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Verweij: We performed a twin study using over 10,000 adult Australian twins to determine the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation and their covariation. We found that individuals that report self-harm are approximately eight times more likely to also report suicidal ideation. Results from the bivariate genetic model indicated that the substantial correlation between non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation (r=0.49 for males and 0.61 for females) is largely explained by overlapping genetic factors: 62% and 76% for males and females, respectively. Overlapping residual influences, including nonshared environmental influences and measurement error, also explain part of the covariance between the two traits. These findings suggest that the two behaviors share similar biological underpinnings. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Injury, CMAJ / 26.04.2014

Jane Topolovec-Vranic, PhD Clinical Researcher, Trauma and Neurosurgery Program Associate Scientist, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto Associate Member, Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jane Topolovec-Vranic, PhD Clinical Researcher, Trauma and Neurosurgery Program Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto Associate Member, Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In our study we found that almost half of the men interviewed in a homeless shelter in Toronto had experienced a traumatic brain injury in their past, and that most of them had experienced their first brain injury prior to becoming homeless, usually in the early teenage years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Erasmus, Neurology, Stroke / 25.04.2014

M. Arfan Ikram, MD, PhD Assistant professor in Neuroepidemiology Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, the NetherlandsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: M. Arfan Ikram, MD, PhD Assistant professor in Neuroepidemiology Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Ikram: We show that the risk of stroke might be increased due to an increased risk of ischemic stroke or increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. Because these subtypes of stroke require different -often opposite- clinical management, currently available prediction rules for any stroke are insufficient. We propose a novel prediction rule that provides separate risks for ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology / 25.04.2014

Michael Wall, MD Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins D Iowa City, IA 52242-1091MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Wall, MD Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins D Iowa City, IA 52242-1091 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wall: We studied patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (formerly called pseudotumor cerebri) with mild visual loss. We found that subjects taking acetazolamide, a type of diuretic, along with a low sodium weight loss program had significantly better visual outcomes than those taking placebo along with the diet. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Geriatrics, Mental Health Research / 24.04.2014

Ziad Nasreddine MD FRCP(C) Professeur adjoint Université de Sherbrooke et McGill University Neuro Rive-Sud/CEDRA: Centre Diagnostique et Recherche sur la Maladie d'Alzheimer Québec, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ziad Nasreddine MD FRCP(C) Professeur adjoint Université de Sherbrooke et McGill University Neuro Rive-Sud/CEDRA: Centre Diagnostique et Recherche sur la Maladie d'Alzheimer Québec, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Nasreddine: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) total score (MoCA-TS) and Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) are useful in predicting conversion to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Identifying individuals with MCI at high of conversion to Alzheimer’s disease is important clinically and for selecting appropriate subjects for therapeutic trials. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Stroke, UCLA / 24.04.2014

Dr. Gregg C. Fonarow MD Director, Ahmanson-UCLA Cardiomyopathy Center UCLA CHAMP - Cholesterol, Hypertension, and Atherosclerosis Management Program Professor, Department of Medicine Associate Chief, Cardiology David Geffen School of Medicine Los Angeles, CAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Gregg C. Fonarow MD Director, Ahmanson-UCLA Cardiomyopathy Center Professor, Department of Medicine Associate Chief, Cardiology David Geffen School of Medicine Los Angeles, CA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Fonarow: This study examined data from hospitals that have adopted the American Heart Association/ American Stroke Association’s national quality initiative, Target: Stroke, which aims to increase the number of stroke patients treated with clot-busting drugs for ischemic stroke within 60 minutes or less after hospital arrival.  Initiated nationwide in 2010, Target: Stroke provided 10 key strategies as well as tools to facilitate timely tPA administration, as well as additional approaches to improve stroke care and outcome. Data from 71,169 tPA-treated stroke patients at 1,030 hospitals participating in Target: Stroke were analyzed to compared the time to treatment and incidence of complications before implementation, from 2003 to 2009, to the post-implementation years, from 2010 to 2013. This study found that the percentage of patients treated within the recommended timeframe increased from less than one-third before Target: Stroke to more than half afterwards. The Target: Stroke program goal of 50 percent or more of patients having door-to-needle times within 60 minutes was successfully achieved. In addition, the average time to treatment dropped by 15 minutes, from 74 to 59 minutes. Faster treatment was associated with lower rates of complications, including death. Before Target: Stroke, 9.9% of stroke patients died in the hospital, compared to 8.3% of patients treated after the initiative started, a difference which was statistically significant. In addition, patients treated by Target: Stroke strategies were less likely to develop the complication of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dengue, Ebola, Genetic Research, Infections, NEJM, NIH / 24.04.2014

