NYU Researchers Develop Siri-Like Application to Identify PTSD by Speech Analysis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Charles R. Marmar, MDThe Lucius N. Littauer Professor Chair of the Department of PsychiatryNYU Langone School of Medicine

Dr. Marmar

Charles R. Marmar, MD
The Lucius N. Littauer Professor
Chair of the Department of Psychiatry
NYU Langone School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Several studies in recent years have attempted to identify biological markers that distinguish individuals with PTSD, with candidate markers including changes in brain cell networks, genetics, neurochemistry, immune functioning, and psychophysiology. Despite such advances, the use of biomarkers for diagnosing PTSD remained elusive going into the current study, and no physical marker was applied in the clinic.

Our study is the first to compare speech in an age and gender matched sample of a military population with and without PTSD, in which PTSD was assessed by a clinician, and in which all patients did not have a major depressive disorder. Because measuring voice qualities in non-invasive, inexpensive and might be done over the phone, many labs have sought to design speech-based diagnostic tools 

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Cancer Patients Use THC and CBD Differently Than Other Medical Marijuana Patients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Arum Kim, MDAssistant professor of Medicine and Rehabilitation MedicineNYU School of MedicineDirector of the Supportive Oncology ProgramPerlmutter Cancer Center

Dr. Kim

Arum Kim, MD
Assistant Professor
Medicine and Rehabilitation Medicine
NYU School of Medicine
Director of the Supportive Oncology Program
Perlmutter Cancer Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  

Response: There is increasing interest in medical marijuana and its applications for patients with cancers. Despite increasing access, little is known regarding doses of cannabinoids – specifically tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)  and cannabidiol (CBD), methods of drug delivery, and differences in patterns of use between cancer and non-cancer patients.

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Port Wine Stain Birthmarks in Infants Safely Treated Without Need for General Anesthesia

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Roy G. Geronemus, M.D.Director, Laser & Skin Surgery Center of New YorkClinical Professor of DermatologyNew York University Medical CenterNew York, NY 10016

Dr. Geronemus

Roy G. Geronemus, M.D.
Director, Laser & Skin Surgery Center of New York
Clinical Professor of Dermatology
New York University Medical Center
New York, NY 10016

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: We made the observation in clinical practice that port wine stain birthmarks can be safely and effectively treated in early infancy without the need for general anesthesia. This observation is particularly important because of the FDA warnings regarding multiple exposures to general anesthesia under the age of 3 and the potential impact on neurocognitive development as these patients require multiple treatments.
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Dapsone Found Effective As Second Line Treatment for Hives

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Nicholas A. Soter, MD The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology New York University School of Medicine New York, New York

Dr. Nicholas Soter

Nicholas A. Soter, MD
The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology
New York University School of Medicine
New York, New York

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Nearly 50% of patients with chronic spontaneous urticarial (CSU) (hives) incompletely respond to first-line therapy with H-1 antihistamines.

However, in the current literature, there is limited evidence to guide the treatment of CSU after maximal therapy with antihistamines fails.  Two small, randomized, controlled trials suggest that dapsone, which is an antimicrobial therapeutic agent with anti-inflammatory properties, may be a useful second-line therapeutic agent.

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More Patients With Bariatric Surgery Admitted for Gallstone-Related Biliary Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Violeta Popov, MD PhD FACG Assistant Professor of Medicine Director of Bariatric Endoscopy, NY VA Harbor Healthcare(Manhattan) Division of Gastroenterology NYU Langone Medical Center 

Dr. Popov

Violeta Popov, MD PhD FACG
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Director of Bariatric Endoscopy, NY VA Harbor Healthcare(Manhattan)
Division of Gastroenterology
NYU Langone Medical Center 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Bariatric surgery is the most effective method currently available for durable weight loss. In the first few months after surgery, patients typically experience significant weight loss. Rapid weight reduction though can lead to the development of gallstones and biliary disease, described in up to 40% of post-bariatric patients. To avoid these complications, the gallbladder was removed during open bariatric procedures in the past. However, with the advent of laparoscopic surgery, concomitant cholecystectomy with bariatric surgery is no longer performed for many reasons.  The aim of is study is to assess if biliary diseases such as acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, acute cholangitis, and cholecystectomy have increased with this change in practice. This is a retrospective cohort analysis of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), the largest publicly available inpatient database in the United States of nonfederal institutions, with approximately 1000 hospitals participating and information on over 7 million inpatient admissions.

We found that from 2006 to 2014 there has been an approximately 10-fold increase in hospital admissions for biliary diseases, as well as similar increase in cholecystectomies, in patients who have a history of bariatric surgery. There was no significant change in admissions in patients without bariatric surgery between 2006 and 2014 admitted for the same biliary diseases.  Continue reading

Artificial Intelligence Can Reliably Diagnosis Specific Types of Lung Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Aristotelis Tsirigos, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Pathology Director, Applied Bioinformatics Laboratories New York University School of Medicine

Dr. Tsirigos

Aristotelis Tsirigos, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Pathology
Director, Applied Bioinformatics Laboratories
New York University School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Pathologists routinely examine slides made from tumor samples to diagnose cancer types. We studied whether an AI algorithm can achieve the same task with high accuracy. Indeed, we show that such an algorithm can achieve an accuracy of ~97%, slightly better than individual pathologists.

In addition, we demonstrated that AI can be used to predict genes that are mutated in these tumors, a task that pathologists cannot do. Although the accuracy for some genes is as high as 86%, there is still room for improvement. This will come from collecting more training data and also from improvement in the annotations of the slides by expert pathologists.  

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Low Risk Prostate Cancer Imaging More Common Outside of VA Hospitals

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Danil V. Makarov, MD, MHS Department of Urology and Department of Population Health New York University Langone School of Medicine VA New York Harbor Healthcare System, Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York

Dr. Makarov

Danil V. Makarov, MD, MHS
Department of Urology and
Department of Population Health
New York University Langone School of Medicine
VA New York Harbor Healthcare System,
Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service
Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Reducing prostate cancer staging imaging for men with low-risk disease is an important national priority to improve widespread guideline-concordant practice, as determined by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. It appears that prostate cancer imaging rates vary by several factors, including health care setting. Within Veterans Health Administration (VHA), physicians receive no financial incentive to provide more services. Outside VHA, the fee-for-service model used in Medicare may encourage provision of more healthcare services due to direct physician reimbursement.

In our study, we compared these health systems by investigating the association between prostate cancer imaging rates and a VA vs fee-for-service health care setting. We used novel methods to directly compare Veterans, Medicare Recipients, and Veterans that chose to receive care from both the VA at private facilities using Medicare insurance through the Choice Act with regard to rates of guideline-discordant imaging for prostate cancer.

We found that Medicare beneficiaries were significantly more likely to receive guideline-discordant prostate cancer imaging than men treated only in VA.

Moreover, we found that men with low-risk prostate cancer patients in the VA-only group had the lowest likelihood of guideline-discordant imaging, those in the VA and Medicare group had the next highest likelihood of guideline-discordant imaging (in the middle), and those in the Medicare-only group had the highest likelihood of guideline-discordant imaging.  Continue reading