Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, University of Pennsylvania / 22.10.2014

Dr. Harald Schmidt, MA, PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy Research Associate, Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104-3308MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Harald Schmidt, MA, PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy , Research Associate, Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics, Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104-3308 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schmidt: We reviewed currently available policies for aligning cost and quality of care. We focused on interventions are similar in their clinical effectiveness, have modest differences in convenience, but pose substantial cost differences to the healthcare system and patients. To control health care costs while ensuring patient convenience and physician burden, reference pricing would be the most desirable policy. But it is currently politically unfeasible. Alternatives therefore need to be explored. We propose the novel concept of Inclusive Shared Savings, in which physicians, the healthcare system, and, crucially, patients, benefit financially in moving more patients to lower cost but guideline concordant and therapeutically equivalent interventions. (more…)
Author Interviews, JCEM, Menopause, UCLA / 22.10.2014

Carolyn J. Crandall, MD, MS Professor of Medicine David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles UCLA Medicine/GIM Los Angeles, CA 90024MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carolyn J. Crandall, MD, MS Professor of Medicine David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California UCLA Medicine/GIM Los Angeles, CA 90024 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Crandall: Clinical guidelines recommend that women aged ≥ 65 years should be screened for osteoporosis.  However, for younger postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 64 years, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends osteoporosis screening for women who have a 10-year predicted risk of osteoporosis fracture that is ≥9.3%.  We tested the ability the USPSTF strategy, and two other strategies (called OST and SCORE), to distinguish between women who did and did not experience a fracture in the subsequent 10 years.  We found that the USPSTF strategy did not identify the majority of who experienced osteoporotic fracture in the subsequent 10 years.  Especially in women aged 50-54 years, the USPSTF strategy identified fewer than 5% of women who experienced fracture over 10-year follow-up. (more…)
Author Interviews, Flu - Influenza, Vaccine Studies, Wistar / 22.10.2014

Scott E. Hensley, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, The Wistar Institute Philadelphia, PA 19104MedicalResearch.com Interview with Scott E. Hensley, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, The Wistar Institute Philadelphia, PA 19104   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hensley: We found that H1N1 viruses recently acquired a mutation that abrogates binding of influenza antibodies that are present in a large number of middle-aged adults.  We propose that this mutation lead to increased disease among middle-aged adults during the 2013-2014 influenza season. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Chemotherapy, Journal Clinical Oncology, Mayo Clinic / 21.10.2014

dr_edith_perezMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Edith A. Perez, MD Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, FL 32224 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Perez: Our joint analysis of two large prospective trials showed that adding one year of Trastuzumab to otherwise standard adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved long term survival in women with resected HER2+ breast cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Opiods, Yale / 21.10.2014

David A. Fiellin, M.D. Professor of Medicine, Investigative Medicine and Public Health Yale University School of MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with David A. Fiellin, M.D. Professor of Medicine, Investigative Medicine and Public Health Yale University School of Medicine   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Fiellin: The main finding of our randomized clinical trial, conducted in primary care, was that among prescription opioid dependent patients, ongoing buprenorphine therapy resulted in better treatment retention and reduced illicit opioid use when compared to buprenorphine taper (detoxification). (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Journal Clinical Oncology, MD Anderson / 21.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joanna-Grace M. Manzano, MD Assistant Professor Department of General Internal Medicine Maria E. Suarez-Almazor, MD, PhD Barnts Family Distinguished Professor Chief, Section of Rheumatology & Deputy Chair, Dept. of General  Internal Medicine UT MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: Our study established that unplanned hospitalization among elderly patients with GI cancer are very common – 93 events per 100-person years. Certain characteristics were found to have an increased risk for an unplanned hospitalization in our cohort, namely: older age, black race, advanced disease, higher comorbidity score, residing in poor neighborhoods and dual eligibility for Medicare and Medicaid. Esophageal and gastric cancer had the highest risk for unplanned hospitalization among all GI cancer types. Some of the observed reasons for unplanned hospitalization were potentially preventable and related to the patient’s comorbid illness. (more…)
Author Interviews, FASEB, Heart Disease, Yale / 20.10.2014

