Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Ophthalmology / 06.04.2014

Massimo Porta, MD PhD Professor of Medicine Head, Unit of Internal Medicine 1 Department of Medical Sciences  University of TurinMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Massimo Porta, MD PhD Professor of Medicine Head, Unit of Internal Medicine 1 Department of Medical Sciences  University of Turin MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Porta: Type 2 diabetes has a slow, insidious onset and may remain undiagnosed for several years, during which complications may arise and progress. As a result, many patients already have retinopathy at the time a clinical diagnosis is finally made. Previous attempts at estimating the duration of this period of "hidden" diabetes relied upon  extrapolations of a linear correlation between known duration of diabetes and prevalence of retinopathy. This led to overestimates, because: a) the best fitting correlation may not be linear, b) series included insulin treated patients, who might have late-onset type 1 diabetes, c) patients with any mild retinopathy were included whereas we now know that up to 10% of non diabetic individuals may have minimal retinal signs. By taking these variables into account, ie including only patients not on insulin and with moderate or more severe retinopathy and applying different mathematical models, we ended up with an estimated duration preceding diagnosis of type 2 diabetes of 4-6 years, against longer than 13 years using "standard" criteria. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Emergency Care, Heart Disease, JACC, Karolinski Institute / 04.04.2014

Martin J. Holzmann, MD, PHD Department of Emergency Medicine Karolinska University Hospital, HuddingeMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Martin J. Holzmann, MD, PHD Department of Emergency Medicine Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Holzmann: In a cohort of 8900 consecutive patients who sought medical attention for chest pain, we found that an undetectable high-sensitivity cardiac troponin level (<5 ng/l), and an ECG with no ischemic changes has a negative predictive value of 99.8% (95%, 99.7-99.9%). Thus, this will rule out MI with nearly 100% accuracy, and independent of when the troponin was measured in relation to onset of chest pain, and independent of any risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hearing Loss, Psychological Science / 04.04.2014

Dr. Anne Ingeborg Berg: University of Gothenburg, SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Anne Ingeborg Berg: University of Gothenburg, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In our study of personality change in individuals aged 80+ we found that over a 6 year period individuals did not change in emotional stability, however, in line with previous research they got less extravert or outgoing. The only health aspect that could be related to an accelerated change in extraversion was impaired hearing at the first measurement occasion. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, General Medicine, Lancet, Lifestyle & Health / 04.04.2014

Prof Guangwei Li MD Department of Endocrinology China-Japan Friendship Hospital Center of Endocrinology and Cardiovascular Disease, National Center of Cardiology & Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, ChinaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Guangwei Li MD Department of Endocrinology China-Japan Friendship Hospital Center of Endocrinology and Cardiovascular Disease, National Center of Cardiology & Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, China MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our study first shows that a six-year period of lifestyle intervention in Chinese people with IGT reduced the incidence of diabetes over a protracted time period and was ultimately associated with a significant reduction in total and cardio-vascular disease mortality. This reduction in mortality appears to be mediated in part by the delay in onset of diabetes resulting from the lifestyle interventions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, NEJM / 04.04.2014

Professor Harvey White MB ChB DSc FRACP FACC FESC FAHA FHKCC (Hon) FCSANZ FRSNZ La'auli (matai); Prince Mahidol Laureate; John Neutze Scholar Director of Coronary Care & Green Lane Cardiovascular Research Unit, Green Lane Cardiovascular Service Auckland City Hospital Victoria St West Auckland 1142 NEW ZEALANDMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Harvey White MB ChB DSc FRACP FACC FESC FAHA FHKCC (Hon) FCSANZ FRSNZ La'auli (matai); Prince Mahidol Laureate; John Neutze Scholar, Director of Coronary Care & Green Lane Cardiovascular Research Unit, Green Lane Cardiovascular Service Auckland City Hospital NEW ZEALAND MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. White:   During follow-up (median 3.7 years), the composite primary end point (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke) occurred in 9.7% of the 7,924 patients randomly assigned to darapladib and 10.4% of the 7,904 patients in the placebo group (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85-1.03 p=0.199). In the first prespecified secondary endpoint of major coronary events (CHD death, MI or urgent revascularization) compared with placebo, darapladib reduced the rate (9.3% vs. 10.3%; HR=0.9; 95% CI, 0.82-1 p=0.045). Total coronary events (14.6% vs. 16.1%; HR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.98,p=0.019). (CHD death, MI, any coronary revascularization, hospitalization for unstable angina) were also reduced. No major safety concerns arose during the trial. (more…)
Author Interviews, Outcomes & Safety / 03.04.2014

