Author Interviews, BMJ, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Hospital Readmissions, Medical Research Centers / 31.12.2013

Dr. Jacques Donzé MD PhD Research Associate Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care, Brigham and Women’s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USADivision of General Internal Medicine, Bern University Hospital, 3010 Bern, SwitzerlandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jacques Donzé MD PhD Research Associate Division of General Internal Medicine and Primary Care, Brigham and Women’s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Donzé: In a large retrospective cohort study, we identified the primary diagnoses of 30-day potentially avoidable readmissions in medical patients according to the most common comorbidities. Interestingly, almost all of the top five diagnoses of potentially avoidable readmissions for each comorbidity were possible direct or indirect complications of that comorbidity. Patients with cancer, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease had a significantly higher risk of potentially avoidable readmission than those without those comorbidities. Also, when readmitted, patients with chronic kidney disease had a 20% higher risk of having the readmission be potentially avoidable. (more…)
Author Interviews, Ophthalmology, Transplantation, UT Southwestern / 31.12.2013

Dr. Jerry Y. Niederkorn, Ph.D. George A. and Nancy P. Shutt Professorship in Medical Sciences Royal C. Miller Chair in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Research Professor of Ophthalmology and Microbiology Vice Chair, Research (Department of Ophthalmology) Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, TXMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jerry Y. Niederkorn, Ph.D. George A. and Nancy P. Shutt Professorship in Medical Sciences Royal C. Miller Chair in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Research Professor of Ophthalmology and Microbiology Vice Chair, Research (Department of Ophthalmology) Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, TX FN-γ Blocks CD4+CD25+ Tregs and Abolishes Immune Privilege of Minor Histocompatibility Mismatched Corneal Allografts MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Niederkorn: These findings indicate that a combination of two simple maneuvers increases the acceptance of corneal transplants. In the past, there was no clear benefit in performing tissue matching of the cornea donor’s major histocompatibility complex (MHC) with the recipient of the corneal transplant. However, our study in experimental animals revealed that blocking a single immune system molecule called interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) combined with matching the corneal transplant donor with the transplant recipient’s MHC gene complex reduced the risk of rejection to less than 10% in the total absence of anti-rejection drugs. This study revealed that blocking this single immune system molecule promoted the development of immune system cells called T regulatory cells (Tregs) that suppressed the lymphocytes that are responsible for attacking organ transplants. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, University of Pennsylvania / 26.12.2013

dr_henry_p_parkmanMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with Henry P. Parkman, MD Professor, Medicine Director, GI Motility Laboratory Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Parkman: Gastroparesis remains a challenging syndrome to manage with few effective treatments and a lack of rigorously controlled trials. Tricyclic antidepressants are often used to treat refractory symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.  Evidence from well-designed studies for this is lacking. However, in this study, among patients with idiopathic gastroparesis, the use of nortriptyline compared with placebo for 15 weeks did not result in improvement in overall symptoms. These findings do not support the use of nortriptyline for idiopathic gastroparesis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Johns Hopkins, Surgical Research / 22.12.2013

Nita Ahuja, MD Departments of Surgery and Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MarylandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nita Ahuja, MD Departments of Surgery and Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, Maryland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ahuja: Across the nation, laparoscopic colectomy is performed about as frequently as open colectomy, despite being associated with a lower complication rate and a lower overall hospital cost. On the other hand,  an exponentially growing prevalence was found with robotic colectomy, a procedure that has so far demonstrated only equivalent outcomes with laparoscopic colectomy but a higher overall cost. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Mayo Clinic / 20.12.2013

Dr. Ronald C. Petersen M.D., Ph.D. Division of Epidemiology Department of Health Sciences Research; Department of Neurology Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MNMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ronald C. Petersen M.D., Ph.D. Division of Epidemiology Department of Health Sciences Research; Department of Neurology Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Petersen: The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment increases the likelihood of developing dementia. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Education, JAMA, University of Pennsylvania / 19.12.2013