David L. Katz, MD, MPH, FACPM, FACP Director, Yale University Prevention Research Center Griffin HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview with: David L. Katz, MD, MPH, FACPM, FACP Director, Yale University Prevention Research Center Griffin Hospital   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Katz: We did not see any adverse effects of short-term, daily egg ingestion in adults with established coronary artery disease. Medical Research: What was most surprising about the results? Dr. Katz: Eggs are routinely banned from 'heart healthy diets.'  in particular eggs are always absent from cardiac care units, with egg beaters substituting.  However, these same units routinely serve products with refined starch and added sugar.  The scientific basis for excluding eggs from diets to improve cardiac health has long been suspect.  Here, we show that in the short term at least, there are no discernible harms of daily egg ingestion even in adults with heart disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dartmouth, Mental Health Research / 18.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: John A. Naslund, MPH – PhD Student at The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH Stuart W. Grande, PhD, MPA – Post–doctoral fellow at The Dartmouth Center for Health Care Delivery Science, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Naslund: In this study we explored whether people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder, use a popular social media website like YouTube to naturally provide and receive peer support. We found that people with severe mental illness use YouTube to feel less alone and to find hope, to support and to defend each other, and to share personal stories and strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges.   Dr. Grande: They also sought to learn from the experiences of others about using medications and seeking mental health care.  YouTube appears to serve as a platform that helps these individuals to overcome fears associated with living with mental illness, and it also creates a sense of community among them. (more…)
Author Interviews, Johns Hopkins, Nutrition, Sugar / 18.10.2014

Sara N. Bleich, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Health Policy and Management Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD 21205  MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sara N. Bleich, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Health Policy and Management Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD 21205 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bleich: Providing easily understandable calorie information — particularly in the form of miles of walking — makes adolescents more likely to buy a beverage with fewer calories, a healthier beverage or a smaller size beverage. Adolescents were also more likely to not buy any drink at all after seeing the signs with calorie information. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, MD Anderson / 17.10.2014

Steven J. Frank, M.D. Associate Professor of Radiation Oncology Medical Director of the Proton Therapy Center The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steven J. Frank, M.D. Associate Professor of Radiation Oncology Medical Director of the Proton Therapy Center The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center MedicalResearch.com Editor’s Note: A recent research published in Oncology Payers, discusses the quality of life benefits and cost-savings of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT or proton therapy) with traditional x-ray therapy for advanced stage head and neck cancer. The senior author of the paper, Dr. Steven Frank, highlights two oropharyngeal cancer patients, one of whom received proton therapy and the other x-ray treatments. Both patients received chemotherapy. The study showed that although the upfront costs of proton therapy were three times that of standard x-ray treatments, the proton therapy patient was spared the necessity of a feeding tube, nutritional and supportive care and weight loss that accompanied the x-ray treatments. By the end of the treatment period, the total care costs for the proton therapy patient were 20% lower than the x-ray treatment plan. To evaluate the costs, Dr. Frank has been employing a costing tool used elsewhere at MD Anderson called Time-driven Activity-based Costing that places the emphasis on the value of medical care, both monetary and in terms of quality of life. Dr. Frank plans to enroll 360 patients over the next five years as well as to open the study to other cancer centers. He notes that the results will be especially valuable as health insurance companies look to further bundled insurance payments. Dr. Frank was kind enough to answer several questions regarding his work for the MedicalResearch.com audience. Medical Research: From a patient's perspective, what are the main differences between traditional x-ray therapy and proton therapy for cancer treatment? Dr. Frank: In proton therapy, the radiation hits the cancer, while with traditional x-ray the radiation hits the cancer and the normal tissues in the head and neck, causing more side effects during and after treatment. The main advantage is that proton therapy eliminates unnecessary radiation. As radiation oncologists, our primary goal is to effectively kill cancer while sparing the patient the side effects of excessive radiation. Proton therapy achieves this for many patients with a variety of cancers, including lymphoma, lung, head and neck, prostate, esophageal and pediatric cancers. (more…)
Author Interviews, Melanoma, UCSF / 17.10.2014