Professor Ludwig Kuntz Seminar for Business Administration and Health Care Management University of Cologne Albertus-Magnus-Platz 50923 Cologne GermanyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Ludwig Kuntz Seminar for Business Administration and Health Care Management University of Cologne Albertus-Magnus-Platz 50923 Cologne Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Professor Kuntz:  We have identified the point at which hospitals begin to fail, resulting in deaths of critically ill patients. The Safety Tipping Point for hospitals occurs when they reach occupancy levels far below 100%, namely we identified a tipping point strongly at around 92 per cent [patient occupancy relative to ward capacity]. Our research therefore demonstrates conclusively that far from maximizing efficiency, exceeding a capacity “tipping point” on a hospital ward can have dire consequences. This has major implications for the way we think about capacity and stress in the workplace. (more…)
Author Interviews, Multiple Sclerosis, Neurology / 03.04.2014

Jeppe Romme Christensen  MD PhD From the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Center Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Denmark.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jeppe Romme Christensen  MD PhD From the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Center Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Denmark. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Christensen: This study demonstrates that progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have reduced inflammation and tissue damage in the brain after treatment with natalizumab. These findings highlight that progressive MS is an inflammatory disease and furthermore that peripheral circulating immune cells contribute to brain inflammation and tissue damage in progressive MS. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, NIH, Nutrition, Salt-Sodium / 03.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Niels Graudal, MD, DrMSc Senior Consultant Department of Internal medicine/Infectious Medicine/Rheumatology IR4242 Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet Denmark Dr. Graudal: There are no studies, which show what happens with the risk of cardiovascular death or mortality if you change your sodium intake. Our study shows the association of sodium intake as it is with cardiovascular disease and mortality, which is only the second best way to consider the problem, but as the best way does not exist we have accepted this approach. There have been two different assumptions concerning the risks of sodium intake. One is that there is an increasing risk of heart disease, stroke and death of salt intake above 2300 mg, and one is that salt is not dangerous at all. Our study shows that both positions partially may be true, as a salt intake above 4900 mg is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, whereas the present normal salt intake of most of the world’s populations between 2300 mg and 4900 mg is not associated with any increased risks. In addition our study shows that a low sodium intake below 2300 mg is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. (more…)
Author Interviews, Coffee, Gastrointestinal Disease, Hepatitis - Liver Disease / 03.04.2014

Woon-Puay Koh (Associate Professor) Office of Clinical Sciences Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore 8 College Road Level 4 | Singapore 169857MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Woon-Puay Koh (Associate Professor) Office of Clinical Sciences Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore 8 College Road Level 4 | Singapore 169857   MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding is that coffee intake was associated with a lower risk of death from cirrhosis, specifically for non-viral hepatitis related cirrhosis. Subjects who drank two or more cups per day had a 66% reduction in mortality risk, compared to non-daily coffee drinkers. However, coffee intake was not associated with viral hepatitis B related cirrhosis mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews, Outcomes & Safety, Stroke / 02.04.2014

Sripal Bangalore, MD, MHA, FACC, FAHA, FSCAI, Director of Research, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Director, Cardiovascular Outcomes Group, The Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Associate Professor of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sripal Bangalore, MD, MHA, FACC, FAHA, FSCAI, Director of Research, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Director, Cardiovascular Outcomes Group, Associate Professor of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine New York, NY 10016. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study? Dr. Bangalore: Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at increased risk of future full blown stroke, making institution of secondary prevention measures critical Our data from 858,835 patients from 1545 sites indicate that hospital adherence to evidence-based secondary prevention discharge measures was consistently less for patients with transient ischemic attack when compared with those with ischemic stroke, thus representing a missed opportunity at instituting preventive measures to reduce the risk of future stroke. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, General Medicine, Weight Research / 02.04.2014

Shanthi Srinivasan, M.D. Associate Professor of Medicine Division of Digestive Diseases Department of Medicine Emory University Atlanta, GA 30322MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shanthi Srinivasan, M.D. Associate Professor of Medicine Division of Digestive Diseases Department of Medicine Emory University Atlanta, GA 30322   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Srinivasan: The main findings of this study are that the neurotrophic factor GDNF is was able to protect against the weight gain induced by mice on a high fat diet. The mice that had overexpression of GDNF showed less weight gain while eating the same high fat diet as the control mice. GDNF seems to have effects on the genes regulating fat metabolism and energy expenditure and this could be the mechanism of prevention of weight gain. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA / 02.04.2014

