Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA / 23.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Dr. Lukas Flatz MD Institute of Immunobiology Kantonsspital St Gallen, St Gallen Switzerland MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Toxicity is an important limiting factor of treatment with checkpoint inhibitors. We aimed in investigating the relationship between immune-related adverse events during anti-PD-1 therapy and tumor mutational burden by comparing large scale surveillance data of irAEs with the median tumor mutational burden across multiple cancer types. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Cancer - Brain Tumors, Imperial College / 20.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Georgios Giamas, (Dr. Biol. Hum.) Professor of Cancer Cell Signalling Director of Research and Knowledge Exchange University of Sussex -School of Life Sciences Visiting Professor, Imperial College, London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This study focuses on Glioblastoma (GBM), which is one of the most aggressive solid tumours for which treatment options and biomarkers are limited. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? - Glioblastoma cells produce nanosized vesicles (aka: extracellular vesicles) that contain specific protein signatures, which can indicate the behaviour and phenotype of the respective cells of origin. -We have identified and described certain vesicle-associated biomarkers that correspond to the most aggressive brain cancers. -Our results can provide insights for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods as well as personalized treatment strategies (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Genetic Research / 19.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tengteng Wang, PhD, MSPH, MBBS Postdoctoral Research Fellow Department of Epidemiology Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Channing Division of Network Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Chronic inflammation is a key player in the development of multiple cancer types, including breast cancer. Aspirin is one of the major non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which clearly has anti-inflammatory properties. Given this, substantial evidence from laboratory and population studies suggests that taking aspirin may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. However, the association of aspirin use with death outcomes following breast cancer diagnosis remains inconclusive and inconsistent across studies. Therefore, we choose to focus on mortality outcomes in this paper and we hypothesized that the inconsistent results for aspirin in relation to mortality could be due to differences in the association by patients’ biological profiles, specifically DNA methylation profiles here.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Bayer, FDA, Prostate Cancer / 16.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Neal D. Shore, MD, FACS Director, CPI, Carolina Urologic Research Center Atlantic Urology Clinics Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Neal D. Shore, MD, FACS is the Medical Director for the Carolina Urologic Research Center. He practices with Atlantic Urology Clinics in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Dr. Shore discusses the recent announcement that the FDA has approved Nubeqa®(darolutamide),  for the treatment of patients with non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer..  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How does NUBEQA®(darolutamide) differ from other treatments for nmCRPC?  Response: In 2017, patients did not have an approved therapy for non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, or nmCRPC. If untreated, patients with this diagnosis will go on to develop metastases, or progression of the cancer throughout the body. NUBEQA® (darolutamide) became the third and most recently approved treatment for nmCRPC, demonstrating a benefit of metastasis-free survival, or MFS. NUBEQA is different due to its adverse event and safety profile reported in the Phase III ARAMIS trial. In that study, there were no significant findings of falls and fractures as well as other adverse events reported from the earlier Phase III trials.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, HPV, OBGYNE / 15.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marc Eloit, D.V.M, Ph.D. Pathogen Discovery Laboratory, Biology of Infection Unit, Institut Pasteur Paris, France MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are responsible for >99% of cervical cancers. Currently, cervical cancer screening either focuses on testing for the presence of HPV or identifying abnormal cervical cells with cytology (Pap test). However, molecular diagnostic tests based on the detection of viral DNA or RNA have low positive predictive values for the identification of cancer or precancerous lesions, and analysis of cervical cells with the Pap test, even when combined with molecular detection of high-risk HPV, results in a significant number of unnecessary colposcopies. We have developed HPV RNA-Seq, a new “two-for-one” molecular diagnostic test that not only detects the type of HPV, but also identifies precancerous markers. This test is therefore designed to diagnose the riskiest forms of HPV infection, provide rapid results at moderate cost, and helps avoiding unnecessary diagnostic procedures. HPV RNA-Seq is based on the dual combination of multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). RT-PCR is a sensitive way to detect small amounts of RNA, the genetic material that reflects the activity of the HPV genes, and NGS finely characterizes the amplified viral sequences. This enables detection of up to 16 high-risk or putative high-risk HPV in a sample as well as the presence of precancerous markers. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Cleveland Clinic, Weight Research / 15.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Siran M. Koroukian, PhD Director, Population Cancer Analytics Shared Resource Case Comprehensive Cancer Center Director, Population Health and Outcomes Research Core Associate Professor Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences School of Medicine Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previous studies have shown that obesity-associated cancers (OACs) have been increasing in younger people. Using data from over 6 million cancer cases from 2000-2016, we identified the specific age/sex/race-ethnicity groups that were most affected by increases in OACs. We found a substantial shift of obesity-associated cancers to younger age groups, with the most notable increases occurring to the 50-64 age group. In addition, we observed the greatest percentage increase in the number of OAC cases during the study period in Hispanic men and women, as well as for cancers of the thyroid, gallbladder, liver and intrabiliary duct. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, FDA, Vaccine Studies / 14.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Graca Dores MD MPH US Food and Drug Administration Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology Division of Epidemiology Silver Spring, Maryland Oklahoma City, OK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly explain what Sipuleucel-T is used for?  Response: Sipuleucel-T was the first therapeutic vaccine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2010.  It is indicated for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC; prostate cancer that spreads while an individual is on hormone-blocking therapy).  During the preparation of this product, the patient’s cells are collected (leukapheresis), sent for processing to generate a dose of patient-specific vaccine, and then administered intravenously back to the patient.  This process is repeated approximately every two weeks for a total of three doses. Except for the pre-marketing clinical trials that were reviewed during the sipuleucel-T approval process, post-marketing studies that have evaluated the safety profile of sipuleucel-T are scarce. Therefore, we used the FDA’s Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database to summarize the adverse events reported to FDA by industry, medical professionals, and consumers.  We also assessed whether sipuleucel-T and specific adverse events (product-event pairs) were reported more than expected compared to all other drug/biologic-adverse event pairs in the FAERS database. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Dermatology / 14.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Alessia Visconti, PhD Department of Twin Research King's College London, London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We know from previous studies that the body site where melanoma skin cancer develops varies according to sex, with men having melanoma more often on the head, neck, and trunk, and women on the legs. The body site where moles, a major risk factor for melanoma development, are more abundant also varies according to sex, at least in childhood, with boys having more moles on the head, neck, and trunk, and girls on the legs. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Mayo Clinic, Pancreatic, USPSTF / 14.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Chyke A. Doubeni, M.D., M.P.H. Dr. Doubeni is a family physician and The inaugural director of the Mayo Clinic Center for Health Equity and Community Engagement Research MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force uses systematic review of existing research to make recommendations on clinical preventive services that are delivered in primary care, with the goal to promote and improve health for all Americans. Although pancreatic cancer is an uncommon condition in the general population, it is often deadly. Pancreatic cancer is now the third most common cause of cancer death in the United States, and could become the second leading cause if current trends continue. The vast majority of people with pancreatic cancer are diagnosed at a late stage and, unfortunately, even when caught early enough when surgery could be most effective, only a little over one-third of patients survive beyond five years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JAMA, UCLA / 12.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joann G. Elmore, MD, MPH Professor of Medicine, Director of the UCLA National Clinician Scholars Program David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
  • A pathologist makes the diagnosis of breast cancer versus non-cancer after reviewing the biopsy specimen. Breast biopsies are performed on millions of women each year and It is critical to get a correct diagnosis so that we can guide patients to the most effective treatments.
  • Our prior work (Elmore et al. 2015 JAMA) found significant levels of disagreement among pathologists when they interpreted the same breast biopsy specimen. We also found that pathologists would disagree with their own interpretations of breast biopsies when they where shown the same biopsy specimen a year later.
