USPSTF Recommends Primary Care Screening for Domestic Violence in Women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

John W. Epling, Jr., M.D., M.S.Ed Professor of Family and Community Medicine Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine Roanoke, VA USPSTF Task Force Member

Dr. Epling

John W. Epling, Jr., M.D., M.S.Ed
Professor of Family and Community Medicine
Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine
Roanoke, VA
USPSTF Task Force Member

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Intimate partner violence, often known as domestic violence, can have devastating consequences to one’s health and wellbeing. It can lead to mental illness, substance abuse, unintended pregnancy, and even death. This is a serious public health issue in America: one in three men—and even more women—experience it in their lifetimes. Because this is such an important topic, and the last time we made a recommendation on it was in 2013, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reviewed the most recent evidence to determine how clinicians can help prevent the negative health effects of intimate partner violence.

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Therapy Dogs Can Spread MRSA in Hospitals—But Shampooing Can Help

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Courtesy of Kathryn Dalton, VMD MPH

Courtesy of Kathryn Dalton, VMD MPH

Kathryn Dalton, VMD MPH
AKC CHF Fellow
PhD Student, Davis Lab
Environmental Health and Engineering
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Animal-assisted interventions (or AAI for short) have become increasing popular in hospitals for the emotional and physical benefits they bring to patients. But there is a risk that these therapy dogs could potential spread infectious germs, including MRSA (methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus), to patients.

Our study found that therapy dogs can spread MRSA to patients, and children who had more contact with the therapy dog were at higher risk of getting MRSA. But, we used a new cleaning protocol on the dog with an anti-septic shampoo before the visit and anti-septic wipes during the visit. Patients who had more contact with the dog did not have a higher risk of MRSA when the dog was giving this new cleaning protocol, which made the AAI therapy visits safer for the patients. In addition, the patients’ emotional and physical benefits we observed were not changed by using this dog cleaning protocol.       Continue reading

SMARTPHONE, M.D. : A NEW APP TO DIAGNOSE URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
SMARTPHONE, M.D. A NEW APP TO DIAGNOSE URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS Michael J. Mahan PhD
Professor, Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
Dept of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology
University of California, Santa Barbara, CA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) cause nearly 10 million doctor visits each year in the United States. Women are much more likely to have a UTI than men, and are particularly harmful to pregnant women and can cause miscarriage. Thus, there is a medical need for rapid, low-cost, on-site testing — particularly in resource-limited settings.

We developed a new app that enables a smartphone to identify (ID) bacteria causing UTIs in just one hour — a fraction of the time and cost of clinical diagnostics.

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Factor in Quality of Life When Deciding Radiotherapy vs Surgery in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. David Sher MD MPH Radiation Oncology, Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center UTSouthwestern Medical Center Associate Senior Editor International Journal of Radiation Oncology

Dr. Sher

Dr. David Sher MD MPH
Radiation Oncology,
Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center
UTSouthwestern Medical Center
Associate Senior Editor International Journal of Radiation Oncology

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The prevalence of oropharyngeal cancer is rising rapidly, and the two primary therapeutic approaches – upfront radiation therapy or surgery resection – have both been improving in terms of acute and late toxicity profiles. There is significant debate as to which therapy is better, and comparative data are necessary to help physicians and patients decide which paradigm is preferred for a given clinical scenario. Although there is a lot of anecdotal experience in comparing the two treatments, there really is a lack of published data on the question, and this is where our study fits in. 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Were there significant quality-of-life differences between the two treatment modalities?

Response: The main findings were comparable outcomes in long-term survival, toxicity and even cost between primary radiation therapy and primary surgery. This equivalence highlights the importance of patient-centered decision-making and engaging patient preferences in their optimal treatment approach. There was clearly an increase in stomach tube use in patients receiving primary chemoradiotherapy, which may be an important consideration in some patients, depending on the expected functional outcome of initial surgery. This difference became non-significant after a short period of time, but it was real and may influence decision-making.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Readers should take away that there are no particularly large differences between these treatments. Survival, toxicity and cost are all comparable in the long-run. It was quite clear, though, that primary surgery was associated with a lower risk of gastrostomy tube use. Although the difference in tube use was negligible within a few months, the use of any feeding tube may be a deciding factor for some patients. We showed here this difference was due to concurrent chemotherapy during radiotherapy. This result echoes our clinical experience, but we were able to show this finding quite clearly. On the other hand, we also found that the increased dependence with radiation therapy was clearly short-lived, so patients should absolutely not consider this difference as a long-term problem preferentially associated with radiotherapy.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: It is critical for future research to consider the functional and quality-of-life outcomes in future comparisons of these different treatment approaches. Claims-based analyses such as this can uniquely show the “big picture” with respect to complications that require a medical treatment. However, more granular and subtle patient-reported outcomes are not included in this study, and they will be essential to help patients and physicians in the decision-making process.   