Sergio D. Rosenzweig, MD, PhD Director, Primary Immunodeficiency Clinic (PID-C) LHD, NIAID, NIH Head of the Infectious Diseases Susceptibility Unit at the Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD, 20892MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sergio D. Rosenzweig, MD, PhD Director, Primary Immunodeficiency Clinic (PID-C) Head of the Infectious Diseases Susceptibility Unit at the Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD, 20892 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rosenzweig: We diagnosed a disease called CDG-IIb in two siblings with severe development issues and very low levels of immunoglobulins, which include infection-fighting antibodies. These children were referred to the NIAID Primary Immunodeficiency Clinic through the NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program. CDG-IIb is an extremely rare congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG), with only one other case reported. The genetic defect of the disease disrupts glycosylation, the process for attaching and trimming sugars from proteins. Almost 50% of our proteins have sugars attached, and these are called glycoproteins. They include immunoglobulins and also some viral glycoproteins that are made when cells are infected by a virus. The spread of some viruses, including HIV and influenza, depend on viral glycoproteins in order to infect additional cells and form viral protective shields. We found that this type of virus was less able to replicate, infect other cells, or create adequate protective shields in CDG-IIb patient cells because of the glycosylation defect. In comparison, adenovirus, poliovirus, and vaccinia virus, which either do not rely on glycosylation or do not form protective glycoprotein shields, replicated normally when added to both CDG-IIb and healthy cells. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease / 24.04.2014

Prof. Simon R. Heller Professor of Clinical Diabetes Department of Human Metabolism University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Simon R. Heller Professor of Clinical Diabetes Department of Human Metabolism University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Heller: We explored the potential to hypoglycaemia to cause cardiac arrhythmias since we have previously shown that a low glucose can alter the electrocardiogram.  We had a hypothesis that alterations in heart rhythm or ectopic beats might contribute to cardiac mortality and in part explain the association between intensive diabetic therapy and increased mortality.  We therefore undertook continuous glucose monitoring and 12 lead EKG monitoring for a period of 5 days in individuals with Type 2 diabetes at increased CV risk.  We found that hypoglycaemia was fairly common and that nocturnal episodes in particular, were generally marked by a pattern whereby glucose levels dropped to low levels for some hours during which patients slept.  These periods of hypoglycemia were associated with a high risk of marked slow heart rates (bradycardia) accompanied by ectopic beats.  Our data suggest that this was due to overactivity of the vagus nerve.  We have therefore identified a mechanism which might contribute to increased mortality in individuals with Type 2 diabetes and high CV risk during intensive insulin therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Frailty, Lancet, Vitamin D / 23.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Mark Bolland, PhD Bone and Joint Research Group, Department of Medicine University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Bolland: In a meta-analysis of 20 randomized clinical trials, there was no effect of vitamin D with or without calcium on falls.  In a trial sequential analysis of these trials, the effect estimate for vitamin D with or without calcium on falls lay within the futility boundary, providing reliable evidence that vitamin D supplementation does not alter the relative risk of falls by ≥15% and suggesting that future trials that are similar in design to current trials are unlikely to change that conclusion. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Cannabis, Heart Disease / 23.04.2014