 Daniel J. Elliott, M.D., MSCE, FACP Associate Chair of Research Department of Medicine and Research Scholar Value Institute, Christiana Care Health SystemMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniel J. Elliott, M.D., MSCE, FACP Associate Chair of Research Department of Medicine and Research Scholar Value Institute, Christiana Care Health System MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Elliott: The optimal workload for hospitalists has been a question since the earliest days of hospital medicine. However there has been very little empirical evidence to understand the relationship between workload and outcomes. The objective of our study was to determine the association of daily workload for hospitalists on the efficiency, quality, and cost of care.  We analyzed data from a single private practice hospitalist group at a community-based health system between February 2008 and January 2011. Our research showed that both length of stay and cost increased for patients as hospitalist workload increased. At the same time, our research showed that workload did not affect patient satisfaction as measured by HCAHPS scores or quality and safety outcomes including admissions, rapid response team activation and mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Nutrition / 02.04.2014

Dr Oyinlola Oyebode Specialist Registrar in Public Health Dept of Epidemiology & Public Health University College London London WC1E 6BTMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Oyinlola Oyebode Specialist Registrar in Public Health Dept of Epidemiology & Public Health University College London MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Oyebode: We found that the more fruit and vegetables consumed, the lower the risk of death from any cause, from cancer or from heart disease or stroke. We found that vegetables were better than fruit at equivalent amounts. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Cancer Research, Radiation Therapy / 02.04.2014

Jan Akervall, M.D., Ph.D. Co-director, Head and Neck Cancer Multidisciplinary Clinic Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak Clinical Director of Beaumont’s BioBankMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jan Akervall, M.D., Ph.D. Co-director, Head and Neck Cancer Multidisciplinary Clinic Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak Clinical Director of Beaumont’s BioBank MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Akervall: We identified biomarkers that can predict who will have an unfavorable response from radiation for head and neck cancer. These can be analyzed using standard laboratory techniques on biopsies that routinely are taken for diagnosis. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics, Probiotics / 02.04.2014

Dr Valerie Sung MBBS(Hons) FRACP MPH NHMRC PhD Candidate, Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, and Community Health Services Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Paediatrician, Centre for Community Child Health, The Royal Children’s HospitalMedicalResearch.com Invitation with: Dr Valerie Sung MBBS(Hons) FRACP MPH NHMRC PhD Candidate, Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, and Community Health Services Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Paediatrician, Centre for Community Child Health The Royal Children’s Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sung: Lactobacillus reuteri was NOT effective in reducing crying or fussing in infants with colic, whether they are breast or formula fed. This is the largest and most rigorous trial to date to show this. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, University of Michigan / 01.04.2014

Mary A.M. Rogers, PhD, MS Research Associate Professor Research Director, Patient Safety Enhancement Program Department of Internal Medicine University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI  48109-2800MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mary A.M. Rogers, PhD, MS Research Associate Professor Research Director, Patient Safety Enhancement Program Department of Internal Medicine University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI  48109-2800 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rogers: The risk of serious infection is considerably elevated after receiving allogeneic (donor) red blood cell transfusions.  For every 38 patients under consideration for transfusion, 1 patient could be spared an infection if more restrictive hemoglobin thresholds were used.  When patients were given transfusions only after their hemoglobin fell below 7.0 g/dL, 1 patient avoided an infection of every 20 patients treated.  The results were most consistent in elderly patients receiving hip and knee replacement surgeries.  Their risk of infection decreased by 30% when lower hemoglobin thresholds were used. (more…)
Author Interviews, Erectile Dysfunction, JAMA, Prostate, Prostate Cancer, Radiation Therapy / 01.04.2014

Dr. Thomas M. Pisansky MD Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MinnesotaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Thomas M. Pisansky MD Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pisansky: This patient-reported outcomes research did not identify a beneficial effect of once-daily tadalafil to prevent radiotherapy-related erectile dysfunction in men with prostate cancer. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Mental Health Research, NIH, University of Pittsburgh / 01.04.2014

