Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Mammograms / 07.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wendie Berg, MD, PhD, FACR Professor of Radiology University of Pittsburgh MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Mammography misses many cancers in women with a personal history of breast cancer (PHBC). MRI improves early detection of cancer in women with PHBC and the American College of Radiology recommends adding MRI every year for women with PHBC and dense breasts or diagnosis by age 50 but not every woman can tolerate MRI. Contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) appears to be a good alternative to MRI.  Our study examined performance of CEM after tomosynthesis in women with PHBC.  We first trained our radiologists in CEM (Berg WA et al JBI 2021) and two radiologists interpreted both tomosynthesis and CEM on every participant. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Duke, Heart Disease, Pediatrics / 06.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amy Berkman, MD Department of Pediatrics Duke University School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Cancer incidence in adolescents and young adults (AYAs, aged 15-39 years at diagnosis) is increasing, with approximately 90,000 new diagnoses annually in the US. Improvements in 5-year survival have led to a growing population of survivors of AYA cancer, currently estimated at >600,000 survivors. Survivors are at increased risk of treatment related chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease (CVD). We wanted to determine whether certain sociodemographic and medical history factors further increase the risk of CVD in AYA cancer survivors and also compare risk of CVD between AYA cancer survivors and the general population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, COVID -19 Coronavirus / 17.11.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amy S. Lee, Ph.D.Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular MedicineUSC/Norris Cancer CenterLos Angeles, CA 90033 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Trying to find stable host cell targets to combat SARS-CoV-2 instead of chasing after the ever-mutating virus.    MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report? Response: When SARS-CoV-2 infects the host cell, it creates stress leading to higher production of GRP78. Blocking GRP78 reduces the ability of the virus to multiple and infect other cells.    (more…)
Author Interviews, Immunotherapy, JAMA, Melanoma / 03.11.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Olivier van Not Scientific Bureau, Dutch Institute for Clinical Auditing Leiden, the Netherlands Department of Medical Oncology University Medical Centre Utrecht Utrecht, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has significantly improved the survival of advanced melanoma patients. Treatment with these ICIs can lead to immune-related adverse events, also known as toxicity. This toxicity is graded from 1 (mild) to 5 (fatal) and examples of these toxicities are hepatitis and colitis. Since these toxicities can be life threatening and become chronic, they require treatment with immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids or anti-TNF. In a previous study of melanoma patients treated with different types of immune checkpoint inhibitors [Verheijden et al, Clin Cancer Research 2020] we found survival to be better for patients experiencing immune-related toxicity, which is in line with many other studies in several cancer types and a recent meta-analysis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Colon Cancer, Genetic Research, Nature / 18.10.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Royce Zhou, MD/PhD Candidate Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The background of this story is to see whether things outside of the cancer cell, such as the tumor microenvironment, can lead to epigenetic changes within the cancer cell. These changes are largely believed to be due to factors inside the cell, not outside. Super-enhancers are the top 1-2% of enhancers in the genome. They control cell identity genes and oncogenes in cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Dermatology, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 18.10.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alexandra J. White, PhD, MSPH Stadtman Investigator Epidemiology Branch National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institutes of Health Research Triangle Park, NC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What is the chemical primarily used in hair straighteners? Response: Hair products such as dye and chemical straighteners contain several different chemicals that may act as carcinogens or endocrine disruptors and thus may be important for cancer risk. Straighteners in particular have been found to include chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, cyclosiloxanes and metals and may release formaldehyde when heated. Previous research has suggested that hair dye and chemical straighteners are related to other hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and ovarian cancer, but no previous study has considered how they are related to uterine cancer risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Dermatology, Melanoma / 22.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Prof. Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, the Director of the Cancer Biology Research Center led this study with an outstanding PhD student, Sabina Pozzi” Prof. Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, Ph.D. Head, Cancer Research and Nanomedicine Laboratory Kurt and Herman Lion Chair in Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Director, Cancer Biology Research Center Department of Physiology and Pharmacology Sackler Faculty of Medicine Sagol School of Neuroscience Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest of all skin cancers, especially due to its tendency to invade and develop metastases with an incidence of brain metastasis development of 40% to 50% in patients with melanoma stage IV (although the incidence post mortem is 70–90%). We know that the brain microenvironment represents the first line of reaction in favor or against the tumor due to its dual ability to generate an immune-stimulatory or immunosuppressive niche, which will ultimately determine the establishment and growth of melanoma brain metastasis. Among the brain-resident cells, astrocytes are responsible for the maintenance of the brain homeostasis, and subsequent to melanoma brain colonization, they sustain and foster the growth of melanoma cells (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Cancer Research, JAMA, Lancet, Lung Cancer, Medical Imaging, Technology / 07.