The study was funded by the Radiation Oncology Institute.

Citation:

Sher DJ, Agiro A, Zhou S, Day AT, DeVries A. Commercial Claims–Based Comparison of Survival and Toxic Effects of Definitive Radiotherapy vs Primary Surgery in Patients With Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Published online September 20, 2018. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2018.1929

Sep 21, 2018 @ 3:05 pm 

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Women Who Breast Feed Longer Likely to Have More Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Vida Maralani PhD Associate Professor Department of Sociology Cornell University

Dr. Maralani

Vida Maralani PhD
Associate Professor
Department of Sociology
Cornell University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Breastfeeding is a time-intensive and culturally and emotionally charged topic in the U.S. with many different stakeholders. Women hear the strong message that they should breastfeed their infants for the first year of life, yet it is unambiguously clear that they find these guidelines hard to follow in practice. We were interested in exploring how breastfeeding duration is associated with how many children women go on to have. Our results show that women who breastfeed their first child for five months or longer are more likely to have three or more children, and less likely to have only one child, than women who breastfeed for shorter durations or not at all. Women who initiate breastfeeding did not differ in how many children they expected to have before they started their families. Rather, the number of children women actually bear differs by how long they breastfeed their first child. Women who breastfeed for shorter durations are more likely to have fewer children than they expected than to have more children than expected. In contrast, women who breastfeed longer are as likely to achieve their expectations as to exceed them, and they are nearly as likely to have more children than they expected as they are to have fewer.

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COPD: Most Hospital Readmissions Not Due To COPD

Tina Shah, MD University of Chicago Medicine Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care University of ChicagoMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Tina Shah, MD
University of Chicago Medicine
Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care
University of Chicago

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Shah: The reason why we undertook this study is to better understand the Medicare COPD population that falls under the purview of the CMS Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). This program places up to a 3% penalty on all Medicare revenues for hospitals that take care of beneficiaries should a hospital exceed its “expected readmission rate.” Previously 30 day readmissions after index admissions for congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction and pneumonia fell subject to the HRRP. As of October 2014, COPD has been added to the list, despite minimal evidence to guide hospitals in how to curb COPD readmissions. The goal of this research was to provide an epidemiological background for this population and identify trends as a hypothesis generating first step to predict who is most likely to be readmitted and to identify targets for successful future interventions on this group. Our study population is unique in that we longitudinally look at about 1/2 of all Medicare admissions for COPD exacerbations, using the CMS guideline definition which is based on discharge ICD-9 codes. As described in previous literature, there is a large discrepancy between identification of COPD by provider versus coding algorithm, however since the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program is based on discharge coding it is important to examine this particular group.
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Hospital-Based Exercise Program Reduced Pain, Improved Quality of Life

Sandra Goldsmith, MA, MS, RD Director of Public and Patient Education at Hospital for Special Surgery New York City.MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sandra Goldsmith, MA, MS, RD
Director of Public and Patient Education at Hospital for Special Surgery
New York City.

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Almost 50 million adults in the United States suffer from some form of musculoskeletal disorder, which can affect their mobility and quality of life. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of disability in the U.S. and affects more than 70 percent of adults between the ages of 55 and 78. Research has shown that there is a connection between being physically active and maintaining joint health, pain relief and improved quality of life. This study attempts to support the efficacy of Hospital for Special Surgery’s hospital-based exercise programs in increasing physical activity and improving quality of life through pain relief and improved stiffness, fatigue and balance in the older adult community.

This study found that after taking the exercise classes, fewer participants reported experiencing a high level of muscle/joint pain from their condition (56 percent before the program started vs. 47 percent after completing the program). The study also reported improved quality of life, as evidenced by statistically significant reductions in how much their pain interfered with their general activities, ability to walk, mood, sleep and enjoyment of life. In addition, 83 percent of participants indicated a reduction in stiffness; 82 percent said they felt their balance improved; and 67 percent said they experienced less fatigue as a result of taking part in the program. Health outcomes were also related to the type of exercise class participants chose, with the greatest reduction in muscle/joint pain reported by those who took t’ai chi.