Rosebud O Roberts, M.B., Ch.B. Professor of Epidemiology Professor of Neurology Mayo ClinicMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rosebud O Roberts, M.B., Ch.B. Professor of Epidemiology Professor of Neurology Mayo Clinic MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Roberts: We found that among persons 70 years and older, people with type 2 diabetes had a reduced glucose uptake (hypometabolism) in  brain cells.  We also found a similar association for people without type 2 diabetes but who had elevated hemoglobin A1c levels levels at the time of enrollment (HBA1c is a measure of glucose control, and represents the average blood glucose levels over a 3 month period). However, we did not find an association of diabetes with increased brain amyloid accumulation.  Our findings were based on an investigation of the association of type 2 diabetes with markers of brain pathology: brain hypometabolism was assessed by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [PET] and amyloid accumulation was assessed by 11-C Pittsburgh Compound B PET imaging. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Health Care Systems, Hospital Readmissions / 01.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: dr_karen_e_lasser Karen E Lasser, MD MPH Associate Professor of Medicine Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lasser: After controlling for variables that could affect the risk of readmission, we found that:
  1. There was a slightly increased risk of all-cause readmission in Massachusetts (MA) relative to control states (New York and New Jersey) post-reform.
  2. Racial and ethnic disparities in all-cause readmission rates did not change in MA relative to control states.
  3. However, both blacks and whites in counties with the highest uninsurance rates had a decreased risk of readmission following MA health reform relative to blacks and whites in counties with lower uninsurance rates.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Lipids, NEJM, Statins / 31.03.2014

Evan A. Stein, M.D., Ph.D. FRCP(C), FCAP Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center Cincinnati, OH 45225,MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Evan A. Stein, M.D., Ph.D. FRCP(C), FCAP Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center Cincinnati, OH 45225,   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Stein: The study which is the first 52 week randomized double blind trial of a PCSK9 to report results (all others have been 12 weeks) demonstrated that the excellent LDL-C reductions of 55-60% seen at 12 weeks are maintained through 52 weeks, with no fall off in patient compliance, tolerability of efficacy. It also demonstrated that with longer treatment no new or unexpected side effects. The study also had a unique design in that prior to randomization to the PCSK9 inhibitor (evolocumab) or placebo patients had a run in period during which time they were assigned, based on NCEP-ATP III criteria, to appropriated background therapy which ranged from diet only, to atorvastatin 10 mg a day, to atorvatatin 80 mg a day or atorvastatin 80 mg a day plus ezetimibe - reflecting how these patients are treated in practice. Only then if their LDL-C was still above 75 mg/dL were they randomized into the treatment part of the study with the new drug. The study showed that irrespective of background therapy the reduction with evolocumab was consistent. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, JAMA, University of Pittsburgh, Wake Forest / 31.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Timothy Hughes, PhD, MPH Roena B. Kulynych Center for Memory & Cognition Research Department of Internal Medicine Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine Wake Forest School of Medicine Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC  27157-1207Timothy Hughes, PhD, MPH Roena B. Kulynych Center for Memory & Cognition Research Department of Internal Medicine Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine Wake Forest School of Medicine Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC  27157-1207 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hughes: This study is a follow-up to our recent paper that showed a novel relationship between arterial stiffness (commonly measured by pulse wave velocity) and the presence and extent of amyloid deposition in the brain, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. For this study, we repeated brain amyloid imaging (using the Pittsburgh Compound B during PET imaging) in order to look for predictors of change in amyloid over two years in n=81 elderly adults aged 80+ and free from dementia. We observed that measures of systemic arterial stiffness (e.g. brachial ankle pulse wave velocity) was strongly associated with the extent of amyloid deposition in the brain at both baseline and follow-up. The change in brain amyloid accumulation over two years resulted in an increase in in the number of participants with Alzheimer’s-like (amyloid-positive) from 45% at baseline to a surprising 75% after just two years. This change in brain amyloid accumulation over two years was strongly related to having greater central stiffness (as measured by carotid femoral pulse wave velocity). These relationships between arterial stiffness and brain amyloid deposition were independent of the effects of age, gender, body mass index, antihypertensive medication use and even current blood pressure. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, JAMA / 31.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: M.S. ReimersM.S. Reimers, MD PhD Student and Dr. Jan Liefers MD Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Aspirin use was associated with an improved survival, as we have published before when investigating this cohort (Bastiaannet et al, Brit J Cancer 2012/ Reimers et al. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012. In this study we have focused on investigating which patients will benefit from aspirin treatment by investigating some tumor markers, such as PTGS2 expression, HLA class I expression and PIK3CA mutation status. Interestingly, only patients with HLA class I expression on their tumor membrane will benefit from aspirin treatment and have a better outcome. We raise the hypothesize that aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation to circulating tumors cells. By interfering with this process, the metastatic potential of these circulating tumour cells is inhibited, thereby preventing metastasis and colon cancer death.HLA class I expression might be needed for signalling between platelets and circulating tumor cells. If this hypothesis is confirmed by others or in vitro studies, than this might explain the finding that aspirin seems not only beneficial as an adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer patients, but also for patients with other malignancies (oesophagus, breast, etc). Interestingly, preliminary findings from our team investigating aspirin use in oesophageal cancer also showed that aspirin use in these tumors was associated with an improved survival. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, NIH, Rheumatology / 31.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eleftherios Mylonakis, M.D., Ph.D., FIDSA Dean's Professor of Medical Science Chief, Infectious Diseases Division Alpert Medical School and Brown University and Dr. Irene Kourbeti MD Research Associate Infectious Disease Division Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer : There was high quality of evidence that biologic agents are associated with increased risk of all opportunistic infections, but there was no difference in mortality attributed to the opportunistic infections. Patients receiving biologics were twice more likely to develop opportunistic infections (OIs) compared to controls (OR 1.79; 95% CI, 1.17-2.74) with a number needed to harm (NNH) of 582 patients. That means that 1 opportunistic infection  would occur in every 582 patients receiving biologics. The opportunistic infections usually occurred at the commencement of the use of the biological agent and they were not statistically more in patients with a previous exposure to anti-TNF agents as compared to the patients that had never received an anti-TNF agent.. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Chemotherapy, JNCI / 30.03.2014

