Author Interviews, BMJ, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Genetic Research, Medical Research Centers, Nutrition, Weight Research / 19.03.2014

Prof. Lu Qi, Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health and Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Lu Qi, Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health and Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lu Qi: In this study, we for the first time provide reproducible evidence from three large cohort studies to show that the association between regular consumption of fried foods and higher BMI was particularly pronounced among people with a greater genetic predisposition to obesity. On the other hand, the adverse genetic effects on BMI were also amplified by consuming more fried foods, the effects among those who ate fried foods more than four times a week was about twice as large compared with those who ate them less than once a week. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Vanderbilt, Weight Research / 19.03.2014

Dr. Eliana M. Perrin, MD, MPH Associate Vice Chancellor for Research, and Director, Office of Research Development University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill  and Associate Professor Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7225MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Dr. Eliana M. Perrin, MD, MPH Associate Vice Chancellor for Research, and Director, Office of Research Development University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill  and Associate Professor Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7225 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Perrin: The study included a large, diverse sample of 863 low-income parents of two-month-olds participating in Greenlight, an obesity prevention trial taking place at four medical centers: UNC, New York University, Vanderbilt University and the University of Miami.  Among all of the parents, behaviors that are thought to be related to later obesity were highly prevalent. Exclusive formula feeding was more than twice as common (45 percent) as exclusive breastfeeding (19 percent). Twelve percent had already introduced solid food, 43 percent put infants to bed with bottles, 23 percent propped bottles instead of holding the bottle by hand (which can result in overfeeding), 20 percent always fed when the infant cried, and 38 percent always tried to get their children to finish their milk.  In addition, 90 percent of the infants were exposed to television and 50 percent actively watched TV (meaning parents put their children in front of the television in order to watch).  There were differences in these behaviors by race and ethnicity, and study results show that culturally-tailored counseling should be offered to parents of different backgrounds who may feed and play with their children differently. (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer, Radiology / 18.03.2014

Dr. Maarten de Rooij MD, PhD Candidate Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Gelderland 6525 GA, The NetherlaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Maarten de Rooij MD, PhD Candidate Department of Radiology Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre Nijmegen, Gelderland 6525 GA, The Netherlands   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. de Rooij : Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer related death. The current diagnosis is based on ‘random or blind’ systematic transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies in men with an elevated PSA. This can lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment of prostate cancer, but can also miss important tumors. The role of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) to improve the diagnosis of prostate cancer is evolving. In this meta-analysis we determined the diagnostic accuracy of mpMRI for the detection of prostate cancer. Our analysis included 7 studies using mpMRI which showed high overall specificity (0.88; 95% CI 0.82-0.92), with variable but high negative predictive values (0.65 - 0.95) and sensitivities (0.74; 95% CI 0.66-0.81). (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Cancer Research, Medical Research Centers, Outcomes & Safety / 18.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Atul Shinagare MD Department of Radiology and Center for Evidence-Based Imaging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115Dr. Atul Shinagare MD Department of Radiology and Center for Evidence-Based Imaging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We evaluated 100 randomly selected patients from a cohort of 1771 patients evaluated for asymptomatic hematuria in 2004 at our institution in order to assess physician adherence to the 2001 American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines for evaluating patients and its impact on the diagnosis of urologic cancer. We found that most (64%) patients were not evaluated according to the guidelines, that there was substantial variation in the evaluation, and that the evaluation depended largely on the type of hematuria and physician specialty. Only 5% of patients were found to have urologic cancer, and all of them were evaluated according to the guidelines. No additional urologic cancers were diagnosed in patients in whom guidelines were not followed; however, since not all patients were tested thoroughly, occult malignancies may have been present. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, HPV, Vaccine Studies / 18.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Rachel J Sacks Jefferiss Wing,  St Mary's Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background of this study? Dr. Sacks: 2247 anonymous questionnaires were completed by young women, aged 13-19 years old, attending sexual health services across England, looking at their HPV vaccination outcomes and prevalence of risk factors associated with HPV acquisition and cervical cancer development, and comparing the survey results with national data where available. Known HPV acquisition and cervical cancer development risk factors include cigarette smoking, early age at first intercourse, increasing number of lifetime partners, co-infection with other sexually transmitted infections. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study Dr. Sacks:
  •          Young women, aged 13  to 19 years old attending sexual health services across England had higher prevalence of known risk factors associated with HPV acquisition and cervical cancer development, compared with national data.
  •          Survey respondents had lower HPV vaccination offer and lower HPV vaccination completion rates than nationally.
  •          Subgroups within the survey respondents were identified as having a significantly lower offer and significantly lower completion rate of the HPV vaccination. These subgroups included respondents from London, those of non-white ethnicities, 17 to 19 year olds, smokers and those not in education, employment or training (NEETs).
  •          The highest risk individuals, in terms of HPV related risk factors, were the least likely to be offered and additional the least likely to complete the HPV vaccination course.
  •          Currently sexual health services in England are not involved in the delivery of the HPV vaccination programme and this is felt to be a huge missed opportunity for the primary prevention of HPV acquisition and its potential sequelae. Sexual health services should be included as a supplementary HPV vaccination delivery site in order to target these particularly vulnerable young women and to increase the success of the HPV vaccination programme in England.
(more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, OBGYNE / 18.03.2014