Emilie Jouanjus, PharmD, PhD Risques, maladies chroniques et handicaps Facult_e de M_edecine, Guesde, Toulouse 31073, France.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Emilie Jouanjus, PharmD, PhD Risques, maladies chroniques et handicaps Facult_e de M_edecine, Guesde, Toulouse 31073, France. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jouanjus: Our study emphasizes that cardiovascular complications make up 1.8 percent of cannabis-related health complications reported in France. These were cases of peripheral arteriopathies, and cardiac and cerebrovascular disorders, some of which resulted in the death. These findings conducted us to conclude that marijuana is a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease in young adults. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Cost of Health Care, Orthopedics / 23.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Susan Jaglal, PhD Senior Scientist Toronto Rehabilitation Institute University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jaglal: Bone Mineral Density (BMD) tests are used to both diagnose osteoporosis and assess and individual’s risk of fracture. While the tests play an important role in bone health, they are sometimes ordered inappropriately. For example, while women age 40-44 are typically not at risk of fragility fracture or in need of Bone Mineral Density testing, these individuals received almost half the Bone Mineral Density tests performed in Ontario in 2007/2008. Policy changes have been made in recent years in an effort to curb unnecessary testing of low risk individuals in both the United States and Canada. Policy efforts in Ontario included a 2008 fee schedule change that limited repeated testing among low-risk patients and included a new fee code for a “baseline” tests. Patients were limited to 1 baseline test in their lifetime. The goal of the present study was to determine the impact of this fee schedule change on Bone Mineral Density testing rates. The study was based on an analysis of provincial administrative data including physician billings, hospital discharges, and emergency department visits. Results demonstrated that while fee schedule changes were associated with a decrease in BMD testing rates, the decreases affected both low and high-risk patients. Most decreases were seen in testing rates of low-risk women. However, the associated decrease in testing among high-risk patients (e.g., those over 65 or with a recent fracture) is concerning, as high-risk patients benefit from screening and monitoring of Bone Mineral Density. (more…)
Author Interviews, Geriatrics, Mental Health Research / 23.04.2014

Helen C. Kales MD Professor of Psychiatry Director, Section of Geriatric Psychiatry and The Program for Positive Aging, University of Michigan Research Scientist, VA Center for Clinical Management Research and Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center VA Ann Arbor Healthcare SysteMedicalResearch.com Interview with Helen C. Kales MD Professor of Psychiatry Director, Section of Geriatric Psychiatry and The Program for Positive Aging, University of Michigan Research Scientist, VA Center for Clinical Management Research and Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System Please note that this paper is the result of the deliberations of a multi-disciplinary national expert panel, not a specific study. MedicalResearch.com: What were the main findings of the expert panel? Dr. Kales: Often more than memory loss, behavioral symptoms of dementia are among the most difficult aspects of caring for people with dementia. These symptoms are experienced almost universally, across dementia stages and causes, and are often associated with poor outcomes including early nursing home placement, hospital stays, caregiver stress and depression, and reduced caregiver employment.  Doctors often prescribe these patients psychiatric medications like antipsychotics, despite little hard evidence that they work well in this population and despite the risks they pose including hastening death.  Meanwhile, studies show promise for non-medication behavioral and environmental approaches (such as providing caregiver education/support, creating meaningful activities and simplifying/enhancing the environment), but too few health providers are trained in their use.  The method created by the national multidisciplinary group of experts (DICE which stands for Describe, Investigate, Create and Evaluate) represents a comprehensive approach to assessment and management of behavioral symptoms in dementia.  For example, a new report of “agitation” from a caregiver, should be fully understood and described (e.g. who/what/when/where/risk/safety); underlying causes should be investigated (e.g. pain, changes in medications, medical conditions, poor sleep, fear); a treatment plan should be created (e.g. responding to physical problems, working collaboratively with the caregiver and other team members to institute non-pharmacologic interventions); and evaluating whether the interventions tried were effective. (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, JAMA, Johns Hopkins / 22.04.2014

