Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, JAMA / 07.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Samir Gupta, MD, MSCS San Diego Veterans Affairs Healthcare System Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine Moores Cancer Center University of California San Diego MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Dr. Gupta: In a randomized, comparative effectiveness study among uninsured individuals not up to date with screening, we found that mailed outreach invitations to complete colonoscopy outreach, and mailed outreach to complete a non-invasive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) tripled screening rates compared to usual care. Additionally, we found that outreach was almost twice as effective with offers for FIT versus colonoscopy screening. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology, Pain Research / 07.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jelle Vehof PhD Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology King’s College London, St Thomas’ Hospital, Waterloo, London, England Department of Ophthalmology & Epidemiology University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Vehof: The current study provides the first empirical evidence that individuals with dry eye disease show altered pain sensitivity. Specifically, this study demonstrates that subjects with DED pain and discomfort complaints have lower pain threshold and pain tolerance of heat-based stimulus compared to those without. These findings support the hypothesis that a subset of persons with DED is more sensitive to pain. (more…)
Author Interviews, Disability Research, Lancet / 07.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Evelyn Wong MBBS (Hons) MPH PhD Candidate Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute Level 4, 99 Commercial Rd, Melbourne. VIC 3004 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Researchers at Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute reviewed previously published literature on the association between diabetes and the risk of developing physical and functional disability. In this study, disability was defined by a person’s difficulty walking; carrying out daily activities such as using a telephone or transport, managing finances, shopping; or attending to basic self-care needs such as eating, dressing and bathing. Although there have been many previous studies on diabetes and disability, the findings have varied and to date, no one has pooled all studies together for a combined measure of risk. From 26 relevant studies, we measured the pooled effect of the association between diabetes and disability. We found that diabetes increased the risk of disability by 50-80% compared to those without diabetes and this result was consistent across all types of disability. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research, UT Southwestern / 07.08.2013

Carol S. North, MD, MPE The Nancy and Ray L. Hunt Chair in Crisis Psychiatry Director, Program in Trauma and Disaster, VA North Texas Health Care System 4500 S. Lancaster Rd., Dallas, TX 75216 Professor of Psychiatry and Surgery/Division of Emergency Medicine UT Southwestern Medical Center 6363 Forest Park Rd. Dallas, TX 75390-8828MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carol S. North, MD, MPE The Nancy and Ray L. Hunt Chair in Crisis Psychiatry Director, Program in Trauma and Disaster, VA North Texas Health Care System 4500 S. Lancaster Rd., Dallas, TX 75216 Professor of Psychiatry and Surgery/Division of Emergency Medicine UT Southwestern Medical Center 6363 Forest Park Rd. Dallas, TX 75390-8828 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In post-disaster settings, a systematic framework of case identification, triage, and mental health interventions can guide overall mental health response and should be integrated into emergency medicine and trauma care responses. (more…)
Annals Thoracic Surgery, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Pulmonary Disease / 07.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hossein Almassi, MD Professor, Cardiothoracic Surgery Medical College of Wisconsin and Zablocki VA Medical Center Milwaukee, Wi, 53226 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main findings of this study were that off-pump coronary bypass grafting did not have a positive differential impact on outcome of patients with COPD as compared to the standard operation performed on cardiopulmonary bypass. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Pediatrics / 07.08.2013