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Are Bisphosphonates Underutilized In Men on Androgen Deprivation Therapy?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Shabbir M. H. Alibhai, MD, MSc and
Husayn Gulamhusein, BHSc
Department of Medicine, University Health Network
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

MedicalResearch: In 2009, we published a research letter in JAMA which examined the rate of bone mineral density (BMD) testing in men starting androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in the province of Ontario, Canada, between 1995 and 2008. Despite being recommended as a tool to better characterize fracture risk and optimize bone health, use of bone mineral density testing was low throughout the study period. This current study focuses on another aspect of bone health, which is the use of bisphosphonates among men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Bisphosphonates are generally safe and effective medications that can reduce fracture risk particularly in those at higher risk of future fracture. Throughout the 17-year study period, we found that rates of new prescriptions for bisphosphonates remained low. Even when focusing on those men who should be receiving bisphosphonates as per Canadian guidelines due to their high risk for future fracture, i.e. those with a prior fragility fracture or prior diagnosis of osteoporosis, prescription rates remained low. Moreover, in all three groups, new bisphosphonate prescriptions dipped between the 2007-09 and 2010-12 time periods. This may be partly due to recent negative media attention regarding the association of bisphosphonates with rare but serious side effects (i.e. osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femoral fracture).
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Cimetidine (Tagamet) May Have Anti-Cancer Properties

Dr. Pan Pantziarka Anticancer Fund, Brussels Belgium The George Pantziarka TP53 Trust, London, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Pan Pantziarka
Anticancer Fund, Brussels Belgium
The George Pantziarka TP53 Trust, London, UK

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Pantziarka: The background of this study is that it is part of a series of investigations by the Repurposing Drugs in Oncology (ReDO) project into well-known non-cancer drugs which have evidence of activity that may be useful in cancer therapies. These drugs include mebendazole, itraconazole, diclofenac, nitroglycerin and cimetidine.
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Residents of Disadvantaged Neighborhoods At Increased Risk of Hospital Readmission

Amy Jo Haavisto Kind, M.D., Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Division of Geriatrics University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health William S Middleton VA- GRECC Madison, WI 53705MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Amy Jo Haavisto Kind, M.D., Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, Division of Geriatrics
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
William S Middleton VA- GRECC Madison, WI 53705

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Kind: By way of background:

Socioeconomic disadvantage is a complex theoretical concept which describes the state of being challenged by low income, limited education and substandard living conditions for both the person and his or her neighborhood or social network.

It is plausible that disadvantage would influence rehospitalization because vulnerable patients depend upon their neighborhood supports for stability, generally, and these needs are likely to be increased after a hospitalization.

Yet, it is difficult to assess socioeconomic disadvantage during clinical encounters, yet the ADI provides an option for beginning such a discussion.

ADI or Area Deprivation Index is a composite measure of neighborhood disadvantage, similar to other geographic measures of disadvantage employed in other countries for resource planning and health policy development.

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Physical Activity During School Improves Academic Achievement, Especially For Boys

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Eero Haapala, MSc in Exercise Medicine, BASc PhD student
University of Eastern Finland,School of Medicine
Institute of Biomedicine, Physiology
Kuopio, Finland

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Our study is one of the first studies to investigate the different types of physical activity and sedentary behavior with academic achievement in children. Our main finding was that children who were more physically active during school recess were better readers in Grades 1-3 than less active children. We also found a direct relationship between physically active school transportation, which was mainly walking and cycling, and reading skills in boys. These findings suggest that particularly physical activity within a school day benefits academic achievement and that physical activity benefit academic achievement more in boys than in girls 6-8 years of age.
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Smaller Kids Gain Weight After Tonsillectomy, But No Increase In Obesity

Kay W. Chang, MD Associate Professor of Otolaryngology and Pediatrics Stanford University Department of Otolaryngology Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford Division of Pediatric OtolaryngologyMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Kay W. Chang, MD
Associate Professor of Otolaryngology and Pediatrics
Stanford University
Department of Otolaryngology
Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford
Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Chang: At 18 months after surgery, weight percentiles in the study group increased by a mean of 6.3 percentile points, and body mass index percentiles increased by a mean of 8.0 percentile points. The greatest increases in weight percentiles were observed in children who were between the 1st and 60th percentiles for weight and younger than 4 years at the time of surgery. An increase in weight percentile was not observed in children who preoperatively were already above the 80th percentile in weight.
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Patients With Advanced Cancer May Not Have Same End-of-Life Perspective As Their Physicians