Hanna Sanoff MD, MPH Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center Department of Medicine University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NCMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hanna Sanoff MD, MPH Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center Department of Medicine University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sanoff: We measured p16, a protein that increases with cellular aging, in blood cells of women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. We found that a standard course of chemotherapy led to an increase in p16 expression equivalent to what we have previous seen in people over the course of 10-15 years of chronological aging. This increase persisted in cancer survivors an average of three and half years after treatment. (more…)
Author Interviews, PLoS, Toxin Research, UCSD / 30.03.2014

Beatrice A. Golomb MD, PhD Professor of Medicine Family and Preventive Medicine University of California, San DiegoMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Beatrice A. Golomb MD, PhD Professor of Medicine Family and Preventive Medicine University of California, San Diego MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Golomb: The main finding is that veterans with Gulf War illness have bioenergetic defects -- dysfunction of mitochondria, the energy producing elements of cells -- that is evident in comparing affected veterans to matched healthy controls. An estimated 1/4 to 1/3 of the ~700,000 US veterans from the 1990-1 Gulf War developed chronic multisymptom health problems that entail fatigue, cognitive and other CNS problems, muscle pain, weakness and exercise intolerance, with high rates of gastrointestinal (especially diarrhea) and neurological problems, and other symptoms - as well as autonomic dysfunction. Evidence suggests these problems have not abated with time. Veterans from other nations that have conducted epidemiological studies, including the UK, Canada, and Australia, also show elevated rates of problems. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Kidney Disease / 30.03.2014

Dr. Paolo Fiorina, MD PhD Assistant Professor, Division of Nephrology, Harvard Medical SchoolMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Paolo Fiorina, MD PhD Assistant Professor, Division of Nephrology, Harvard Medical School and Dr. Roberto Bassi Post-doctoral research fellow Nephrology Department at Children's Hospital Boston. Dr. Roberto Bassi Post-doctoral research fellow Nephrology Department at Children's Hospital Boston.   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Fiorina: It is common knowledge that type 2 diabetes is a worldwide epidemic and that diabetic nephropathy has become the leading cause of renal failure in the western world. One of the main drivers and worsening factors for the diabetic kidney disease is proteinuria associated with various degrees of tubular damage, and unfortunately, therapies to halt or prevent this complication are not available so far. Our findings show that B7-1 when expressed on podocytes (a specific subset of renal cells) determines alterations in podocytes function and morphology, predisposing individuals with T2D to the loss of proteins into the urine. We also demonstrate that Abatacept, an immunomodulatory drug currently employed for the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases, is able to specifically target this malignant pathway, preventing podocytes cellular alterations in vitro and proteinuria development in two murine models of diabetic nephropathy in vivo. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Duke, JAMA / 29.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ann Marie Navar-Boggan, MD, PhD Division of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, North Carolina MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Navar-Boggan: Two groups of adults are really affected by the updated guidelines. First, 13.5 million adults, including one in five adults over the age of 60, were previously considered to have uncontrolled blood pressure but now meet new guideline goals. Next, 14 million adults over the age of 60 (one in four adults in this age group) are currently on blood pressure lowering therapy and meeting the older, more stringent targets. The guidelines state that no changes are necessary in this group, but they may be eligible for reduced therapy, particularly if they have had side effects or difficulty with the therapies they are taking. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Pediatrics, PLoS, Psychological Science / 29.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Prof. Natalia N. Kudryavtseva Head of Neurogenetics of Social Behavior Sector, Institute of Cytology and Genetics SD RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Hostile environment and social instability stress can have a significant impact on adolescents, causing the development of anxiety and depression. (more…)