Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Emergency Care / 06.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jessica E. Galarraga, MD, MPH Resident Physician Department of Emergency Medicine George Washington University Hospital 2120 L. St. N.W. Suite 475 Washington D.C. Jessica E. Galarraga, MD, MPH Resident Physician Department of Emergency Medicine George Washington University Hospital 2120 L. St. N.W. Suite 475 Washington D.C.   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Galarraga: This study examined how emergency department (ED) reimbursements for outpatient visits may be impacted by the insurance coverage expansion of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as newly eligible patients gain coverage either through the Medicaid expansion or through health insurance exchanges. We conducted our analyses using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative survey managed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. We found that ED reimbursements for outpatient encounters by the previously uninsured who gain Medicaid insurance may increase by  17 percent and moving Medicaid-expansion ineligible patients to the private insurance market through insurance exchanges may increase reimbursements as high as 39 percent after the act is implemented. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, General Medicine, Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition / 06.11.2013

Cécilia Samieri, PhD Institut pour la Santé Publique et le Développement, Case 11, Université Bordeaux Segalen, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with Cécilia Samieri, PhD Institut pour la Santé Publique et le Développement, Case 11, Université Bordeaux Segalen, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Samieri: That women with healthier dietary patterns at midlife were 40% more likely to survive age 70 or over free of major chronic diseases and with no impairment in physical function, cognition or mental health. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Chemotherapy / 06.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Shuichi Hironaka, MD Clinical Trial Promotion Department, Chiba Cancer Center 666-2 Nitona-cho Chuo-ku Chiba-shi Chiba, 260-8717 Japan MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hironaka: This is the first randomized phase III trial comparing paclitaxel and irinotecan in second-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. This study showed that no statistically significant difference was observed between paclitaxel and irinotecan for overall survival. However, both are reasonable second-line treatment options for advanced gastric cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, NYU, Weight Research / 06.11.2013

Manish Parikh MD Associate Professor of Surgery, NYU School of Medicine Director of Bariatric Surgery, Bellevue Hospital Center 550 First Ave NBV 15 South 7 New York, NY 10010MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Manish Parikh MD Associate Professor of Surgery, NYU School of Medicine Director of Bariatric Surgery, Bellevue Hospital Center 550 First Ave NBV 15 South 7 New York, NY 10010 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Parikh: The main findings of this study is that surgery is safe and effective in patients with type 2 diabetes and BMI under 35.  The overall estimated rate of diabetes remission was 55% at 12 months, ranging from 33% for the adjustable gastric banding, 49% for the “mini” gastric bypass, 54% for the sleeve gastrectomy, 64% for the gastric bypass, 71% for the biliopancreatic diversion, and 81% for ileal transposition. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, University of Michigan / 05.11.2013

Jeremy Sussman, MD, MS Division of General Internal Medicine University of Michigan Staff Scientist, Center for Clinical Management Research Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Healthcare SystemMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jeremy Sussman, MD, MS Division of General Internal Medicine University of Michigan Staff Scientist, Center for Clinical Management Research Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Healthcare System MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sussman: We could prevent up to 180,000 more heart attacks and strokes in America every year using less medication overall. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews / 05.11.2013

Dr. Eric Macy, MD MS Southern California Permanente Medical Group Department of Allergy San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CalifMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Eric Macy, MD MS Southern California Permanente Medical Group Department of Allergy San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, Calif   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Macy: Admission to hospital with a history of penicillin allergy, though often inaccurate, is associated with significantly higher total hospital utilization along with significantly higher rates of MRSA, VRE, and Clostridium difficile infections. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders, Weight Research / 05.11.2013

Chantelle Hart, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Public Health Center for Obesity Research & Education Department of Public Health 3223 N. Broad Street Philadelphia, PA 19140MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chantelle Hart, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Public Health Center for Obesity Research & Education Department of Public Health Philadelphia, PA 19140   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hart: Following one week of sleeping their typical amount, children 8-11 years old were asked to decrease and increase their time in bed by 1.5 hours/night for one week each in random order.  Compared to when children decreased their sleep, when they increased their sleep, they reported consuming 134 kcal/day fewer, had lower fasting levels of leptin, a hunger-regulating hormone that is also highly correlated with the amount of adipose tissue, and weighed approximately 0.5 lbs less.  Reported decreases in food intake were most pronounced later in the day. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Wake Forest / 05.11.2013