Kirsten Ness, PT, PhD Epidemiology and Cancer Control MS 735, Room S-6013 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital 262 Danny Thomas Place Memphis, TN 38105-3678MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kirsten Ness, PT, PhD Epidemiology and Cancer Control MS 735, Room S-6013 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital 262 Danny Thomas Place Memphis, TN 38105-3678 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Even though they report similar levels of physical activity, children who were treated for cancer and who survive at least five years, on average, do not perform as well as their siblings on tests of physical performance. They have muscle weakness and decreased cardiopulmonary fitness. (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Smoking, UCLA / 06.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Virender Rehan, MD Professor of Pediatrics Chief, Division of Neonatology Director, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Director, Neonatal-Perinatal Fellowship Training Program Co-Director Perinatal Research Center Harbor UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Torrance, CA, 90502 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rehan: The main findings of the study include the likelihood of transmission of asthma to third generation offspring following maternal smoking during pregnancy even when child’s mother didn’t smoke. And these effects seem to be more profound in the upper airways of males compared to that in females. (more…)
Author Interviews, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Vitamin D / 06.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christopher J Gallagher MD Bone Metabolism Unit, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gallagher: Vitamin D 400 IU daily will meet the RDA ( Recommended Dietary Allowance for 97.5% of population) for young white women age 25-45 years. Black women may need more- 800-1600 IU, however,the number of black women in study was small and this dose needs confirmation. This data is based on exceeding a serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D level of 20ng/ml ( 50nmol/l) (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Long Term Care / 06.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. James R. Edgerton, MD Cardiopulmonary Research Science and Technology Institute, Dallas, Texas MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Edgerton: We can use certain patient factors to determine if a patient will be discharged to extended care facility and to predict if he/she will be successfully discharged from that facility to home. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 06.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark D. DeBoer, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics Division of Pediatric Endocrinology University of Virginia Health System P.O. Box 800386 Charlottesville, VA 22908 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. DeBoer: Preschool and kindergarten children drinking SSB (compared to infrequent/non-drinkers) were more likely to be obese and among 2 year-olds had more unhealthy weight gain over the next 2 years. SSB consumption is thus linked to higher weight status in children age 2-5 years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Erasmus, Heart Disease, Tobacco Research / 03.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. R.T. van Domburg Clinical epidemiologist, Associate Professor Erasmus Medical Center Department of Cardiology Ba561 ‘s-Gravendijkwal 230 3015 CE Rotterdam MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study? Answer: We collected data from the first patients who underwent coronary angioplasty in the early 1980s and followed them for 25 to 30 years. We found that patients who were able to quit smoking in the year following their PCI lived on average more than two years longer than those who continued to smoke. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hip Fractures, Orthopedics / 03.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pim A de Jong Heidelberglaan 100, E01.1A32, 3508 GA Utrecht, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We observed that patients with a vertebral fracture on a routine clinical chest computed tomography exam had a tripled risk of future hip fracture after adjustment for age and gender. (more…)
Author Interviews, Radiology / 03.08.2013

 Ana P Lourenco MD Assistant Professor of Diagnostic Imaging Alpert Medical School of Brown UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ana P Lourenco MD Assistant Professor of Diagnostic Imaging Alpert Medical School of Brown University MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lourenco: Our study found a significantly higher recall rate for screening mammography at a tertiary referral hospital compared with a community private practice. We compared recall rates for 5 fellowship trained radiologists reading at both sites, and all five radiologists had higher recall rates at the hospital site. When we analyzed patient factors in an effort to explain why this might be, we found that the average age of patients in the hospital was younger (which is known to be associated with higher recall rate) and that more patients at the hospital had a personal history of prior breast biopsy or surgery (also known to be associated with higher recall rate). (more…)
Author Interviews, HPV, Infections, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 02.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com interview with: Matthew B. Schabath, Ph.D Assistant Member, Department of Cancer Epidemiology H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive MRC-CANCONT, Tampa, Florida MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schabath: In this study we found that Asian/Pacific Islander men had the lowest incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and that they exhibited a lower probability of acquiring new HPV infections. Furthermore, men of multiple and mixed race had the second lowest incidence of HPV infection and however, while they had a lower probability of acquiring HPV, they also had a lower probability of clearing an HPV infection once acquired. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hand Washing, Outcomes & Safety / 01.08.2013

Clare Rock, MD Department of Epidemiology and Public Health University of Maryland School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, 21201MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Clare Rock, MD Department of Epidemiology and Public Health University of Maryland School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, 21201 Summary paragraph: Dr. Rock: Hand hygiene is an essential step in infection prevention and a focus on improving and sustaining hand hygiene compliance is needed. However, it remains unclear whether or not hand hygiene is required prior to non-sterile glove use. Our study would support that it is not a necessary step and a potential waste of healthcare worker time. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, OBGYNE / 01.08.2013

Hemodialysis.com Interview with:: Marcela G. del Carmen, M.D., M.P.H Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Vincent Obstetrics and Gynecology Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Yawkey 9 E Boston, Massachusetts MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study sample included 7,973 women, including 7,363 (92.3%) whites and 610 (7.7%) AA, diagnosed with vulvar cancer from 1973 to 2009. African American women were younger and had a higher rate of distant metastasis compared to white women. African American women were more likely to be treated by radiaton therapy and less likely to receive survival therapy. Although the study found that compared to white women, African Americans were more likely to be younger and have more advanced disease upon diagnosis, they had lower rates of vulvar cancer related mortality compared to white women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Radiology / 31.07.2013