Erica P. Gunderson, PhD, MS, MPH Senior Research Scientist, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Section Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California Oakland, CA 94612-2304MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Erica P. Gunderson, PhD, MS, MPH Senior Research Scientist, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Section Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California Oakland, CA 94612-2304 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gunderson: The study found that: -   Gestational diabetes is a pregnancy complication that reveals a woman’s greater risk of future heart disease. -   Women who experience gestational diabetes face an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis (early heart disease) even if they do not develop type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome years after pregnancy. -   Study participants with a history of gestational diabetes who did not develop diabetes or metabolic syndrome showed a greater carotid artery wall thickness (marker of early atherosclerosis) compared to those who never experienced gestational diabetes.  The vessel narrowing also could not be attributed to obesity or other risk factors for heart disease that were measured before pregnancy. -   Weight gain and blood pressure elevations in women with gestational diabetes were responsible for these differences in the artery wall thickness. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Lipids, Nutrition / 17.03.2014

Rajiv Chowdhury MD, PhD Cardiovascular Epidemiologist Department of Public Health and Primary Care University of CambridgeMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rajiv Chowdhury MD, PhD Cardiovascular Epidemiologist Department of Public Health and Primary Care University of Cambridge MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chowdhury: Total saturated fatty acid, whether measured as a dietary intake variable or in the bloodstream as a biomarker, was not associated with coronary disease risk in combining all available prospective observational studies. Similarly, there were non-significant overall associations in the prospective studies that involved assessments of total monounsaturated fatty acids, long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, we found diversity in the observational associations between specific circulating long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with coronary risk, with some evidence that circulating levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (ie, the two main types of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids), and arachidonic acid are each associated with lower coronary risk. Similarly, within saturated fatty acids, there were positive, however, non-significant associations observed for circulating blood composition of palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively), whereas circulating margaric acid (a milk fat) had a significant inverse association. Additionally, when we investigated the randomised controlled trials that reported on the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on reducing coronary outcomes, there was no significant overall association observed. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Pain Research, Pharmacology, Radiology, University of Michigan / 17.03.2014

Dr. Brian C. Callaghan MD Department of Neurology University of Michigan Health System, Ann ArborMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Dr. Brian C. Callaghan MD Department of Neurology University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Callaghan:  The main findings are that we order headache neuroimaging (MRIs and CTs) frequently, this accounts for approximately $1 billion dollars annually, and the number of tests ordered is only increasing with time. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Heart Disease, Outcomes & Safety, Surgical Research / 17.03.2014