Li-Ching Lee, PhD, ScM Associate Scientist, Departments of Epidemiology and Mental Health Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore MD 21205MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Li-Ching Lee, PhD, ScM Associate Scientist, Departments of Epidemiology and Mental Health Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore MD 21205 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Li-Ching Lee: This population-based case-control study in young children provides evidence that prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use may be a risk factor for autism and other developmental delays (DD). Among boys, prenatal SSRI exposure was nearly 3 times as likely in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relative to children with typical development; the strongest association occurred with first-trimester exposure. Exposure was also elevated among boys with DD and was strongest in the third trimester. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Outcomes & Safety, Stroke / 22.04.2014

Priv.-Doz. Dr. med. Dr. phil. Martin Ebinger Oberarzt der Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Neurologie am Campus Charité Mitte Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB) Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin | CCM Charitéplatz 1 | 10117 Berlin | GermanyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Priv.-Doz. Dr. med. Dr. phil. Martin Ebinger Oberarzt der Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Neurologie am Campus Charité Mitte Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB) Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin | CCM Charitéplatz 1 | 10117 Berlin | Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ebinger: The main findings of our study was a significant time reduction during randomized weeks with prehospital thrombolysis compared to control weeks with regular care. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research / 22.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rustam Al-Shahi Salman Professor of clinical neurology and MRC senior clinical fellow, University of Edinburgh Honorary consultant neurologist, NHS Lothian upcoming JAMA publication:MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rustam Al-Shahi Salman Professor of clinical neurology and MRC senior clinical fellow University of Edinburgh Honorary consultant neurologist, NHS Lothian MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Al-Shahi Salman: Patients with arteriovenous malformations (abnormal connection between arteries and veins) in the brain that have not ruptured had a lower risk of stroke or death for up to 12 years if they received conservative management of the condition compared to an interventional  treatment. Interventional treatment for brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) with procedures such as neurosurgical excision, endovascular embolization, or stereotactic radiosurgery can be used alone or in combination to attempt to obliterate bAVMs. Because interventions may have complications and the untreated clinical course of unruptured bAVMs can be benign, some patients choose conservative management (no intervention). Guidelines have endorsed both intervention and conservative management for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations. Whether conservative management is superior to interventional treatment for unruptured bAVMs is uncertain because of the lack of long-term experience, according to background information in the article. (more…)
Author Interviews, CHEST, Menopause, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 20.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rodrigo Pinto Pedrosa, MD, PhD Sleep and Heart Laboratory, Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco Pernambuclo, Brazil MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pedrosa: Perimenopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study evaluated the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and arterial stiffness and hypertension in perimenopausal women. OSA (apnea-hypopnea index: ≥5 events/hour) and moderate/severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index: ≥15 events/h) were diagnosed in 111 (40.1%) and 31 (11.1%) of women, respectively.  Women with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea  had a higher prevalence of hypertension, were prescribed more medications for hypertension, had higher awake blood pressure,  nocturnal blood pressure,  diastolic blood pressure, as well as higher arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity: 11.5 [10.1 to 12.3] vs 9.5 [8.6 to 10.8] m/s, p<0.001) than women without obstructive sleep apnea, respectively. Oxygen desaturation index during the night was independently associated with 24h arterial blood pressure and with arterial stiffness. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, CHEST, Cleveland Clinic, Lung Cancer / 20.04.2014