Hybrid PET/MR Imaging of the Heart: Feasibility and Initial Results Felix Nensa, MD Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147 Essen, Germany; MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Nensa: Cardiac positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) turned out to be feasible with an integrated whole-body 3-Tesla PET/MRI system. Despite the presence of a PET detector in the magnetic field of the MR imaging unit, high-quality cardiac MR images were acquired. PET images originating from a PET/CT and the PET/MR scanner showed very good visual agreement and no statistical significant difference of the mean was found in standardized uptake values, however, variance was considerable. In patients with myocardial infarction, PET and MR images were in good concordance regarding both, cine imaging and late gadolinium-enhanced imaging. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hospital Acquired, Johns Hopkins / 31.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bruce Y. Lee, MD MBA Associate Professor of International Health Director of Operations Research International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC) Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 855 N. Wolfe Street Suite 600 Baltimore, MD 21205Bruce Y. Lee, MD MBA Associate Professor of International Health Director of Operations Research International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC) Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 855 N. Wolfe Street Suite 600 Baltimore, MD 21205 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lee: Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) is every hospital’s problem. A VRE outbreak in one hospital, even if the hospital is relatively small or distant, can readily spread to other hospitals in a region because patients leaving one hospital often will go to other hospitals either directly or after an intervening stay at home. These patients can then carry VRE with them to other hospitals. Therefore, as long a single hospital has a problem with VRE or any other healthcare associated infection, all other hospitals are at risk. Conquering VRE then requires cooperation among hospitals. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Lung Cancer, Radiology, Smoking / 31.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Linda L. Humphrey, M.D., M.P.H. Professor of Medicine Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health for Oregon Health & Science University;Associate Chief of Medicine at the Portland VA Medical Center Dr. Humphrey comments on this important study on Screening for Lung Cancer With Low-Dose Computed Tomography: Lung cancer is the 3rd leading cause of cancer in the United States and the leading cause of cancer related death. It is estimated that in 2012 there were 226,160 cases of lung cancer and 160, 340 lung cancer related death in the US. In addition, lung cancer is the leading cause of years of life lost to cancer. Cigarette smoking is by far the leading cause of lung cancer in the US and while many people have quit smoking, data in the US indicate that 37% of adults are either current or former smokers and at risk of lung cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Radiology, Yale / 30.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Brian Haas MD Department of Diagnostic Radiology,Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT Dr. Brian Haas MD Department of Diagnostic Radiology,Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Haas: We found that tomosynthesis helped to reduce the number of women who undergo a screening mammogram and are called back for additional imaging and testing. Specifically, the greatest reductions in patients being called back were seen in younger patients and those with dense breasts. Tomosynthesis is analogous to a 3D mammogram, and improves contrast of cancers against the background breast parenchyma. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Lancet, Lung Cancer / 30.07.2013

Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, MSc, PhD Head of Research Group for Work, Environment & Cancer Danish Cancer Society Research Center Strandboulevarden 49 2100 Copenhagen ØMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, MSc, PhD Head of Research Group for Work, Environment & Cancer Danish Cancer Society Research Center Strandboulevarden 49 2100 Copenhagen Ø MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study shows that people who live at locations with higher levels of particles in the air are at higher risk for development of lung cancer. It seems that there is no threshold for air pollution with particles below which there is no risk; the results show that it is more like “the more air pollution the worse and the less pollution the better”. The strongest association was seen for adenocarcinoma of the lung. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes / 30.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Henna Cederberg MD PhD, Postdoctoral Fellow University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital Department of Medicine 70210 Kuopio, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cederberg: The association of risk variants previously identified for type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia with gestational diabetes were evaluated in 533 Finnish women with gestational diabetes and 407 controls. The main finding of the study was that gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes share a similar genetic background. Two risk variants of MTNR1B were significantly associated with gestional diabetes. Our study suggests that risk variants of MTNR1B are associated with gestational diabetes by increasing fasting glucose and decreasing insulin secretion. In addition, another six single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia were nominally associated with gestational diabetes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 30.07.2013

Gary A. Smith, MD, DrPH Center for Injury Research and Policy, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio; and Child Injury Prevention Alliance, Columbus, OhioMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gary A. Smith, MD, DrPH
Center for Injury Research and Policy, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio; and Child Injury Prevention Alliance, Columbus, Ohio
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Smith: During the nine-year study period, more than 12,000 children were treated each year in U.S. emergency departments for injuries from choking on food, which equals 34 children each day. Hard candy caused the most choking episodes (15 percent), followed by other candy (13 percent), meat, other than hot dogs (12 percent), and bones (12 percent). These four food types alone accounted for more than half of all the choking episodes in the study. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hormone Therapy, Neurological Disorders, Parkinson's / 28.07.2013