Dr Tahir Hamid MRCP (UK), FESC Department of Cardiology, Royal Albert Edward Infirmary NHS Trust,  Wigan, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Tahir Hamid MRCP (UK), FESC Department of Cardiology, Royal Albert Edward Infirmary NHS Trust,  Wigan, UK MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hamid: Traditionally patients undergoing diagnostic and interventional coronary artery procedures are kept Nil-by-mouth, but until yet there exists neither evidence nor clear guidance about the benefits of this practice in such patients. In our study performed at two National Health Services (NHS) institutes, we demonstrated in our 1916 patients, that such procedures could be undertaken without the need for being 4-6 hours fasting. None of our patients had major complications leading to pulmonary aspiration or emergency cardiac surgery. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Emergency Care, Pain Research, Pharmacology / 16.03.2014

Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi PharmD, MD1MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi PharmD, MD The Department of Emergency Medicine, The George Washington University The Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found a significant increase in the prescribing of opioid pain medications in the emergency department. At the same time, this was not accounted for by a similar increase in pain-related visits and prescribing patterns of non-opioid analgesics did not change. (more…)
Author Interviews, NIH / 15.03.2014

Peter F. Schnatz, D.O. Associate Chair & Residency Program Director The Reading Hospital Department of OB/GYN Reading, PA  19612-6052MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter F. Schnatz, D.O. Associate Chair & Residency Program Director The Reading Hospital Department of OB/GYN Reading, PA  19612-6052 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schnatz: In a subsample of 576 women from the parent WHI CaD (calcium plus vitamin D supplementation)  trial* , there was a significant (38%) increase in mean serum 25OHD3 concentrations after two years (95% CI 1.29-1.47, p< 0.001) for women randomized to CaD (24.3ng/mL vs. 18.2 ng/mL). Women randomized to CaD had a 4.5 mg/dL mean decrease in LDL-C which was statistically significant.  After accounting for serum 25OHD3 concentration, the effect of CaD was attenuated, suggesting that higher concentrations of 25OHD3, in response to CaD supplementation, are associated with improved LDL-C. In observational analyses, higher concentrations of 25OHD3 were associated with significantly higher HDL-C along with significantly lower LDL-C and TG concentrations. * 1,000 mg of elemental calcium plus 400 IU of vitamin D3 daily (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Stroke, University of Michigan / 14.03.2014

Lynda D. Lisabeth, PhD Interim Chair and Associate Professor Department of Epidemiology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MichiganMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lynda D. Lisabeth, PhD Interim Chair and Associate Professor Department of Epidemiology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lisabeth: The main findings were that Mexican Americans scored worse than non-Hispanic whites on all outcomes measured at 90 days following stroke, including neurologic, functional and cognitive outcomes, after adjustment for confounding factors. Further, we found that one-third of Mexican American stroke survivors have post-stroke dementia. Mexican Americans experienced more aphasia than non-Hispanic whites. Levels of functional impairment were substantial, with Mexican Americans on average experiencing moderate functional disability. Mexican Americans reported significantly greater difficulty than non-Hispanic whites with all activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) that were studied. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Kidney Disease / 14.03.2014

Prof Samy Hadjadj: Université de Poitiers, UFR Médecine Pharmacie, Centre d’Investigation clinique, CHU de Poitiers, Centre d’Investigation clinique, Poitiers, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Samy Hadjadj: Université de Poitiers, UFR Médecine Pharmacie, Centre d’Investigation clinique, CHU de Poitiers, Centre d’Investigation clinique, Poitiers, France MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof: Hadjadj: The study helps to establish sTNFR1 as a valid biomarker not only for renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes but also for all cause death. Interestingly the addition of sTNFR1 concentration to the UKPDS model outcome equation showed to add some clinical prognostic value to this model for all-cause death. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Electronic Records, JNCI, Prostate Cancer / 14.03.2014