Daniel Rocke, MD Medical School University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor, 2009.MedicalResearch.com Interview with
Daniel Rocke, MD
Duke Medicine
Department Otolaryngology


MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Rocke: I think the main point is that, to quote the paper, “end-of-life decision making by patients with cancer and their caregivers is significantly affected by their preference for quality of life or quantity of life, but OHNS physicians’ decision making is not.” This is important because physicians counseling patients making end-of-life decisions are coming at these decisions from a different perspective that may not line up with their patients. If physicians recognize this, I think that these end-of-life discussions can be more productive

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What is the Sweet Spot For Hypertension Control?

Carlos J. Rodriguez, MD, MPH Department of Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North CarolinaMedicalResearch.com Interview with
Carlos J. Rodriguez, MD, MPH
Department of Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Rodriguez: As a clinician there is a notion suggesting that lower blood pressure is better but our current research to date is controversial and not conclusive. We wanted to study a large group of people with hypertension and see whether over 20 years of follow up, if a lower systolic blood pressure would be associated with lower cardiovascular events (heart attack, stroke, heart failure, angina). We hypothesized that there would be a linear association between blood pressure and events, that lower blood pressure would be associated with lower events and that as the blood pressure went up there would be more events. We found this was not the case but that hypertensives with a blood pressure between 120-138mmhg have the greatest benefit and those with a blood pressure less than 120mmhg did not have additional benefit.
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Texting Bans and Reduction in Roadway Deaths

Alva O. Ferdinand, DrPH, JD School of Public Health College Station, TX   77843MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Alva O. Ferdinand, DrPH, JD
Texas A&M Health Science Center
School of Public Health
College Station, TX   77843

 

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Over the last decade, several states have enacted legislating making it illegal to text while driving. However, little is known about the impact that state texting-while-driving bans have had on roadway crash-related fatalities. Some states have banned all drivers from texting while driving while others have banned only young drivers from this activity. Furthermore, some states’ texting bans entail secondary enforcement, meaning an enforcement officer must have another reason to stop a vehicle before citing a driver for texting while driving, and other states’ texting bans entail primary enforcement, meaning an enforcement officer does not have to have another reason for stopping a vehicle.

We conducted a longitudinal panel analysis examining within-state changes in roadway fatalities after the enactment of state texting-while-driving bans using roadway fatality data as captured in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System between 2000 and 2010. To further examined the impact of these bans on various age groups, as younger individuals are thought to engage in texting while driving more often than older individuals. States that had enacted texting-while-driving bans during the study period were considered “treatment” states and states that had not passed texting-while-driving bans were considered “control” states.

We found that states with primary laws banning young drivers only saw an average of an 11% reduction in roadway following the enactment of such bans during the study period. States with primary laws banning all drivers were also associated with significant reductions for those aged 15 to 21 and those who were 65 years old or older. States with secondarily enforced bans, whether banning all drivers or young drivers only, did not see any significant reductions in roadway fatalities.

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Warfarin Dosing: Do Genotype-Based Algorithms Improve Outcomes?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
David Ldr_david_l_brown. Brown, MD, FACC
Professor of Medicine
Cardiovascular Division
Washington University School of Medicine
St. Louis, MO 63110

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Brown: This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed that using a genotype-based warfarin dosing algorithm did not improve the process or outcomes of anticoagulation compared to using a clinical dosing algorithm.
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Patients With Mental Illness More Likely To Be Victims of Homicide

Professor Louis Appleby Professor of Psychiatry C.B.E The University of Manchester in the UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Professor Louis Appleby
Professor of Psychiatry C.B.E
The University of Manchester in the UK

 

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Professor Appleby: “Patients with mental illness are two and a half times more likely to be victims of homicide than people in the general population according to our research published in The Lancet Psychiatry today.

“In this study, the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness (NCI), based at The University of Manchester, examined data on the victims and perpetrators of all homicides in England and Wales between January, 2003 and December, 2005.