Martina Sanlorenzo, MD Department of Dermatology Mt. Zion Cancer Research Bldg. San Francisco, CA 94143-0808MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Martina Sanlorenzo, MD Department of Dermatology Mt. Zion Cancer Research Bldg. San Francisco, CA 94143-0808 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sanlorenzo: In the treatment of BRAF mutant melanoma, the combination of BRAF inhibitor and MEK inhibitor has a better cutaneous safety profile compared with BRAF inhibitor monotherapy. Combination regimen shows fewer cutaneous adverse events and longer cutaneous adverse event-free interval. In particular, the development of squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma was significantly less frequent. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Clots - Coagulation, Erasmus, Stroke / 17.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com: Interview Invitation S. Akoudad, MD Msc PhD candidate Dep. Epidemiology, Radiology, Neurology Erasmus MC, Rotterdam , the Netherlands Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr.  Vernooij: We found that compared to never users, coumarin users had a higher prevalence of deep or infratentorial microbleeds and probably also a higher incidence of any microbleeds. A higher maximum international normalized ratio (INR) was associated with deep or infratentorial microbleeds, and among coumarin users, a greater variability in INR was associated with a higher prevalence of microbleeds. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Emergency Care, NEJM, UCLA / 16.10.2014

Daniel A. Waxman, MD, PhD Department of Emergency Medicine David Geffen School of Medicine University of California, Los Angeles RAND Corporation Santa Monica, CaliforniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniel A. Waxman, MD, PhD Department of Emergency Medicine David Geffen School of Medicine University of California, Los Angeles RAND Corporation Santa Monica, California Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Waxman: About 10 years ago, three states (Texas, Georgia, and South Carolina) passed laws which made it much harder for doctors to be sued for malpractice related to emergency room care.   The goal of our research was to determine whether the lower risk of being sued translated into less costly care by emergency physicians.  To figure this out, we looked at the billing records of nearly 4 million Medicare patients and compared care before and after the laws took effect, and between states that passed reform and neighboring states that didn’t change their laws.   We found that these substantial legal protections didn’t cause ER doctors to admit fewer patients to the hospital, to order fewer CT or MRI scans, or to spend less for the overall ER visit. (more…)
AHRQ, Author Interviews, Infections, University of Pennsylvania / 15.10.2014

Craig A Umscheid, MD, MSCE, FACP Assistant Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology Director, Center for Evidence-based Practice Medical Director, Clinical Decision Support Chair, Department of Medicine Quality Committee Senior Associate Director, ECRI-Penn AHRQ Evidence-based Practice Center University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Craig A Umscheid, MD, MSCE, FACP Assistant Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology Director, Center for Evidence-based Practice Medical Director, Clinical Decision Support Chair, Department of Medicine Quality Committee Senior Associate Director, ECRI-Penn AHRQ Evidence-based Practice Center, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Umscheid: We developed an automated early warning and response system for sepsis that has resulted in a marked increase in sepsis identification and care, transfer to the ICU, and an indication of fewer deaths due to sepsis. Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection; it can severely impair the body’s organs, causing them to fail. There are as many as three million cases of severe sepsis and 750,000 resulting deaths in the United States annually. Early detection and treatment, typically with antibiotics and intravenous fluids, is critical for survival. The Penn prediction tool, dubbed the “sepsis sniffer,” uses laboratory and vital-sign data (such as body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure) in the electronic health record of hospital inpatients to identify those at risk for sepsis. When certain data thresholds are detected, the system automatically sends an electronic communication to physicians, nurses, and other members of a rapid response team who quickly perform a bedside evaluation and take action to stabilize or transfer the patient to the intensive care unit if warranted. We developed the prediction tool using 4,575 patients admitted to the University of Pennsylvania Health System (UPHS) in October 2011.  We then validated the tool during a pre-implementation period from June to September 2012, when data on admitted patients was evaluated and alerts triggered in a database, but no notifications were sent to providers on the ground.  Outcomes in that control period were then compared to a post-implementation period from June to September 2013.  The total number of patients included in the pre and post periods was 31,093. (more…)
Author Interviews, Johns Hopkins, Nutrition / 15.10.2014

Sara N. Bleich, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Health Policy and Management Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD 21205  MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Sara N. Bleich, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Health Policy and Management Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD 21205 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bleich: Large chain restaurants appear to be voluntarily reducing the calories in their newly introduced menu items which contain an average of 60 fewer calories than items only on the menu in the prior year. This decline is primarily driven by new lower calorie salads and sandwiches. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Lipids, UCSF / 15.10.2014

MedicalResearch.comInterview with: Mary Malloy, M.D. Co-director of the Adult Lipid Clinic and the director of the Pediatric Lipid Clinic UCSF Medical Center Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Malloy: We studied an individual whom we found to be homozygous for a rare loss of function mutation in apolipoprotein E. Because apolipoprotein E is necessary for clearance of lipoproteins from plasma, he has very high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in blood, and unusual and very severe xanthomas. He had no evidence of neurocognitive or retinal defects. (more…)
Author Interviews, End of Life Care, Erasmus / 15.10.2014