Primo N. Lara, Jr, MD, Professor of Medicine, University of California Davis School of Medicine Associate Director for Translational Research UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center Sacramento, CA 95817MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Primo N. Lara, Jr, MD, Professor of Medicine, University of California Davis School of Medicine Associate Director for Translational Research UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center Sacramento, CA 95817 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study: Dr. Lara:  “We found that blood markers of bone turnover can be used to predict outcomes in men with advanced prostate cancer with spread to bone. We also found that a small proportion of men could be predicted to benefit from an investigational drug based on these same markers.” (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Stroke / 14.03.2014

Atte Meretoja, MD, PhD, MSc (Stroke Medicine) Associate Professor and Principal Fellow (Neurology), University of Melbourne The Royal Melbourne Hospital L4C, Grattan St, Parkville VIC 3050, Australia Associate Professor of Neurology, University of Helsinki Helsinki University Central Hospital, FinlandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Atte Meretoja, MD, PhD, MSc (Stroke Medicine) Associate Professor and Principal Fellow (Neurology), University of Melbourne The Royal Melbourne Hospital Australia Associate Professor of Neurology, University of Helsinki Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Meretoja: We used observational prospective data of consecutive stroke patients (n=2258) treated with intravenous thrombolysis in Australian and Finnish centers and a pooled analysis of thrombolysis trials to model the shift in patient outcomes with reducing treatment delays. We found out that each minute the treatment can be delivered faster granted on average 1.8 days of extra healthy life (95% prediction interval 0.9 to 2.7). In practice, this means that each 15 minute decrease in treatment delays provides an average equivalent of one month of additional disability-free life. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Brain Injury, JAMA / 14.03.2014

Pashtun Shahim, MD Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Department of Neurochemistry Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pashtun Shahim, MD Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology Department of Neurochemistry Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Shahim: Sports-related concussion in professional ice hockey players is associated with acute axonal and astroglial injury. Plasma total tau, which is a highly central nervous system-specific protein, is a promising biomarker to be used both in the diagnosis of concussion and in the decision-making when an athlete can be declared fit to return to play. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Duke, JAMA, Ophthalmology / 14.03.2014

Glenn Yiu, MD, PhD Duke Ophthalmology Duke University Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Glenn Yiu, MD, PhD Duke Ophthalmology Duke University Medical Center MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Yiu: This paper reported a child who suffered injury to both eyes from a powerful blue laser pointer purchased via the internet from overseas. Our report reviews the scientific basis for laser injuries in eyes and the factors that may affect outcomes, such as power, wavelength, duration, and distance of exposure. Newer green and blue lasers, especially high-powered ones, may be more prone to inducing eye injuries. We summarized the clinical features of ocular laser injuries, methods of prevention, and discussed how consumer availability of high powered lasers may require careful federal regulations. (more…)
Author Interviews, NEJM, Outcomes & Safety, Surgical Research / 13.03.2014