We found that during the 3-year study period, 1496 people were victims of homicide, and 6% (90) of them had been under the care of mental health services in the year before their death. A third (29) of these patient victims were killed by other patients with mental illness.

In 23 homicides in which the victim was a mental health patient killed by another mental health patient, the victim and the perpetrator were known to each other either as partners (9, 35%), family members (4, 15%), or acquaintances (10, 38%). In 21 of these 23 cases, both the victims and perpetrators were undergoing treatment at the same National Health Service Trust.

Alcohol and drug misuse (victims 66%, perpetrators 93%) and a history of violence (victims 24%, perpetrators 24%) were common among both patient victims and perpetrators. The study also found that in the 3 years to 2005, 213 mental health patients were convicted of homicide—accounting for 12% of all homicide convictions.”
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Pediatric Trends in Energy Intake, Obesity

Michelle A. Mendez, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Nutrition University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Public Health Chapel Hill, NMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Michelle A. Mendez, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Gillings School of Public Health
Chapel Hill, NC

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Mendez: Using national surveillance data to examine trends in energy intake among children, we found that there was an initial decline in intakes from 2003-4 through 2007-08, which mirrored evidence that child obesity in the US may have begun to decline in that period. Subsequently, however, in 2009-10, energy intake increased in older children aged 12-19y, and reached a plateau in children aged <11y. This shift is consistent with reports that, particularly in older children, the downward trend in obesity levels may have been reversed in recent years.
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Diabetes: Metformin Effectiveness in African Americans May Be Greater Than In Whites

L. Keoki Williams, MD, MPH Center for Health Policy and Health Services Research Department of Internal Medicine Henry Ford Health System Detroit, Michigan 48104MedicalResearch.com Interview with
L. Keoki Williams, MD, MPH
Center for Health Policy and Health Services Research
Department of Internal Medicine
Henry Ford Health System
Detroit, Michigan 48104

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Williams: Metformin is recommended as first line treatment for type 2 diabetes, and these recommendations are based on the results of clinical trials performed almost exclusively in white individuals.  This is the first study to specifically assess whether metformin is effective at reducing blood glucose levels in African American individuals.  In our large study of over 19,000 individuals, we showed that metformin was consistently more effective at reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (a measure of long-term blood glucose control) in African Americans when compared with white individuals.

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Poor Cardiovasular Health Linked to Cognitive Impairment

Evan Thacker PhD Brigham Young UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Evan Thacker PhD
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah

 

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Thacker: In this study of over 17,000 American adults aged 45 and above, we first measured people’s cardiovascular health based on their smoking habits, diet, physical activity, body weight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood sugar. We then tracked these people for several years with cognitive function tests which measure memory and thinking abilities. The main finding of our study was that people who had the lowest levels of cardiovascular health at the beginning of the study were more likely to experience cognitive impairment – poor performance on the cognitive function tests – at the end of the study. People who had medium to high levels of cardiovascular health were less likely to experience cognitive impairment.

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Myocardial Infarction: What Results in Delays for Stent Surgery in Transferred Patients?

Laurie Lambert, PhD Unité d'évaluation en cardiologie Institut national d'excellence en santé et en services sociaux (INESSS) Montréal, QuébecMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Laurie Lambert, PhD
Unité d’évaluation en cardiologie
Institut national d’excellence en santé
et en services sociaux (INESSS)
Montréal, Québec

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Lambert: Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are frequently transferred for percutaneous coronary reperfusion from a hospital without this capability. Favourable outcomes depend on minimizing delays to treatment. A major component of delay is the time from the patient’s arrival at the first hospital’s emergency department to departure to the hospital where percutaneous reperfusion will be performed, the ‘door-in-door-out’ time or DIDO. We characterized this component of delay in a systematic field evaluation of STEMI treatment over a large and populous geographic area.

The major contributors to DIDO time were the delays

  • (1) from the initial in-hospital ECG acquisition to transfer activation by the emergency physician and
  • (2) from arrival of the transfer ambulance at the first hospital to departure of the ambulance for the primary percutaneous coronary intervention center. When the DIDO interval was timely (30 minutes or less as recommended by guidelines), reperfusion treatment was far more frequently within guideline-recommended delays (90 minutes or less). In fact, this benchmark of DIDO time was met in only 14% of cases. We identified a number of factors associated with untimely DIDO, an important one being an ambiguous presenting ECG. DIDO times were faster when patients arrived at the first hospital by ambulance particularly when retransfer to the second hospital was with the same ambulance that had remained on standby.