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Raymond H. Mak, MD Radiation Oncology Disease Center Leader for Thoracic Oncology Director of Patient Safety and QualityDirector of Clinical Innovation Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School Cancer - Radiation OncologyRadiation Oncology Department of Radiation Oncology Brigham and Women's Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What is the algorithm detecting? Response: Lung cancer, the most common cancer worldwide is highly lethal, but can be treated and cured in some cases with radiation therapy.  Nearly half of lung cancer patients will eventually require some form of radiation therapy, but the planning for a course of radiation therapy currently entails manual, time-consuming, and resource-intensive work by highly trained physicians to segment (target) the cancerous tumors in the lungs and adjacent lymph nodes on three-dimensional images (CT scans). Prior studies have shown substantial variation in how expert clinicians delineate these targets, which can negatively impact outcomes and there is a projected shortage of skilled medical staff to perform these tasks worldwide as cancer rates increase. To address this critical gap, our team developed deep learning algorithms that can automatically target lung cancer in the lungs and adjacent lymph nodes from CT scans that are used for radiation therapy planning, and can be deployed in seconds. We trained these artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms using expert-segmented targets from over 700 cases and validated the performance in over 1300 patients in external datasets (including publicly available data from a national trial), benchmarked its performance against expert clinicians, and then further validated the clinical usefulness of the algorithm in human-AI collaboration experiments that measured accuracy, task speed, and end-user satisfaction. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA / 06.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Samir Parekh, MBBS Hematology-Oncology, Cancer Director of Translational Research in Myeloma and Co-leader of the Cancer Clinical Investigation program The Tisch Cancer Institute Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Clinical outcomes for myeloma patients patients have improved significantly over the past decade with the introduction and success of newer immunomodulatory treatments such as CART cell therapy and bispecific antibodies. Strategies are needed to determine the best treatment options for patients relapsing or unresponsive to initial courses of these types of therapies. We analyzed the outcomes of patients relapsing after bispecific antibody therapy for myeloma. Our data shows that sequencing of bispecific antibodies or CART after initial bispecific failure can effectively salvage patients and lead to excellent outcomes in myeloma. This provides the foundation for future studies combining this new class of immunotherapy with CART or additional bispecific antibodies to improve outcomes in myeloma. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, PLoS / 21.08.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Stephen Duffy Director of the Policy Research Unit in Cancer Awareness, Screening and Early Diagnosis Centre Lead, Centre for Prevention, Detection and Diagnosis Queen Mary University of London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme provides 2 yearly screening to men and women aged 60-74, and it is in the process of reducing the starting age to 50 years. The screening method is faecal immunochemical testing (FIT), in which the screenee places a small sample of faeces in a container and mails this back to the lab, which tests the sample for haemoglobin, as bleeding can be a sign of cancer. The screenee is invited for colonoscopy if the level of haemoglobin is higher than 120 micrograms per gram. The system is under considerable pressure as there are limited colonoscopy resources, the programme is working towards a lower age at starting screening and we are still dealing with the backlog caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, and there may be a need to reduce the intensity of screening in order that the colonoscopy services can cope. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research / 09.08.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sarah S. Jackson PhD Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics National Cancer Institute Bethesda, MD 20892 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There are many cancers that both men and women can develop, specifically those that do not affect the reproductive tract. Men have higher rates of these nonreproductive cancers than women. There are only two nonreproductive cancer types that are more common in women: thyroid and gallbladder. Historically, we have thought this is because women are less likely to smoke or drink and are more likely to eat well and exercise than men. This study sought to examine the sex bias in cancer incidence after controlling for those lifestyle factors to see if this explained the male predominance in cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Nutrition / 26.07.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. John C. Mathers PhD Director, Human Nutrition Research Centre Director, Centre for Healthier Lives Population Health Sciences Institute Newcastle University Newcastle on Tyne UK MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?   Response: My colleagues and I have had a long-term interest in carrying out studies in people with hereditary cancer as a model for cancer in the general population. Here we studied people with Lynch syndrome who have an inherited defect in one of the genes encoding the DNA mismatch repair system. Because of this, they accumulate DNA damage faster than the general population and are prone to early cancers at several sites around the body. In the CAPP2 Study, we randomised almost 1000 people with Lynch syndrome to either resistant starch or to an ordinary corn-starch placebo. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Heart Disease, JAMA, Lung Cancer, Supplements, USPSTF / 30.06.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael J. Barry, M.D Director of the Informed Medical Decisions Program Health Decision Sciences Center Massachusetts General Hospital. Professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School Dr. Barry was appointed as Vice Chair of USPSTF in March 2021. He previously served as a member from January 2017 through December 2020.   MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings? Response: The Task Force looked at the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation specifically for the prevention of heart disease, stroke, and cancer. We found that there is not enough evidence to recommend for or against taking multivitamin supplements, nor the use of single or paired nutrient supplements, to prevent these conditions. However, we do know that you should not take vitamin E or beta-carotene for this purpose. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Lung Cancer, Surgical Research / 21.06.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Emanuela Taioli, MD, PhD Director, Institute for Translational Epidemiology Professor, Population Health Science and Policy Professor, Thoracic Surgery Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: NYC experienced a halt on all elective care from March 22 to June 8, 2020, provoking reduced cancer screening rates, and delayed cancer care and treatment. We wanted to quantify the effect of the “pause” on cancer stage at diagnosis using lung cancer as an example of a condition where early diagnosis can dramatically modify survival. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JAMA, Mammograms, Medical Imaging, UCSF / 15.06.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Karla Kerlikowske, MD. Professor, Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology/Biostatistics, Cancer Center Program Membership. Breast Oncology UCSF MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) was developed with the expectation it would improve detection of breast cancer in women with dense breasts and decrease false-positive results. DBT is now available at most breast screening centers. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 10.06.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marquita W. Lewis-Thames, PhD (she/her/Dr.) Assistant Professor, Department of Medical Social Science Center for Community Health, Member Researcher Assistant Directors of Community Outreach and Engagement, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?  Response: Incidence, mortality, and survivorship provide a comprehensive description of cancer for a group of people. Differences in cancer incidence and mortality trends by rural-urban status and race and ethnicity are well documented, but urban-rural cancer survivorship trends by race and ethnicity are unknown. To this end, we examined almost 40 years of racial and ethnic differences by rural-urban status for 5-year survival of patients with lung, prostate, breast, and colorectal cancers. Using a nationwide epidemiological assessment of 1975-2011 data from the SEER database, we found that 5-year cancer-specific survival trends increased for all cancer types and race and ethnic groups, regardless of rural or urban status. Generally, rural, and non-Hispanic Black cancer patients had worse survival outcomes than others. (more…)
ASCO, Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 09.06.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sachi Singhal, MD Department of Medicine Crozer Chester Medical Center Upland, PA MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings? Response: This study focuses on analysing the National Inpatient Sample for patients with breast cancer, their breakdown by race, gender and US regions, and their mortality per sub-group. The main findings are that African Americans, especially AA women are at significantly increased odds of dying from metastatic breast cancer in the United States. (more…)
ASCO, Author Interviews, Cancer Research, COVID -19 Coronavirus, NYU / 08.06.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katherine Garcia MD NYU Langone Health MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: Studies on cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic have shown a decrease in new diagnoses, delays in care, and a shift to later stage disease presentations. Considering that NY has been an epicenter for COVID-19 in the U.S., we investigated its impact on new cancer diagnoses at the two campuses of NYU’s Perlmutter Cancer Center and hypothesized that there would be a decrease in presentations during the peak outbreaks in NY. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Nature, Pancreatic, University of Michigan / 03.06.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Imad Shureiqi, MD, MS Professor, Division of Hematology and Oncology Department of Internal Medicine Rogel Cancer Center Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?   Response: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a highly lethal form of cancer with rising occurrence, and strategies to prevent and treat the disease are urgently needed. Most cases of pancreatic cancer arise from pre-cancerous lesions called pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN); about 55-80% of adults over forty are estimated to have these low-grade pre-cancerous silent pancreatic lesions. But critical factors that promote the progression of pancreatic pre-cancerous lesions to pancreatic cancer remain poorly defined, especially those easy to target. Findings from this publication indicate that people who have silent PanIN pre-cancerous lesions, even those that are low-grade, could increase their risk of PanIN progression into pancreatic cancer by consuming activators of a nuclear lipid receptor called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPARδ). PPARδ activators can be natural substances, such certain fatty acids like palmitic and arachidonic acid in high-fat diets, or synthetic ones, like Cardarine (GW501516). (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Gastrointestinal Disease / 20.05.