David R. Urbach, M.D From the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Department of Surgery Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation University of Toronto, the University Health Network Toronto, ON M5G 2C4, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: David R. Urbach, M.D From the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Department of Surgery Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation University of Toronto, the University Health Network Toronto, ON M5G 2C4, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Urbach: After surgical safety checklists were adopted by hospitals in Ontario, surgical outcomes—death after surgery, complications, length of stay, readmissions—did not improve substantially. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Mayo Clinic, Mental Health Research, Nature / 12.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Dr. Sven Cichon, PhD Director, Division of Medical Genetics University Hospital Basel Human Genomics Research Group Department of Biomedicine University of Basel Basel, Switzerland MedicalResearch.com: What were the main findings of the study? Answer: We have identified two new gene regions that represent pieces of the jigsaw puzzle of genetic and non-genetic factors that lead to the development of bipolar disorder. One is the gene ADCY2 (Adenylate Cyclase 2) which is involved in signal transmission within nerve cells. The other region comprises two genes, both presumably playing a role in neurodevelopmental processes (MIR2113 and POU3F2). Importantly, these results come out of the largest of these kinds of studies so far, involving altogether more than 24,000 people. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Stroke / 12.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dingli Xu, MD From Department of Cardiology Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study? Answer:Our study showed that after controlling for multiple cardiovascular risk factors, the blood pressure range at 120-139/80-89 mm Hg (defined as ‘prehypertension’ in JNC 7), is significant associated with long-term risk of stroke. The results were consistent across stroke type, stroke endpoint, age, study characteristics, follow-up duration, and ethnicity. More importantly, even low-range prehypertension (BP 120-129/80-84mmHg) increased the risk of stroke compared with optimal BP (<120/80 mm Hg), and the risk was higher in individuals with high-range prehypertension (BP 130-139/85-85mmHg). In particular, we found that compared with individuals with optimal blood pressure individuals with low-range prehypertension were 44% more likely to develop stroke, and this risk was even greater (95%) in individuals with high-range prehypertension. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, OBGYNE / 12.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Josefin Vikström Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Faculty of Health Sciences Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Vikström: Our study showed that women with a female infertility factor were more than two times more likely to have been born with a low birth weight (less than 2500g) or small for gestational age compared to women where the cause of infertility was unknown and/or male. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA / 12.03.2014

Matthias Briel, MD, MSc Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Matthias Briel, MD, MSc Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada  MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Briel: Using a retrospective cohort of 1017 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) based on archived protocols approved by six research ethics committees in Switzerland, Germany, and Canada between 2000 and 2003, we found that 25% of initiated RCTs were discontinued. While discontinuation was common with RCTs involving patients (28%), it was rare in RCTs with healthy volunteers (3%). The most commonly reported reason for RCT discontinuation was poor recruitment (10% of included RCTs). We found that trials with investigator sponsor (versus industry) and those with smaller planned sample sizes were at higher risk of discontinuation due to poor recruitment. Of discontinued RCTs, up to 60% remained unpublished. Trial investigators rarely informed research ethics committees about trial discontinuation and publication. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Tobacco, UCSF / 12.03.2014

Lauren Dutra, ScD Postdoctoral Scholar, UCSF School of Medicine Cardiovascular Research Institute San Francisco, CA 94143MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lauren Dutra, ScD Postdoctoral Scholar, UCSF School of Medicine Cardiovascular Research Institute San Francisco, CA 94143 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Middle and high school students who used e-cigarettes were more likely to smoke tobacco cigarettes. They were also more likely to progress from experimenting with tobacco cigarettes to becoming regular smokers. Teen smokers who used e-cigarettes were more likely to be planning to quit in the next year and less likely to have abstained from smoking recently, compared to smokers who had never used e-cigarettes. They were also more likely to be heavier smokers (smoke more cigarettes per day) than those who had never tried e-cigarettes, that being said there are eliquids available that have no nicotine content whatsoever and these are therefore a much healthier option, you can see a wide variety of these at Gourmet E-Liquid. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Health Care Systems / 12.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Liane J. Tinsley, MPH Associate Research Scientist Department of Epidemiology New England Research Institutes, Inc. Watertown, MA 02472 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: For this study, we analyzed health insurance data from a cohort of community-dwelling individuals between the ages of 30-79 at baseline, in Boston, MA. Massachusetts health care reform legislation, including the expansion of Medicaid, resulted in substantial overall gains in coverage in our study population. Despite being targeted by the law, the working poor (those currently working for pay, either part- or full-time and earning less than 200% of the US federal poverty threshold for household size) continued to report lower rates of insurance coverage following reform (13.3% without insurance), compared to the both non-working poor (4.7% without insurance) and the not poor (5.0% without insurance). (more…)
Author Interviews, Inflammation, JAMA, Mental Health Research, PTSD / 12.03.2014

Dr. Dewleen Baker MD Veterans Affairs (VA) San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Dewleen Baker MD Veterans Affairs (VA) San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Baker: The main finding of this study is that a marker of peripheral inflammation, plasma CRP may be prospectively associated with PTSD symptom emergence, suggesting that inflammation may predispose to PTSD. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Hearing Loss, JAMA / 12.03.2014