  • In this study, 240 breast biopsy images were fed into a computer, training it to recognize patterns associated with several types of breast lesions, ranging from benign (noncancerous) to invasive breast cancer. We compared the computer readings to independent diagnoses made by 87 practicing U.S. pathologists and found that while our artificial intelligence program came close to performing as well as human doctors in differentiating cancer from non-cancer, the AI program outperformed doctors when differentiating ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) from atypia, which is considered the greatest diagnostic challenge.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Melanoma, Vaccine Studies / 11.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, PhD Head, Cancer Research and Nanomedicine Laboratory Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel Prof. Helena Florindo, PhD Head, BioNanoSciences – iMed.ULisboa Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon Lisbon, Portugal    MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: The war against cancer in general, and melanoma in particular, has advanced over the years through a variety of treatment modalities, such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and immunotherapy. The immune checkpoint inhibitors brought a breakthrough solution for advanced melanoma patients, but only a low percentage of those respond to this therapy, developing resistance and being affected by severe side effects. Despite the success of several vaccines against viral diseases, this success has not been materialized yet against cancer. This study led by my lab at Tel Aviv University, and Helena Florindo’s lab at the University of Lisbon, describes the development of an effective nano-vaccine against melanoma, that also sensitizes the immune system to immunotherapies. This nano-vaccine prevented melanoma, and also led to remarkable tumor inhibition and prolonged survival in mice already affected by this disease.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, NIH / 08.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Co-First author: Jamie J. Lo, MPH PhD student, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health National University of Singapore, Singapore Co-First author & Co-Senior author: Yong-Moon (“Mark”) Park, MD, PhD Postdoctoral fellow, Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health Senior author: Dale P. Sandler, PhD Chief, Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We were interested, generally, in the association between meat consumption and breast cancer risk. Epidemiological studies of red meat consumption and risk of breast cancer are still inconsistent, although red meat has been identified as a probable carcinogen. In addition, there is not much evidence on the association between poultry consumption and breast cancer risk. We studied around 42,000 women ages 35-74 from across the US who are enrolled in the Sister Study cohort. Women provided self-reported information on meat consumption at baseline and were followed for 7.6 years on average. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Genetic Research / 08.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Upekha Liyanage MBBS |  PhD Student School of Medicine | University of Queensland Statistical Genetics Laboratory QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What types of skin cancers are linked to these genes? Response: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) collectively referred to as “keratinocyte cancers” are the commonest forms of cancers of the skin. Although these cancers are less aggressive than melanoma, due to their large numbers, they pose a significant burden to the healthcare expenditure. Also, these cancers are relatively understudied when compared with melanoma. Notably, BCC and SCC are not routinely reported in cancer registries. In Australia, Medicare data are used to estimate the incidence and costs associated with these cancers. Expenditure in Australia for the diagnosis, treatment and pathology, almost exceeds $700 million for both BCC and squamous cell carcinoma. In Unites States, the average annual cost for skin cancer including melanoma is approximately $8.1 billion. Previous research has led to identification of 29 BCC and 11 squamous cell carcinoma genetic risk variants and 7 of them overlap with both BCC and SCC risk. So, to strengthen the preventive efforts and to reveal new therapeutics, it is very timely and critical to explore more on the genetic susceptibility of these deadly cancers. We analysed ~48,000 cancer cases with ~630,000 skin cancer free controls from European ancestry population in Australia, UK and USA.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, MRI, Prostate Cancer / 07.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Martha Elwenspoek PhD Research Associate in Epidemiology and Health Services Research NIHR CLAHRC West, Bristol MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Prostate cancer is usually diagnosed by taking 10 to 14 systematic samples from the prostate guided by ultrasound. However, these biopsies are unpleasant for patients, can miss cancer even when it’s present, can misclassify the severity of the cancer, and can cause side effects, such as bleeding and infection. If biopsies could be targeted better, men wouldn’t have to undergo so many and there would be less risk of getting a misleading result. Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) scans are sometimes used before doing a biopsy to help diagnose prostate cancer, and while this approach is now being recommended by the UK National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) their use isn’t widespread. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Cancer Research / 05.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Emeritus Professor Attila Lorincz, PhD Centre for Cancer Prevention Queen Mary University of London  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The vast majority of women with cervical lesions are not at risk for cancer, however, because there is no way to accurately identify the very small proportion of women at risk of cervical cancer a recommendation for treatment is commonly given by doctors. Surgery on women with cervical lesions is risky for future pregnancies and can cause harm to the baby. Occasionally there are also problems in physical recovery and the mental well-being of the treated women. We wanted to see if the S5 DNA methylation test could identify the women who need treatment. We ran a two-year follow-up study on 149 young women with moderate dysplasia in Finland. Our results showed that the S5 test was by far the best method to reveal which women needed treatment.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Dental Research, Opiods / 23.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Praveen Arany, DDS, PhD Department of Oral Biology School of Dental Medicine University of Buffalo MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How is the light treatment delivered? Response: Cancers are usually treated with chemotherapy and/or radiation to destroy the tumor cells. However, an unfortunate side-effect of these treatments is pain and ulcers in the mouth due to breakdown of normal protective responses. Light has various applications in human health and normal physiology. Two good examples are vision and sunlight-Vitamin D for bone and health. The use of low dose light to alleviate pain or inflammation and promote tissue healing is termed Photobiomodulation (PBM) Therapy. This treatment can be provided with lasers or LED devices at specific wavelength (color) and dose (power). This treatment is currently being provided by a health care provider - usually a laser - either nurse or dentist prior or during the cancer treatments. There are several exciting innovation where take-home, self-use devices are becoming available. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Coffee / 21.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: coffee-smell caffeineMr Jue Sheng Ong,  PhD Student  QIMR Berghofer’s Statistical Genetics Group MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Previous findings have shown conflicting results on whether coffee is associated with cancer risk. To evaluate whether there’s any evidence for a causal relationship between coffee and cancer outcomes, we performed two types of association analyses using data from the half a million participants in the UK.