F.E. (Erica) Witkamp RN MSc Senior lecturer University of Applied Sciences Erasmus MC and Erasmus MC Cancer Institute Rotterdam, The Netherlands.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: F.E. (Erica) Witkamp RN MSc Senior lecturer University of Applied Sciences Erasmus MC and Erasmus MC Cancer Institute Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: We investigated the experiences of 249 bereaved relatives (response 51%) of patients who had died in the hospital, after a hospitalization of at least six hours. The main outcome measure was their global score of the quality of dying (QOD) on a 0-10 scale, with zero being “very poor” and ten “almost perfect”. Further, we assessed multiple experiences in the last days of life, such as symptom burden, preparedness for life closure, awareness of impending death, and care in the last days of life. We analyzed which of these factors was related to the quality of dying score, and subsequently whether the related factors represented specific domains of the dying phase. Relatives rated the overall score of QOD on average at 6.3 (sd 2.7) with a range from 0-10. During the last day(s) of life, 26% of the patients, and 49% of the relatives had been fully aware of imminent death. In the end 39% of the patients and 50% of the relatives had said goodbye; 77% of the patients had died in the presence of a relative. According to relatives patients had suffered moderately to severely from on average 7 out of 22 symptoms. In 53% relatives reported that in the last 24 hours symptoms had sufficiently been alleviated; efforts to control symptoms had been sufficient in 75%. In 64% relatives had been informed by the physician about the imminence of death, and in 70% they were satisfied about their involvement in decision making. In 55% relatives had experienced sufficient attention to individual preferences and wishes, and in 70% hospital facilities had been sufficient. Patients had been sufficiently affirmed as a person in 63%. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Imperial College, Nature / 15.10.2014

Dr. David Hodson PhD Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine Imperial College LondonMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr. David Hodson PhD Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine Imperial College London Medical Research: What is the background for this research? Dr. Hodson: Type 2 diabetes represents a huge socioeconomic challenge. As well as causing significant morbidity due to chronically elevated glucose levels, this disease is also a drain on healthcare budgets (~$20billion in the UK per year). While current treatments are effective, they are sometimes associated with side effects, usually due to off-target actions on organs such as the heart and brain. In addition, the ability to regulate blood glucose levels more tightly may decrease complications stemming from type diabetes (e.g. nerve, kidney and retina damage). As a proof-of-principle that the spatiotemporal precision of light can be harnessed to finely guide and control drug activity, we therefore decided to produce a light-activated anti-diabetic. (more…)
Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Infections, Surgical Research / 11.10.2014

Michael S. Calderwood, MD MPH Department of Population Medicine Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute Boston, MAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael S. Calderwood, MD MPH Division of Infectious Diseases Brigham and Women's Hospital Boston, MA Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Calderwood: "In our study, we found that the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following total hip arthroplasty and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is higher for Medicare patients undergoing surgery in U.S. hospitals with lower surgical volume. This suggests that volume leads to experience, and experience leads to improved outcomes." "We found a significantly higher risk of surgical site infection in U.S. hospitals performing <100 total hip arthroplasty procedures and <50 CABG procedures per year on Medicare patients. In the lowest volume hospitals, 1 out of 3 infections following total hip arthroplasty and 1 out of 4 infections following CABG were in excess of expected outcomes based on experience in the highest volume hospitals." (more…)
Author Interviews, Melanoma, NYU / 06.10.2014

David Polsky, MD, PhD Alfred W. Kopf, MD, professor of Dermatologic Oncology Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology NYU Langone Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Polsky, MD, PhD Alfred W. Kopf, MD, professor of Dermatologic Oncology Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology NYU Langone Medical Center Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Polsky: We utilized a multi-disciplinary approach including an analysis of socioeconomic factors to elucidate the evolution of attitudes and behaviors maximizing personal ultraviolet light exposure during the 20th century in the United States.  We then compared melanoma incidence rates from national cancer registries to estimated skin exposure and found that they rose in parallel. Though causation cannot be made in an analysis such as this one, this paper describes a historical context for the changing attitudes promoting increased UV exposure, and the rising incidence of melanoma throughout the past century.  It also provides a framework in which to consider public health and education measures that may ultimately help reverse melanoma incidence trends. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Karolinski Institute, Ophthalmology / 04.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jinjin Zheng Selin, MSc Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: Our results suggest that higher levels of total physical activity, especially in the long-term, as well as specific types of physical activity including walking/bicycling and work/occupational activity, may be associated with decreased risk of age-related cataract among middle-aged and elderly women and men. On the other side, high levels of leisure time inactivity may be associated with increased risk of cataract. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research, University of Pittsburgh, Weight Research / 03.10.2014