Dr. Chuan-Ming Li MD, PhD Statistician (Health/Medicine) Division of Scientific Programs The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication DisordersMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Chuan-Ming Li MD, PhD Statistician (Health/Medicine) Division of Scientific Programs The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chuan-Ming Li: We used data on adults 18 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the study and found that prevalence of moderate to severe depression was 4.9 percent for individuals who reported excellent hearing, 7.1 percent for those with good hearing and 11.4 percent for participants who reported having a little hearing trouble or greater hearing impairment (HI). Depression rates were higher in women than in men. The prevalence of depression increased as hearing impairment became worse, except among participants who were deaf. There was no association between self-reported HI and depression among people ages 70 years and older; however, an association between moderate HI measured by pure-tone threshold hearing exams and depression was found in women aged 70 years and older but not in men. (more…)
Alcohol, Author Interviews, BMJ, OBGYNE / 12.03.2014

Camilla Nykjaer, PhD Student School of Food Science and Nutrition University of Leeds, Leeds, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Camilla Nykjaer, PhD Student School of Food Science and Nutrition University of Leeds, Leeds, UK   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In our study, there was an association between the mother drinking alcohol during early pregnancy and being born preterm or small for gestational age. Babies of women who drank more than 2 units of alcohol per week in the first trimester were more likely to be born preterm, small for gestational age and with lower birth weight compared to non-drinkers, even after adjusting for a range of confounders including cotinine levels as a biomarker for smoking status. The association with preterm birth was present even in those mothers who reported drinking less than 2 units/week. (more…)
ALS, Author Interviews, JAMA, Radiology / 12.03.2014

Prof. Dr. Philip Van Damme, MD, PhD Neuromuscular Reference Center, Neurology Department, University Hospitals Leuven Vesalius Research Center, VIB, Leuven Leuven Institute of Neurodegenerative Disorders (LIND) KU Leuven, BelgiumMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Dr. Philip Van Damme, MD, PhD Neuromuscular Reference Center, Neurology Department, University Hospitals Leuven Vesalius Research Center, VIB, Leuven Leuven Institute of Neurodegenerative Disorders (LIND) KU Leuven, Belgium MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof: Van Damme: Earlier FDG-PET studies carried out in the 80’ties already pointed out that patients with ALS had decrease glucose uptake in the brain that is more extended than the motor cortex, at least at the group level. Of course, this imaging technique has been improved since then. We prospectively assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of FDG-PET in patients that were referred to us because a diagnosis of ALS was suspected. The most important finding of our study probably is that FDG-PET shows perirolandic and variable frontotemporal hypometabolism in most patients with ALS at the first presentation in our clinic. It suggests that FDG-PET is a very sensitive marker of cerebral involvement in ALS, which has a high sensitivity at the single patient level. In addition our study revealed that the co-occurrence of extensive prefrontal or anterior temporal hypometabolism was present in about 10% of patients and had a negative effect on survival after disease onset. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Emergency Care, JAMA / 11.03.2014

Andrew I. Geller, MD Medical Officer in the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion at CDC.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andrew I. Geller, MD Medical Officer in the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion at CDC. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Geller: Using CDC’s national medication safety monitoring system, we estimated that, each year, there were about 100,000 visits made to U.S. emergency departments (EDs) for insulin-related hypoglycemia and errors during 2007-2011, or about half a million ED visits over the 5-year study period.  This is important because many of these ED visits for insulin-related hypoglycemia may be preventable. We also found these ED visits were more common with increasing age:  every year, 1 in 49 insulin-treated seniors (aged 65 years or older) visited the ED because of hypoglycemia while on insulin or because of a medication error related to insulin. Among the very elderly (aged 80 years or older), this number was 1 in 8 annually. (more…)