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bashar J. Qumseya, MD, MPH, FASGE Associate Professor of Medicine Chief of Endoscopy University of Florida, Gainesville  MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings? Response: Barrett’s esophagus (BE), is a premalignant condition that can lead to esophageal cancer (called esophageal adenocarcinoma). Both diseases have historically been thought of as diseases of elderly white males. While both diseases have been on the rise in the elderly population, we noted that some cancers are becoming more common at younger ages. We wanted to see if the prevalence of BE and EC are increasing at younger ages.  We aimed to assess the prevalence of BE in and EAC based on age group in a large database of over 5 million patients.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Pharmaceutical Companies / 20.05.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert Wild, Ph.D Chief Scientific Officer Dracen Pharmaceuticals   MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for the development of sirpiglenastat, i.e., would you briefly explain what is meant by glutamine antagonist? Response: Cancer cells consume and use glutamine for both energy generation and as a source of carbon and nitrogen for biomass accumulation. Many oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes drive large-scale metabolic reprogramming of tumors into glutamine addiction. These highly proliferating tumors create a hostile and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), which is nutrient- depleted, acidic and hypoxic in nature. Sirpiglenastat (DRP-104), is a novel broad-acting glutamine antagonist that inhibits all 10 known glutamine metabolism enzymes. DRP-104 was designed to preferentially inhibit glutamine metabolism in tumors and associated TME and not in normal tissues, providing a large therapeutic window. DRP-104 demonstrates powerful direct apoptotic (cell death) properties and immune modulatory mechanisms through broad remodeling of the TME to infer DRP-104 impacts immune-metabolism. Inhibition of glutamine metabolism leads to:
  • Induction of apoptosis in glutamine-addicted tumor cells leading to substantial single-agent activity and tumor regressions
  • Rebalance of the TME that enhances immune cell infiltration and function
  • Differentiation and modulation of adaptive and innate immune cells toward a highly proliferative, activated and long-lived phenotype for a long-term durable response.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Cancer Research, Hepatitis - Liver Disease / 18.05.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yujin Hoshida, MD, PhD Director, Liver Tumor Translational Research Program CPRIT Scholar in Cancer Research Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center Professor of Internal Medicine Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: Liver cancer is the fastest rising cause of cancer-related death in the U.S. with the sharply growing epidemic of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Late diagnosis at advanced stage is the main reason for the poor survival of liver cancer patients. Therefore, professional societies recommend semi-annual liver cancer screening for early diagnosis. However, it's practically infeasible due to the vast size of patient population (estimated to affect one-fourth of population). Thus, we urgently need tools to identify a small subset of patients with elevated liver cancer risk, on which we can concentrate our effort of screening. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JACC, Weight Research / 18.05.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Amy Kirkham, PhD Assistant Professor of Clinical Cardiovascular Health Faculty of Kinesiology & Physical Education University of Toronto Affiliate Scientist at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: Women who have had a breast cancer diagnosis are at least two-fold and often higher risk of cardiovascular or heart disease compared to women without a history of breast cancer. Older age, higher body mass index, and receipt of chemotherapy treatment that can injure the heart are risk factors for cardiovascular death after a breast cancer diagnosis. Time-restricted eating is a type of intermittent fasting that appears to be easy to follow and to improve some measures of metabolic health but has not been studied in populations with a cancer history. Time-restricted eating simply involves consuming all calorie intake within a specific time window, commonly 8 hours, like between 12 and 8 pm, and then only consuming water or black coffee outside of those hours. We enrolled breast cancer survivors who were aged 60 or older, had an overweight or obese mass index, and were finished chemotherapy treatment in a single-arm trial of time-restricted eating for 8 weeks. We asked participants to restrict their calorie intake between 12 and 8 pm from Monday to Friday with no restrictions on weekend and no further instructions on what to eat. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Cancer Research, Colon Cancer / 18.05.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: AmirAli Talasaz Ph.D. co-CEO, Guardant Health MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this announcement? Response: On May 2, Guardant Health announced the availability of Shield™, our first blood-based test for the detection of early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC). Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S., so this announcement represents a tremendous public health opportunity. Here’s why: This new test will help people identify more CRC at its earliest stages, when it is most treatable. It offers an accurate, easy-to-complete, blood-based approach to CRC screening. It can be completed with a convenient blood draw during any healthcare provider visit.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, NIH, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 05.05.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Megan Clarke, Ph.D., M.H.S., Earl Stadtman Investigator Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics National Cancer Institute MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study? 