Anita P. Courcoulas M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.S Professor of Surgery Director, Minimally Invasive Bariatric & General Surgery University of Pittsburgh Medical Center MedicalResearch.com Interview with:  Anita P. Courcoulas M.D., M.P.H., F.A.C.S Professor of Surgery Director, Minimally Invasive Bariatric & General Surgery University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Courcoulas: This paper was not a study but a summary of findings from a multidisciplinary workshop (and not a consensus panel) convened in May 2013 by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The goal of the workshop was to summarize the current state of knowledge of bariatric surgery, review research findings on the long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery, and establish priorities for future research. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JNCI, Lung Cancer, UT Southwestern / 02.10.2014

Dr. David Gerber MD Associate Professor of Internal Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology Harold C. Simmons Cancer Center at UT Southwestern Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. David Gerber MD Associate Professor of Internal Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology Harold C. Simmons Cancer Center at UT Southwestern Medical Center Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gerber: Fewer than 3% of adult cancer patients in the United States are enrolled in clinical trials.  Increasingly numerous and stringent eligibility criteria are a major factor limiting participation in clinical trials.  We examined the longstanding and widespread practice of excluding patients with prior cancer from oncology clinical trials.  This policy presumably reflects concerns that a prior cancer would interfere with the conduct, outcomes, or interpretation of a clinical trial, although there is no clear evidence supporting that assumption. We examined more than 50 National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored lung cancer clinical trials.  We found that 80% excluded patients with prior cancers.  This exclusion criterion was applied broadly, including to more than two-thirds of trials with non-survival endpoints.  We then examined national Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked data to estimate the proportion of patients who would be excluded from these trials due to prior cancer.  We found that up to 18% of potential patients are excluded for this reason alone.  In large phase 3 clinical trials, that corresponds to more than 200 patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Esophageal, JAMA, University of Michigan / 01.10.2014

Megan A. Adams, MD Gastroenterology Fellow University of MichiganMedicalResearch.com Interview with Megan A. Adams, MD Gastroenterology Fellow University of Michigan   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Adams: Surveys of doctors indicate that their fear of a malpractice lawsuit for missing a diagnosis of esophageal cancer might drive the overuse of tests called upper endoscopies in patients who are at low risk for the cancer. To examine whether this perception of medical liability risk accurately reflects the real likelihood of a malpractice claim, we looked at a national database of malpractice claims, and compared the rate of claims for delay in diagnosis of esophageal cancer in patients without alarm symptoms (weight loss, dysphagia, iron deficiency anemia), with the rate of claims alleging performance of an upper endoscopy without a good reason for performing the procedure. The database contained 278,220 claims filed against physicians in 1985-2012. The incidence of reported medical liability claims for failure to screen for esophageal cancer in patients without alarm features was quite low (19 claims in 11 years, 4 paid). In contrast, there were 17 claims in 28 years for complications of upper endoscopies with questionable indication (8 paid). (more…)
Author Interviews, Case Western, Heart Disease, Scripps / 29.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Philip Gorelick, M.D., M.P.H, F.A.C.P. Medical Director of the Hauenstein Neuroscience Center Saint Mary’s Health Care, Grand Rapids, MI; Professor, Translational Science and Molecular Medicine Michigan State University College of Human Medicine; Board member of the National Stroke AssociationPhilip Gorelick, M.D., M.P.H, F.A.C.P. Medical Director of the Hauenstein Neuroscience Center Saint Mary’s Health Care, Grand Rapids, MI; Professor, Translational Science and Molecular Medicine Michigan State University College of Human Medicine; Board member of the National Stroke Association and Judy Lenane, R.N., M.H.A. Chief Clinical Officer of iRhythm Technologies, Inc. Judy Lenane, R.N., M.H.A. Chief Clinical Officer of iRhythm Technologies, Inc.   Medical Research: What is atrial fibrillation and how common a problem is it among US adults? Dr. Gorelick: Nearly 3 million people in the US suffer from Atrial Fibrillation or “Afib,” an abnormal heart rhythm that causes the heart to beat rapidly and irregularly. While Afib can occur at any age, the incidence increases with age and the number of cases is expected to increase significantly in the coming years as the population ages. Approximately 5 percent of people 65 years and older and one in every 10 people over 80 years of age have Afib. It is more common in those with high blood pressure, heart disease or lung disease. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, Kaiser Permanente / 29.09.2014