Elsayed Z Soliman MD, MSc, MS, FAHA, FACC Director, Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE) Wake Forest School of Medicine Medical Center Blvs, Winston Salem, NC 27157MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elsayed Z Soliman MD, MSc, MS, FAHA, FACC Director, Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE) Wake Forest School of Medicine Medical Center Blvs, Winston Salem, NC 27157 Atrial Fibrillation and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Soliman: Using data from the REGARDS study, one of the largest US cohorts, we examined the risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI) associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). Overall, AF was associated with almost double the risk of MI. When we adjusted for common cardiovascular risk factors and potential confounders, the risk remained significantly high; about 70% increased risk. When we looked at women, men, blacks, and whites separately,  we found significant differences between races and sex.  AF in women and blacks was associated with more than double the risk of MI. This compares to less than 50% increased risk of heart attack associated with AF in men and whites . So AF is basically bad for all, but the risk of MI associated with AF is more pronounced in women and blacks. (more…)
Author Interviews, Orthopedics / 05.11.2013

Dr. Geoffrey S. Marecek, MD Department of Orthopaedic Surgery University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine Los Angeles, CAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Geoffrey S. Marecek, MD Department of Orthopaedic Surgery University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine Los Angeles, CA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Marecek: There were several main findings: 1. It is not safe to drive while wearing a sling or splint on the upper extremities 2. It is not safe to drive while wearing a brace, cast, or boot on the lower extremities 3. Braking function does not return to normal for at least 4 weeks after knee arthroscopy, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA), for 9 weeks after ankle fracture repair, and for 6 weeks after weight bearing begins for a fracture (up to 18 weeks for articular fractures). (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ / 04.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: r. Christopher Jones MD Attending Physician Department of Emergency Medicine, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University One Cooper Plaza, Camden, NJ 08103, USADr. Christopher Jones MD Attending Physician Department of Emergency Medicine, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University One Cooper Plaza, Camden, NJ 08103, USA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jones: We identified a group of 585 clinical trials with at least 500 participants which had been prospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov and completed prior to 2009. Following an extensive search of the medical literature, we were unable to identify published manuscripts for 171 (29%) of these studies. For these unpublished studies we also determined whether results were available in the ClinicalTrials.gov results database, and we found that 133 studies had no results available either in the published literature or on ClinicalTrials.gov. (more…)
Anesthesiology, Author Interviews, Menopause / 04.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Walega, MD Chief of the Division of Pain Medicine Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.David Walega, MD Chief of the Division of Pain Medicine Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Walega: Patients who underwent a single stellate ganglion injection with a local anesthetic had a 50% decrease in moderate -to- very severe hot flashes and this effect appeared to last thru the 6 month duration of the study; the placebo or "sham control" group had injections of saline and they did not demonstrate long-term improvements in hot flash symptoms (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Sugar, Weight Research / 02.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adam D M Briggs Academic Clinical Fellow British Heart Foundation Health Promotion Research Group, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: For the first time this study estimates the impact of a sugary drinks tax in the UK on obesity. We estimate the tax would reduce the number of adults with obesity by around 180,000 or just over 1% of all adults who are obese, and the number of adults who are either overweight or obese by 285,000. The greatest reductions are seen in young adults. We also estimate that the effects of the tax will be similar across all income groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, Rheumatology / 02.11.2013

Dr. Laura Coates Division of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Disease Chapel Allerton Hospital Chapeltown Road Leeds NIHR Clinical Lecturer at the University of LeedsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Laura Coates Division of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Disease Chapel Allerton Hospital Chapeltown Road Leeds NIHR Clinical Lecturer at the University of Leeds
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The TICOPA study showed that treating patients with early psoriatic arthritis to an objective target with regular review improved patient's clinical outcome both in terms of arthritis and skin psoriasis.  There was an increase in adverse events in the tight control arm but only 4 serious infections seen in the tight control arm that were thought to be related to treatment (2 cases of cellulitis, 2 cases of chest infection). (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Vaccine Studies / 01.11.2013