Daniel I. Sessler, M.D. Michael Cudahy Professor and Chair, Department of Outcomes Research Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland,MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniel I. Sessler, M.D. Michael Cudahy Professor and Chair, Department of Outcomes Research Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sessler: Free fatty acids, arachidonic acid and linoleic acid, and their metabolites hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (5-HETE, 11-HETE, 12-HETE, and 15-HETE) were 1.8 to 5.7-fold greater in 37 patients with adenocarcinoma versus 111 patients without cancer (all P<0.001). Areas under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve were significantly greater than 0.50 discriminating lung cancer patients and controls for all biomarkers and phospholipids, and ranged between 0.69 and 0.82 (all P<0.001) for lung cancer patients versus controls. Arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and 15-HETE showed sensitivity and specificity >0.70 at the best cutpoint. Concentrations of free fatty acids and their metabolites were similar in 18 squamous-cell carcinoma patients and 54 non-cancer controls. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Genetic Research, Journal Clinical Oncology / 20.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Allison W. Kurian, M.D., M.Sc. Assistant Professor of Medicine and of Health Research and Policy Divisions of Oncology and Epidemiology Allison W. Kurian, M.D., M.Sc. Assistant Professor of Medicine and of Health Research and Policy Divisions of Oncology and Epidemiology and James M. Ford, MD Associate Professor of Medicine Pediatrics and Genetics, Division of Oncology, Stanford University School of MedicineJames M. Ford, MD Associate Professor of Medicine Pediatrics and Genetics, Division of Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that 11% of women who met standard clinical criteria for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation testing, yet had tested negative, actually carried an actionable mutation in another cancer-related gene.  We found that patients were highly motivated to learn about their genetic test results and new recommendations for cancer risk reduction.  Over a short follow-up period, colonoscopy screening resulted in early detection of a tubular adenoma in a patient found to have a high-risk MLH1 mutation, and thus the multiple-gene testing in our study has likely prevented at least one cancer to date.  We conclude that multiple-gene sequencing can benefit appropriately selected patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Mental Health Research / 20.04.2014

Dr. George Patton Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, VIC, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. George Patton Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Patton: Although there has been wide acceptance that the teens are a time when emotional problems are common, views have been polarized about their significance. Some have viewed these problems are usual for this phase of life with little significance for later life mental health; others have argued that early psychiatric intervention was essential given the risks of ongoing disorders. In this sample almost two thirds of girls and a third of boys had an episode of emotional troubles (anxiety and depression) at a level that would concern a family physician. For those where the episode were brief lasting weeks to months, recovery without further later life episodes was common. In contrast those with persistent (longer than 6 months) or recurrent emotional problems during the teens had a high likelihood of similar problems with depression and anxiety in their twenties. In general these emotional problems persisted more in females than in males. (more…)
Author Interviews, Bipolar Disorder, JAMA / 19.04.2014

John I. Nurnberger, Jr., M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Psychiatry Joyce and Iver Small Professor of PsychiatryMedicalResearch.com Interview with: John I. Nurnberger, Jr., M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Psychiatry Joyce and Iver Small Professor of Psychiatry Indiana University School of Medicine   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Nurnberger: The main findings of the study are the biological pathways identified to be associated with bipolar disorder, including those involved in hormonal regulation, calcium channels, second messenger systems, and glutamate signaling. Gene expression studies implicated neuronal development pathways as well. These findings highlight the role of certain neurobiological processes that have been considered in prior hypotheses of bipolar disorder. They underline a role for calcium signaling, which has only been clearly implicated in the genetics of bipolar disorder in recent years. They also feature hormonal processes such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which has been known to be involved in stress responses, but has not been prominent in many recent theories of the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Johns Hopkins, Prostate Cancer / 19.04.2014

Angelo M. De Marzo MD PhD Professor of Pathology Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Baltimore, MD 21231MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Angelo M. De Marzo MD PhD Professor of Pathology Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Baltimore, MD 21231 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. De Marzo: Working as a team with Dr. Elizabeth Platz and a group of other investigators we found that men with chronic inflammation in their benign areas of their prostate biopsies had a higher chance of prostate cancer,  and especially higher grade cancers, which are associated with disease aggressiveness. A key unique aspect of the study is that the samples were taken from man who were enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), a trial in which all men entering the study had a relatively low PSA, and, all men at the end of study who did not already have a diagnosis of prostate cancer were offered a prostate biopsy regardless of their PSA. This study design, unlike a standard association study, allowed us to minimize the potential bias whereby inflammation is associated itself with elevations in PSA. In this standard design approach, when cancer is detected it could artifactually appear that inflammation is associated with cancer because the inflammation was in part driving the PSA elevation, which prompted the biopsy in which cancer was detected. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, MD Anderson, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 18.04.2014