Eric Macy, MS, MS Allergy & Immunology Kaiser Permanente Medical Group-AllergyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eric Macy, MS, MS Allergy & Immunology Kaiser Permanente Medical Group-Allergy   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Macy:
  • Cephalosporins are currently widely and relatively safely used in individuals with a history of a penicillin "allergy" in their medical record.
  • Cephalosporin associated anaphylaxis is very rare, even in individuals with a history of penicillin "allergy".
  • Cephalosporin associated serious cutaneous adverse reactions are extremely rare.
  • Cephalosporin associated Clostridium difficile and serious nephropathy are relatively common. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Karolinski Institute / 29.09.2014

dr_iffat_rahmanMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Dr. Iffat Rahman Ph.D. Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rahman: Our study suggests that moderate to high level of physical activity could protect against heart failure in women. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Heart Disease, JACC, Karolinski Institute / 23.09.2014

Agneta Åkesson Associate professor, senior lecturer  Photo by Anna Persson                                                                   Nutritional Epidemiology IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, SwedMedicalResearch.com Interview with Agneta Åkesson Associate professor, senior lecturer                                                  Nutritional Epidemiology IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Åkesson: Our study indicates that a healthy diet together with low-risk lifestyle practices such as being physically active, not smoking and having a moderate alcohol consumption, and with the absence of abdominal adiposity may prevent the vast majority of myocardial infarctions in men. (more…)
Author Interviews, Kidney Stones, NEJM, Radiology, UCSF / 17.09.2014

Rebecca Smith-Bindman, MD Professor in the Departments of Radiology; Epidemiology and Biostatistics; and Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine UCSF San Francisco Calif.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rebecca Smith-Bindman, MD Professor in the Departments of Radiology; Epidemiology and Biostatistics; and Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine UCSF San Francisco Calif. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Smith-Bindman: New technology is rapidly developed in medicine, and its important to understand how that technology should be used to improve patient health outcomes. Sometimes the technology is far better than existing technology and it should replace the earlier technology, and sometimes it is not and therefore should not be used. In this clinical scenario – I e. patients who present to an emergency department with abdomen or back pain thought to possibly reflect kidney stones, ultrasound is a simpler, less expensive , and more readily available test in the emergency department setting and therefore if it is equal to CT with respect to patient outcomes, it should be used as the first test in these patients. Currently, CT is the test widely used for patients with suspected kidney stones. We assessed a large number of patients with suspected kidney stones seen at one of 15 large academic emergency medicine departments across the country. Patients were assigned to point of care ultrasound performed by an ED physician, radiology ultrasound or radiology CT. We assessed a broad range of patient centered outcomes and found each of the three tests we studied were equivalent in terms of these outcomes including complications related to missed diagnoses, related serious adverse events, time spent in the emergency department and repeated ED visits and hospitalizations. However, the exposure to ionizing radiation was around half as high in patients who underwent ultrasound as their first test, and thus ultrasound should be used as the first imaging test in patients with suspected nephrolithiasis. (more…)
Cleveland Clinic, Multiple Sclerosis / 16.09.2014

Jeffrey Cohen MD Department of Neurology Cleveland ClinicMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Jeffrey A. Cohen, MD Hazel Prior Hostetler Endowed Chair Professor, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine Director, Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research Neurological Institute Cleveland Clinic Cleveland, OH  44195 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cohen: The primary objective of the GATE trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of generic glatiramer acetate to the approved form (Copaxone) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.  The study demonstrated equivalent efficacy of generic glatiramer acetate and Copaxone measured by gadolinium enhancing brain MRI lesions at months 7, 8, and 9 and a number of additional measures of MRI lesion activity.  The study also showed comparable safety (measured by adverse events) and injection site tolerability. (more…)