  • Through our prior work, we have demonstrated that uterine cancer incidence rates have been significantly increasing in the U.S. from 2003 to 2015 and that these increases were primarily driven by rising rates of aggressive (non-endometrioid) subtypes of this cancer. We observed that rates of these aggressive cancers increased among all women and were more than twice as high among Non-Hispanic Black women compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Factors explaining these trends, as well as the disproportionately higher rates of these aggressive subtypes among non-Hispanic Black women, remain unclear, in part because risk factors are poorly understood.
  • In addition to differences in incidence rates by race and ethnicity, we have also observed strong disparities in our prior studies, with Non-Hispanic Black women having substantially lower 5-year survival, regardless of subtype or stage at diagnosis, compared to other racial and ethnic populations.
  • The next logical step, and the focus of the current study, was to evaluate how increases in the incidence of aggressive, non-endometrioid uterine cancer affects racial disparities and rates of death from uterine cancer.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Radiology / 27.04.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Leticia NogueiraPhDMPH Senior Principal Scientist, Health Services Research American Cancer Society, Inc. Kennesaw, GA 30144 MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: Proton Beam Therapy (PBT) can deliver higher dose of radiation to the tumor with less damage to surrounding healthy cells. Therefore, PBT is potentially superior to photon-based radiation therapy to treat tumors with complex anatomy, surrounded by sensitive tissues, or for treating childhood cancer (where long-term side effects of radiation therapy are a main concern). However, PBT can cost twice as much as photon-based radiation therapy.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Vitamin D / 26.04.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katie M. O’Brien PhD Chronic Disease Epidemiology Group National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings? Response: Vitamin D may protect against breast cancer. Although women of color have lower average vitamin D levels than non-Hispanic White women, few studies have considered the role of race/ethnicity. In a sample of self-identified Black/African American and Hispanic/Latina women, we observed that vitamin D concentrations measured in blood were inversely associated with breast cancer, particularly among Latinas. These findings indicate that vitamin D may protect against breast cancer, including among racial/ethnic groups with low average circulating levels. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Cancer Research, Genetic Research, Nature / 18.04.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jason Vassy, MD, MPH Brigham and Women's Hospital Division of General Internal Medicine & Primary Care Brigham’s Precision Population Health at Ariadne Labs and VA Boston  MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?    Response: A person’s risk of developing diseases such as type 2 diabetes or breast cancer may be influenced by thousands of genetic differences, the effects of which can be combined to derive a single score, often called a polygenic risk score (PRS). PRS might be useful to help patients and their physicians make tailored decisions about their health care, but several challenges to the clinical implementation of PRS remain. Most importantly, most PRS are less accurate in individuals of non-European descent, since most genomic research to date has been conducted in European populations. Another key challenge is that physicians and patients will need support to understand polygenic risk score and use them to make medical decisions. Clinical guidelines do not yet exist to help a physician know whether and how they should treat a patient with a high-risk score differently than an average-risk patient. We designed the Genomic Medicine at VA (GenoVA) Study to address some of these challenges. (more…)