Dr Belén Pedrique Epidemiologist Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative DNDi, 15 Chemin Louis Dunant 1202 Geneva, Switzerland MedicalResearch.com Interview with : Dr Belén Pedrique Epidemiologist Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative DNDi, 15 Chemin Louis Dunant 1202 Geneva, Switzerland MedicalResearch.com : What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pedrique: Of the 850 new drugs and vaccines approved for all diseases in 2000-2011, 4% (37) were for neglected diseases, defined broadly as those prevalent primarily in poor countries: malaria, tuberculosis, 17 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), 11 diarrheal diseases, and 19 other diseases of poverty, excluding HIV/AIDS. Globally these neglected diseases represent an 11% health burden, based on a recent assessment of 2010 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Most newly developed therapeutic products were repurposed versions of existing drugs. Of the 336 brand-new drugs (new chemical entities, or NCEs) approved for all diseases in 2000-2011, only four, or 1%, were for neglected diseases; three were for malaria, and one for diarrheal disease. None were for any of the 17 WHO-listed NTDs Of 148,445 phase I-III clinical trials registered as of Dec 31, 2011, only 1% (2,016) were for neglected diseases. (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer, Weight Research / 01.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Reina Haque, PhD, MPH Research scientist, Kaiser Permanente Department of Research & Evaluation MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main study findings are that men who are overweight or obese when they are diagnosed with prostate cancer are more likely to die from the disease than men who are of healthy weight. In patients with more aggressive forms of prostate cancer, the researchers also found an even stronger correlation between obesity and mortality. The study was restricted to patients undergoing surgical treatment for prostate cancer, rather than other treatments such as radiation or hormone therapy. (more…)
Antioxidants, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Nutrition / 01.11.2013

Kumar Sharma, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Institute of Metabolomic Medicine Director, Center for Renal Translational Medicine University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093-0711MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kumar Sharma, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Institute of Metabolomic Medicine Director, Center for Renal Translational Medicine University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093-0711 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sharma: Main findings are that diabetes is associated with reduced superoxide production in the kidney and heart and that stimulation of superoxide production with AMPK led to improvement in organ function. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Nutrition / 01.11.2013

Diewertje Sluik, DrPH Postdoctoral fellow | Division of Human Nutrition | Section Epidemiology & Pubic Health | Wageningen University Postal address: PO Box 8129 | NL-6700 EV Wageningen| The Netherlands Visiting address: Agrotechnion, Building 309, Room 1019 | Bomenweg 4 | 6703 HD WageningenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Diewertje Sluik, DrPH Postdoctoral fellow | Division of Human Nutrition | Section Epidemiology & Pubic Health | Wageningen University Postal address: PO Box 8129 | NL-6700 EV Wageningen| The Netherlands Visiting address: Agrotechnion, Building 309, Room 1019 | Bomenweg 4 | 6703 HD Wageningen MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Response: The main finding of the study is that lifestyle advice with respect to mortality for patients with diabetes should not differ from recommendations for the general population. Diabetes status did not substantially influence the associations between lifestyle and mortality risk. People with diabetes may benefit more from a healthy diet, but the directions of association were similar. These results highlight that the difficulties in recognizing and diagnosing diabetes and its different stages are of minor importance with respect to healthy diet and lifestyle recommendations, because no difference in recommendations depending on the stage of the disease seems necessary. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Clots, Gender Differences / 01.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. W.M. Lijfering, MD, PhD Department of Clinical Epidemiology, C7-P-89 Leiden University Medical Center PO Box 9600 2300 RC LeidenDr. W.M. Lijfering, MD, PhD Department of Clinical Epidemiology, C7-P-89 Leiden University Medical Center PO Box 9600 2300 RC Leiden   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lijfering: In this study we found that the risk of a first venous thrombosis* is two-fold higher in men than in women once female reproductive risk factors for venous thrombosis are taken into account (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-2.2). These results were found in all age categories (18-70 years) and were not affected by adjustment for body mass index and smoking, or by excluding participants with malignancy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Heart Disease, Weight Research / 01.11.2013

Gianluca Iacobellis MD PhD Professor of Clinical Medicine Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USAMedicalResearh.com Interview with: Gianluca Iacobellis MD PhD Professor of Clinical Medicine Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Iacobellis: Our study suggests that epicardial fat, the fat pad in direct contiguity to the heart, is a good predictor of liver steatosis in obese subjects (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 30.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview Jennifer M. Poti PhD Candidate, Nutritional Epidemiology University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Consumption of solid fat and added sugar (SoFAS) by children exceeds recommendations, but it was not known where kids obtain these “empty calories.” Analyzing data from over 22,000 US children, we found that children consumed about 1/3 of their calories as solid fat and added sugar for foods consumed from retail food stores (including grocery stores and supermarkets), schools, or fast food restaurants in 2009-2010, despite significant decreases from 1977 to 2010 at each location. These mean levels of empty calorie intake greatly exceeded recommended amounts not just for fast foods, but also for foods consumed from schools and from stores. For all survey years, foods consumed by children from schools were higher in solid fat content than foods obtained and consumed from retail food stores. (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, Genetic Research / 30.10.2013