Dr. Lorraine R. Reitzel Ph.D Associate Professor in the Health Program of the Department of Educational Psychology College of Education, University of Houston in Houston, Texas.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Lorraine R. Reitzel Ph.D Associate Professor in the Health Program of the Department of Educational Psychology College of Education, University of Houston in Houston, Texas. MedicalResearch.com: Please tell us about your study. Dr. Reitzel: The current study represented a secondary analysis of data that were collected by Dr. Lorna McNeill and colleagues at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The parent study was focused on better understanding factors associated with cancer risk among African American adults, and several faculty members including myself contributed ideas about the variables we thought might play a role. The current study represents one of several studies emerging from these data. The current study was led by Ms. Pragati S. Advani, a graduate student on my research team, who was interested in better understanding the associations between financial strain and modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer among African American adults. Financial strain represents an unfavorable income to needs ratio and was assessed using a questionnaire that tapped into current difficulty affording things that represent pretty basic components of life, including suitable food, clothing, and housing for the respondent and their family. The modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer examined included smoking cigarettes, at-risk alcohol use, being overweight/obese, getting insufficient physical activity, and having inadequate fruit and vegetable intake. We also included a tally of the total number of these factors (0 to 5) as an outcome variable of interest. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition / 18.04.2014

Dr. Annette Dickinson PhD Consultant to the Council for Responsible Nutrition.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Annette Dickinson PhD Consultant to the Council for Responsible Nutrition.   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?   Dr. Dickinson: “A five-year series of consumer surveys (2007 to 2011) consistently found that about half of adult consumers use dietary supplements on a regular basis, and a higher percentage (about 2/3) report using dietary supplements when occasional as well as regular use is taken into account.  Over the five years, there was a shift in the pattern of supplement use, with the percentage of respondents who said they regularly used mostly a multivitamin declining, and the percentage who said they regularly used a variety of products increasing.  The top 7 products used were:  multivitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, B vitamins, and vitamin E.  The main reasons given for supplement use were for overall health and wellness (58% of users) and to fill nutrient gaps in the diet (42%).  Supplement users were more likely than nonusers to say they try to eat a balanced diet, visit their doctor regularly, get a good night's sleep, exercise regularly, and maintain a healthy weight.  This indicates that supplement use is part of an overall approach to seeking a healthy lifestyle.” (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Weight Research / 18.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sneha Sridhar, MPH Kaiser Permanente, Division of Research 2000 Broadway, 3rd Floor Oakland, CA  94612 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?   Answer: We found that women whose weight gain during pregnancy exceeded the current Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations were 46% more likely to have an overweight or obese child at ages 2-5, compared to women who met the recommendations. The association was stronger among women who were of normal weight before pregnancy. These normal weight women were more likely to have an overweight or obese child if they gained either below or above the IOM recommendations. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Thyroid Disease / 18.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Donald S. A. McLeod, FRACP, MPH Department of Population Health, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. McLeod: We examined the incidence of Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis by race/ethnicity among U.S. active duty service personnel aged 20-54 years over a 15-year period (more than 20,000,000 person years follow-up). Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. In women, we found that Graves’ disease was almost twice as common among non-Hispanic black and Asian-Pacific Islander personnel compared with non-Hispanic white personnel.  While in men, non-Hispanic black and Asian-Pacific Islander personnel had over two-and-a-half times higher incidence compared with non-Hispanic white personnel. The opposite pattern existed for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, with non-Hispanic white personnel having the highest incidence, and non-Hispanic black and Asian-Pacific Islander personnel the lowest incidence. Hispanic personnel did not have significantly different incidence compared to white personnel for either disorder. (more…)
Author Interviews, Baylor College of Medicine Houston, BMJ, Outcomes & Safety / 17.04.2014