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Study Cautions Against Resveratrol Supplements During Pregnancy

Antonio E. Frias, MD Associate Professor | Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine Oregon Health & Science University Director, Diabetes and Pregnancy Program Assistant Scientist | Oregon National Primate Research Center Portland, Oregon 97239MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Antonio E. Frias, MD
Associate Professor | Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine
Oregon Health & Science University
Director, Diabetes and Pregnancy Program
Assistant Scientist | Oregon National Primate Research Center
Portland, Oregon 97239

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Frias: Resveratrol supplementation in pregnant nonhuman primates fed a Western-style diet improved maternal metabolism, restored placental blood flow, reduced placental inflammation and improved lipid deposition in the fetal liver.  However, there was an unexpected disruption of fetal pancreatic development that is very concerning.
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Olive Oil in Diet Linked To Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

Prof Jordi Salas-Salvadó Professor of Nutrition. Human Nutrition Unit (Director) Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, IISPV School of Medicine. Rovira i Virgili University. Reus, Spain. CIBERobn, Instituto Carlos III. Centre Català de la Nutrició - Institut d'Estudis Catalans (Director). Federation of Spanish Food, Nutrition and Dietetic Scientific Societies (President). Red Iberoamericana RIBESMET (Director) INC - World Forum for Nutrition Research and Dissemination (Chairman).MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof Jordi Salas-Salvadó
Professor of Nutrition. Human Nutrition Unit (Director)
Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, IISPV
School of Medicine. Rovira i Virgili University. Reus, Spain.
CIBERobn, Instituto Carlos III.
Centre Català de la Nutrició – Institut d’Estudis Catalans (Director).
Federation of Spanish Food, Nutrition and Dietetic Scientific Societies (President).
Red Iberoamericana RIBESMET (Director)
INC – World Forum for Nutrition Research and Dissemination (Chairman).

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: The main findings of our study are that olive oil consumption, especially the extra-virgin variety (which is the olive oil with the best quality because it has higher amounts of bioactive compounds than other varieties), is associated with a reduced risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease (stroke, myocardial infarction…) and also cardiovascular death in an elderly Mediterranean population from Spain who were at high cardiovascular risk (because they had several cardiovscular risk factors such as smoking, being overweight or obese, having a family history of cardiovascular disease…). We have conducted an observational study including more than 7000 individuals who had participated in a randomized clinical trial  to evaluate effects of a Mediterranean Diet in on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
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Premenopausal Breast Cancer: Ovarian Suppression with Exemestane

Dr. Olivia Pagani  Institute of Oncology of Southern Switzerland Ospedale San Giovanni, SwitzerlandMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Olivia Pagani 
Institute of Oncology of Southern Switzerland
Ospedale San Giovanni, Switzerland

 

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Pagani: The studies show that also in premenopausal women (as already proven in postmenopausal women), aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (in this case Exemestane) given as adjuvant treatment are more effective than Tamoxifen in women with hormone receptor positive early breast cancer who are given concomitantly ovarian suppression to lower estrogen production. The 28% improvement in disease free survival is comparable to that seen in postmenopausal women. In particular, outcomes in women who did not receive chemotherapy (43% of the entire population, 29% of whom with node positive disease) were strikingly good (<97% were breast cancer free at 5 years).
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MRSA Infections Vary Dramatically Among Academic Medical Centers

Dr. Brad Spellberg MD Associate Program Director, Internal Medicine Training Program Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Division of General Internal MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Brad Spellberg MD
Associate Program Director
Internal Medicine Training Program
Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of General Internal Medicine

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Spellberg:  The rates of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) varied dramatically among academic medical centers in California, New York, Illinois and North Carolina, suggesting there is not a uniform change in the “national epidemic” of the “superbug” that has generated extensive public health concern over the past decade, according to a new study.The study surveyed hospital records of 4,171 cases of MRSA and MRSA-related infections between 2008 and 2011 in five medical centers located in Los
Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, New York City and Raleigh-Durham, NC.The rates of MRSA acquired in the community declined 57% from 2008-2011 in
the Los Angeles medical center. In contrast, CO-MRSA rates tripled at the
New York medical center, while the rates remained stable in San Francisco,
Chicago and Raleigh-Durham.
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