  • We first studied whether an individual’s self-reported coffee consumption is related to their overall risk of developing or dying from any cancers.
  • Then, we repeated the analyses using genetically predicted coffee intake (using about 35 genetic markers related with coffee intake) instead of their self-reported consumption: a technique known as mendelian randomization which is commonly used in modern epidemiology to remove bias from environmental confounders.
Using both techniques, we found no evidence to support a relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of developing or dying from cancers. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, ENT, JAMA, Surgical Research / 18.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Megan Rist Haymart MD Associate Professor Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes Clinic Michigan Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Thyroid cancer is a common malignancy with surgery considered one of the primary treatments. Complications from thyroid surgery can lead to long-term voice problems. However, few studies have used validated scales to quantify the impact of thyroid surgery on patient voice. Prior work has largely focused on single institution studies with high volume surgeons or claims data with reports of specific nerve injury. We surveyed a diverse cohort of patients affiliated with SEER sites Georgia and Los Angeles to identify the prevalence, severity and correlates of poor voice outcomes following surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer. We found that out of 2,325 patients 25.8% reported voice changes lasting greater than 3 months after surgery, 12.7% had abnormal voice per a validated voice scale (Voice Handicap Index- 10), and 4.7% reported a diagnosis of vocal fold motion impairment. We also identified patient factors associated with abnormal voice 2-4 years post op. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Hormone Therapy, JAMA, Prostate Cancer, University of Pennsylvania / 15.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ravi Jayadevappa, PhD, MS Department of Medicine Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104-2676  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In the US, prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among men. Research shows that hormone therapy or ADT reduces the levels of male hormones in the body, called androgens, to stop them from stimulating cancer cells to grow., and thus is effective in reducing the spread and progression of prostate cancer. At the same time, some research has suggested that decreasing androgen levels may increase the risk factors for Alzheimer’s and dementia, including loss of lean body mass, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and depression. The ADT therapy may lead to impaired neuron growth and the regeneration of axons, thus affecting the cognitive function. Thus there is growing interest in the possible association between exposure to ADT and cognitive dysfunction. Our study investigates the association between exposure to ADT and subsequent diagnosis of Alzheimer’s or dementia in elderly, fee-for-service Medicare enrollees using SEER-Medicare linked databases. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Outcomes & Safety, Surgical Research, Yale / 12.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniel Boffa, MD Professor of Surgery Yale School of Medicine  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We have previously demonstrated that top-ranked hospitals are significantly safer than their affiliates for complex cancer surgery (patients 1.4 times more likely to die after cancer surgery at affiliate hospitals).  A logical extension of this work was to compare affiliate hospitals to hospitals that were not affiliated with a top ranked hospital. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA / 03.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Farhad Islami, MD PhD Scientific Director, Surveillance Research American Cancer Society, Inc MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: In the United States, cancer is the second leading cause of death, and premature cancer deaths impose significant economic burden. Contemporary information on the economic burden of cancer mortality can inform policies and help prioritize resources for cancer prevention and control, but this information is lacking. In our study, we provide contemporary estimates for the loss of future earnings (lost earnings) due to cancer death at national and state levels for all cancers combined and for major cancers. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Pediatrics, Technology / 02.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: atomwiseAbraham Heifets, PhD Department of Computer Science University of Toronto  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this announcement? How many children and adolescents are affected by pediatric cancer? Response: Cancer is diagnosed in more than 15,000 children and adolescents each year. Many cancers, including pediatric cancer, do not have effective treatments and for those that do, it is estimated that 80% have serious adverse effects that impact long-term health.  (more…)