Dr Hardeep Singh MD MPH  Chief of the health policy, quality & informatics program at the Veterans Affairs Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, based at the Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center in Houston, Texas Associate professor at Baylor College of Medicine in HoustonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Hardeep Singh MD MPH  Chief of the health policy, quality & informatics program at the Veterans Affairs Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, based at the Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center in Houston, Texas Associate professor at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr Singh: We built estimates of diagnostic error by compiling and analyzing data from three previous studies. These studies evaluated situations such as unexpected return visits and lack of timely follow up and provided researchers with an estimated frequency of diagnostic error. This frequency was then applied to the general adult population. Diagnostic errors, which we defined as missed opportunities to make a correct or timely diagnosis based on available evidence—occur in about 5 percent of adults in the United States. (more…)
Author Interviews, Surgical Research / 17.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Dr. Oliver Muensterer MD Ph.D Division of Pediatric Surgery New York Medical College Maria Fareri Children's Hospital of Westchester Medical Center Valhalla, NY 10595, USAOliver Muensterer MD Ph.D Division of Pediatric Surgery New York Medical College Maria Fareri Children's Hospital of Westchester Medical Center Valhalla, NY 10595, USA   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Muensterer: We looked at the functionality of Google Glass, a novel head-mounted mobile computer with integrated display, camera, microphone, and speaker, in the clinical environment. While the technology has a lot of promise to be useful for pediatric surgeons, in its current version, it also has significant limitations. The most obvious utilities are hands-free photo- and videodocumentation, looking up medical terminology on the internet, help with coding and billing activities, and hands-free telecommunication. (more…)
Author Interviews, Thromboembolism / 17.04.2014

Craig M. Lilly, M.D. Professor of Medicine Departments of Medicine, Anesthesiology, and Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, and Clinical and Population Health Research Program, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Worcester, MAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Craig M. Lilly, M.D. Professor of Medicine Departments of Medicine, Anesthesiology, and Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical School, and Clinical and Population Health Research Program, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Worcester, MA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lilly: Critically ill adults with clinicians that chose to manage them with prophylactic anticoagulation were more likely to survive their hospitalization than patients that received venous thrombosis prophylaxis with mechanical devices or were not treated with venous thrombosis prophylaxis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, OBGYNE / 17.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nestor E. Vain M.D. Professor of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires Vice-President, FUNDASAMIN (Foundation for Maternal Infant Health), Argentina Director, Neonatology, Hospital Sanatorio de la Trinidad Palermo and San Isidro, Buenos Aires MedicalResearch.com: What is the background of this study? Prof. Vain: Delayed umbilical cord clamping (DCC) is currently recommended by many professional associations. The main reason is that it decreases the incidence of iron deficiency in infancy, a very serious public health problem in developing countries, but also prevalent in the USA and in western Europe. Besides it has other advantages in premature infants such as better adaptation of the cardiovascular system to extra-uterine life. How does Delayed umbilical cord clamping work?. Approximately 30% of the fetal blood volume is in the placenta at the time of delivery. Waiting for a couple of minutes before clamping the cord allows for a large part of that blood volume to return to the infant. (this process is known as placental transfusion) Despite of these well known facts, and the absence of serious complications, the compliance with the recommendation of delayed umbilical cord clamping is low. Why is that? There may be a variety of reasons but we are certain that one very important one is that the majority of obstetricians and neonatologists believe that to achieve an efficient placental transfusion and to avoid a negative effect from gravity, it is necessary to hold the infant at or below the level of the vagina during those 2 minutes. In that way the procedure is cumbersome and it prolongs unwillingly a separation between the infant and the mother. The believe that the infant needs to be at that low level is based on small studies performed more than 35 years ago. (more…)