 Kalipada Pahan, Ph.D. The Floyd A. Davis, M.D., Endowed Chair of Neurology Professor Departments of Neurological Sciences, Biochemistry and Pharmacology Rush University Medical Center 1735 West Harrison St, Suite 320 Chicago, IL 60612MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kalipada Pahan, Ph.D. The Floyd A. Davis, M.D., Endowed Chair of Neurology Professor Departments of Neurological Sciences, Biochemistry and Pharmacology Rush University Medical Center 1735 West Harrison St, Suite 320 Chicago, IL 60612 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pahan: While different toxins and a number of complex genetic approaches are used to model Parkinson’s disease in mice, this study delineates that simple castration is sufficient to cause persistent Parkinson’s like pathology and symptoms in male mice. This simple, but persistent, model may be helpful in discovering drugs against Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, these results suggest that sudden drop of testosterone level could trigger Parkinson’s disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Kidney Stones / 27.07.2013

Dr. Pietro Manuel Ferraro Division of Nephrology–Renal Program, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Columbus-Gemelli Hospital, Rome, ItalyMedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Pietro Manuel Ferraro Division of Nephrology–Renal Program, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Columbus-Gemelli Hospital, Rome, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ferraro: We analyzed three large cohorts over time to see if those with prevalent or incident kidney stones might have a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease (fatal or non fatal myocardial infarction or the need for coronary revascularization). The cohorts consisted of over 200,000 participants without any prior history of coronary heart disease. After a median follow-up of over 8 years, we observed that women affected with stones seem to have a greater risk of developing coronary heart disease independent of a number of other known cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes or high blood pressure. We did not observe a significant association among men. (more…)
Author Interviews, NEJM / 27.07.2013

Wendy Chung, MD PhD Herbert Irving Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine Director of Clinical Genetics Columbia University 1150 St. Nicholas Avenue, Room 620 New York, NY 10032MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wendy Chung, MD PhD Herbert Irving Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine Director of Clinical Genetics Columbia University 1150 St. Nicholas Avenue, Room 620 New York, NY 10032 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chung: We have identified a potassium channel as a new genetic cause of pulmonary hypertension and demonstrated it as a cause of pulmonary hypertension in patients with familial disease and sporadic disease without a family history of pulmonary hypertension. In vitro we were able to rescue several of the mutations pharmacologically. This potassium channel now provides a new target for treatment for pulmonary hypertension. (more…)
Author Interviews, Menopause, OBGYNE / 26.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Catherine A. Matthews, MD Associate Professor and Division Chief Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Matthews: Women under 50 should try and preserve their ovaries at the time of hysterectomy for benign disease; however, women over 50 should consider elective ovarian removal as a way to reduce ovarian cancer. There is no adverse impact on cardiovascular, bone or sexual health in women over 50 who elect ovarian removal. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Stroke / 26.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michelle N. McDonnell, PhD Division of Health Sciences International Centre for Allied Health Evidence University of South Australia Adelaide, SA 5001 Australia.Michelle N. McDonnell, PhD Division of Health Sciences International Centre for Allied Health Evidence University of South Australia Adelaide, SA 5001 Australia. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. McDonnell: In this study, we asked people how many times a week they engaged in intense physical activity, enough to work up a sweat. People responded that they were physically active 0, 1-3 or 4 or more times a week. When we followed up these people for several years, those who did not do any vigorous exercise were 20% more likely to have a stroke, compared to those who exercised four or more times a week. However, when we adjusted these results for other risk factors, this attenuated the effect down to 14% which was not statistically significant. We also noticed that people who exercised four or more times a week had less hypertension (high blood pressure), were less likely to be obese and less likely to have diabetes. Each of these things on their own reduces your risk of stroke, so when we adjust for that the association between physical activity and stroke is weaker (20% to 14%). So physical activity seems to have an effect on stroke risk by improving these other risk factors. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Nature, University of Pennsylvania / 25.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Xiaolu Yang, Ph.D.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Xiaolu Yang, Ph.D. Professor of Cancer Biology at the Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania and the Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Yang: TAp73 is a structural homologue of the preeminent tumor suppressor p53, but its role in tumorigenesis has been unclear. In this study, we show that TAp73 supports the proliferation of tumor cells. Mechanistically, TAp73 activates the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway. This function of TAp73 is required for maintaining a robust biosynthesis and anti-oxidant defense in tumor cells. These finding connects TAp73 to oncogenic growth and suggest that G6PD may be a valuable target for tumor therapy. (more…)