AACR, Author Interviews, CT Scanning, Lung Cancer / 28.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Barbara Nemesure, PhD Professor, Department of Family, Population and Preventive Medicine Division Head, Epidemiology and Biostatistics Director, Cancer Prevention and Control Program Director, Lung Cancer Program, Stony Brook Cancer Center Renaissance School of Medicine Stony Brook University    MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death, claiming the lives of more than 150,000 people in the United States each year. While lung nodules are not uncommon, it has remained a challenge to differentiate those that will progress to cancer and those that will remain benign. Although numerous risk prediction models for lung cancer have been developed over the past 2 decades, the majority have been based on retrospective analyses or high risk groups with a strong history of tobacco use. To date, there have been a limited number of large-scale, prospective studies evaluating risk that a nodule will convert to cancer in the general population. This investigation aimed to construct a population-based risk prediction model of incident lung cancer for patients found to have a lung nodule on initial CT scan. The derived model was determined to have high accuracy for predicting nodule progression to cancer and identified a combination of clinical and radiologic predictors including age, smoking history (pack-years), a personal history of cancer, the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and nodule features such as size, presence of spiculation and ground glass opacity type. When compared to patients in the low risk category, those defined as high risk had more than 14 times the risk of developing lung cancer. Quantification of reliable risk scores has high clinical utility, enabling physicians to better stratify treatment plans for their patients.      (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Prostate, Prostate Cancer, Urology / 25.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kari Tikkinen, MD, PhD, Adjunct Professor Departments of Urology and Public Health University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital Helsinki, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Men’s choice of whether to undergo screening is value and preference sensitive: fully informed men will make different choices depending on their experience and perspective. For such decisions, shared decision-making represents an ideal approach to decision making. In shared decision-making both the patient and health care provider contribute to the medical decision-making process. The health care provider explains alternatives to patients, informs them of the best evidence regarding the anticipated consequences of a decision for or against the intervention, and helps them choose the option that best aligns with their preferences. All major guidelines of prostate cancer screening acknowledge the importance of informing men about risks and benefits of PSA screening. Shared decision-making is challenging because it requires time, knowledge, and specific skills. Prostate cancer screening decisions aids may, by summarizing the current best evidence and by supporting conversations that address what matters most to men, address these challenges. The impact of decision aids on the decision-making process is, however, uncertain. We therefore undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the randomized trials that have addressed the impact of decision aids in the context of prostate cancer screening.  (more…)
ASCO, Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Colon Cancer / 24.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lawrence LaPointe, Ph.D. Chief Innovation Officer Clinical Genomics Bridgewater, New Jersey  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Colorectal cancer is a cancer of the colon and the rectum. The American Cancer Society estimates that about 1 in 21 men and 1 in 23 women in the United States will develop colorectal cancer during their lifetime. This disease is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, and the third for men. Colorectal cancer has a high 5-year recurrence rate and most likely is spread to the liver and lungs. Clinical Genomics has two decades of experience striving to save lives and reduce costs by developing easy-to-use tests for the detection of colorectal cancer. With breakthrough diagnostic tools, the company aims to offer affordable and accurate tests, supporting physicians and patients with potential life-saving knowledge about colorectal cancer. On June 3, 2019, Clinical Genomics presented research detailing breakthrough methods of colorectal cancer recurrence monitoring at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting in the McCormick Place Convention Center, Chicago.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Genetic Research, Pediatrics / 24.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Philip J. Lupo, PhD, MPH Co-Director, Childhood Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Program, Texas Children's Cancer Center Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics Section of Hematology-Oncology, Member, Dan L. Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center Baylor College of Medicine Adjunct Associate Professor, Human Genetics Center, Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences University of Texas School of Public Health   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: While cancer risk in children with certain chromosomal defects like Down syndrome is well established, much less is known for children with birth defects where there is no known genetic cause, sometimes called non-chromosomal defects. Non-chromosomal defects, as a group, affect more children, but one of the primary challenges of understanding risk among these children is that limited sample sizes make studying specific defects, like spina bifida, more difficult. Because of that, we gathered data from birth, birth defect, and cancer registries across Texas, Arkansas, Michigan, and North Carolina to generate a birth cohort of more than 10 million children born between 1992 and 2013. We looked at diagnoses of cancer until 18 years of age to determine differences in cancer risk between those with and without birth defects. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Pain Research / 21.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Changchuan (Charles) Jiang MD, MPH MSSLW Internal Medicine Residency Program Class of 2020 Ichan School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Chronic pain is one of the common side effects of cancer treatments and it has been linked to low life quality, lower adherence to treatment, higher medical cost. As the population of cancer survivors grows rapidly, chronic pain will be a major public health issue in this population. We know from previous studies that chronic pain is common in certain cancers such as breast cancer. However, little was known about the epidemiology of chronic pain in the cancer survivors until our study. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Genetic Research, Prostate Cancer / 20.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Emanuela Taioli, MD, PhD, Director of the Institute for Translational Epidemiology Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Asociate director for Population Science Tisch Cancer Institute  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: An excess incidence of prostate cancer has been identified among World Trade Center responders. We wanted to study if this excess was associated with exposure to WTC dust The results suggest that respiratory exposure to WTC dust can induce inflammatory and immune responses in prostate tissue. Chronic inflammation could facilitate prostate cancer development Taken together, our results suggest that World Trade Center prostate cancer cases have a distinct gene expression pattern that may be the result of exposure to specific carcinogens during the WTC attacks. WTC dust-exposed rat prostate displayed unique changes in gene expression and immune cell infiltrates after acute dust exposure, suggesting that the effect of exposure may be measured locally in target organs such as prostate. In addition, some of the genes overexpressed in rat normal prostates as a consequence of exposure are also overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissues, suggesting a link between exposure, local immune dysregulation, and prostate cancer development (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Lung Cancer / 19.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Thomas A. Quinn, DO, FAOCOPM Clinical Professor Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine Bradenton  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Canine scent detection of lung cancer is showing evidence of being an effective, safe and cost effective method of early detection of lung as well as other types of cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths and early detection has proven to be one of the most effective ways to reduce the mortality and morbidity of this deadly disease.  In a collaborative study conducted by the Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine (LECOM) and BioScentDX, a canine training and research facility, we were able to show that highly trained dogs can detect non-small cell cancer of the lung by scent alone.  For this study we chose to use Beagles because of their superior scent capability as well as their temperament, sociability and easy trainability.  The dogs proved to be able, in this double blind study, to detect lung cancer in blood serum with a 96.7% sensitivity and a 97.5% specificity. The dogs underwent an eight-week training program using the clicker/treat training method.  We trained four Beagles for this study but one of the dogs did not respond well to the training methods and had to be removed from the program. That dog was retrained as a service dog for a handicapped child. (more…)
Author Interviews, Chemotherapy, Leukemia / 18.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Carlos Buesa PhD Chief Executive Officer Oryzon Genomics  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, also known as KDM1A) is a histone modifying enzyme that removes methyl groups, thereby regulates the expression of many genes important in cancer progression and cell proliferation. Aberrant expression of LSD1 has been shown in many types of cancers. In particular, LSD1 expression is upregulated in bladder, small cell lung (SCLC), and colorectal clinical cancer tissues when compared with the corresponding nonneoplastic tissues. LSD1 has also been shown to be overexpressed in some breast cancers and may function as a biomarker of the aggressiveness of the disease. However, the function of LSD1 is most understood in acute leukemia, particularly Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Acute Lymphoblastic leukemia. LSD1 is crucial for the function and maintenance of the leukemic stem cells, a subset of malignant cells that is believed to be the ultimate reason for relapse in these patients. LSD1 inhibition might be a therapeutic solution to avoid those relapses. (more…)