Linda Brzustowicz, M.D. Professor and Chair Department of Genetics Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Linda Brzustowicz, M.D. Professor and Chair Department of Genetics Rutgers University,Piscataway, NJ 08854 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Brzustowicz: The objective of this study was to search for locations in the human genome that impact language ability in individuals with autism as well as in their family members without autism.  To do this, we recruited families with an individual with autism and at least one other family member without autism but with a language learning impairment.  We identified two locations in the human genome that are linked to language ability in these families.  Importantly, these locations do not appear to be specific to language impairment in the individuals with autism, but are related to language ability in other family members as well.  This suggests that while individuals with autism may have new, or de novo, genetic variations that are important for risk of illness, they may also carry inherited genetic variation that influence the expression of their illness.  The effects of these inherited variants can also be seen in the language performance of family members without autism. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Mayo Clinic, Rheumatology / 30.10.2013

Eric Matteson, M.D. Rheumatology Chair Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eric Matteson, M.D. Rheumatology Chair Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. MedicalResearch.com:   What are the main findings of the studies? Dr. Matteson: “The main finding is that patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis have a higher risk of heart disease.  Further, women who experience early menopause also have a higher risk of heart disease.” (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness / 30.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: George Mammen, PhD Candidate Health & Exercise Psychology Unit University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer:
  • 25 out of the 30 studies found PA to protect against depression; majority of these were of high methodological quality
  • Decreasing PA overtime can increase the risk of developing depression; increasing PA overtime can reduce the risk of developing depression
  • In terms of dosage, the review highlighted studies that showed even low levels, such as 20 mins of walking a day, can prevent the onset of depression. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Rheumatology / 29.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lotta Ljung, MD, PhD Umeå University, Umeå and Karolinska  Institute Stockholm, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ljung:  In this observational study we observed a lower risk of acute coronary syndromes in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exposed to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) compared with the risk among patients without this exposure. The adjusted relative risk (HR) was 0.73-0.82  among TNFi exposed patients compared with the biologics-naive RA cohort, depending on the time frame evaluated, which can be concluded as a moderately lower risk. Compared with the risk in the general population, the risk in RA patients was higher, whether exposed to TNFi or not. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, OBGYNE / 29.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Ketil Stordal Researcher/consultant paediatrician National Institute of Public Health Norway MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Stordal: Mothers who used iron supplementation during pregnancy had an increased risk for having children with a diagnosis of celiac disease. This association was not caused by maternal anemia during pregnancy, anemia was not a predictor of celiac disease in the offspring. The risk for celiac disease when the mother had used the highest doses and for the longest period. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education / 29.10.2013

Lauren Block, MD Assistant Professor, North Shore–LIJ Hofstra School of Medicine 2001 Marcus Ave., Suite S160 Lake Success, NY 11042MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lauren Block, MD Assistant Professor, North Shore–LIJ Hofstra School of Medicine 2001 Marcus Ave., Suite S160 Lake Success, NY 11042   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Block: Our goal was to look at how often doctors in training were performing basic niceties with their patients, such as introducing themselves and sitting down. We found that while the doctors usually asked open-ended questions and touched patients, resident physicians were unlikely to introduce themselves, explain their role, or sit down when talking to patients. (more…)
Author Interviews / 29.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lorenz Raber, MD University Hospital Bern Bern, Switzerland

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Raber: The main finding of the clinical study is that the benefit of a biolimus-eluting stent using a biodegradable polymer (Biomatrix, BES) regarding MACE (cardiac death, target vessel MI, TLR) continued to accrue during the second year of follow-up, actually with a similar relative risk reduction as observed during the first year. After one year, the timepoint at which most patients stopped dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), no difference in safety (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis) was observed between BES and the control group (bare metal stent, BMS). This largely confirms the principle concept of biodegradable polymer stent platforms. The results of the imaging substudy provide a mechanistic explanation for the observed benefit with BES.  Specifically, BES showed a lower neointimal thickness, a low frequency of uncovered and malapposed stent struts  (OCT) and the absence of positive remodeling (IVUS) at 13 months follow-up. (more…)