Mitesh Patel, MD, MBA RWJF Clinical Scholar, University of Pennsylvania Mitesh Patel, MD, MBA is a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar the University of Pennsylvania and primary care physician at the Philadelphia VA Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mitesh Patel, MD, MBA RWJF Clinical Scholar, University of Pennsylvania Mitesh Patel, MD, MBA is a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar the University of Pennsylvania and primary care physician at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Patel: We evaluated survey responses from nearly 300 internal medicine residency programs directors to assess whether residency programs were teaching residents the fundamental concepts of practicing high-value, cost-conscious care.  We found that 85% of program directors feel that graduate medical education has a responsibility to help curtail the rising costs of health care.  Despite this, about 6 out of every 7 internal medicine residency programs have not yet adopted a formal curriculum teaching new physicians these important concepts. (more…)
Author Interviews, Chemotherapy, Gastrointestinal Disease, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, MD Anderson / 10.12.2013

Harrys A. Torres, MD, FACP Assistant Professor Director of Hepatitis C Clinic Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Harrys A. Torres, MD, FACP Assistant Professor, Director of Hepatitis C Clinic Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Torres: The main findings of the study were that patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who were successfully treated with antivirals and attained sustained virologic response (SVR) did not have a relapse of HCV infection after receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy for cancer. Patients in the study received different chemotherapeutic agents, including rituximab and systemic corticosteroids. Durability of SVR was maintained up to 14 years after chemotherapy in cancer patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Compliance, JACC, Outcomes & Safety, UT Southwestern / 10.12.2013

Dr. Wanpen Vongpatanasin, MD Professor of Medicine Director, Hypertension Section Cardiology Division UT Southwestern Medical CenteMedicalResearch.com Interview with; Dr. Wanpen Vongpatanasin, MD Professor of Medicine Director, Hypertension Section, Cardiology Division UT Southwestern Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Vongpatanasin: We found that more than 50% of patients with resistant hypertension were non-adherent to at least one drug prescribed by their primary care physicians for blood pressure control. When we provided this information back to the patients, as part of care in our hypertension specialty clinic, we found that many patients report difficulty taking prescribed medications due to either associated side effects or cost of the medication. When we adjusted patient's medications to fit their needs, BP levels were substantially improved during subsequent visits without increasing the number of medications. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mayo Clinic, Menopause, Sugar / 06.12.2013

Maki Inoue-Choi, PhD, MS, RD Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, NIH Rockville, MD 20850MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maki Inoue-Choi, PhD, MS, RD Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, NIH Rockville, MD 20850 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In our study, postmenopausal women who reported higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages were more likely to develop estrogen-dependent type I endometrial cancer, the most common type of this cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Sleep Disorders, University of Pittsburgh, Weight Research / 06.12.2013

Dr G. Neil Thomas, 
Regional Director, NIHR Research Design Service West Midlands 
 Deputy Director, Master of Public Heath Programme 
Reader in Epidemiology Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics
 School of Health and Population Sciences
 College of Medical and Dental Sciences The University of Birmingham
 Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TTMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr G. Neil Thomas, 
Regional Director, NIHR Research Design Service West Midlands Deputy Director, Master of Public Heath Programme 
Reader in Epidemiology Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics
 School of Health and Population Sciences
 College of Medical and Dental Sciences The University of Birmingham
 Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Thomas: This population of severely obese individuals (mean BMI 47kg/m2) from a regional specialist weight management service poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were strongly associated with poorer quality of life (Impact of Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Education, End of Life Care, JAMA, Stanford / 06.12.2013

J. Randall Curtis, MD, MPH Professor of Medicine Director, UW Palliative Care Center of Excellence Section Head, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Harborview Medical CenterA. Bruce Montgomery, M.D. – American Lung Association Endowed Chair in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104MedicalResearch.com Interview with: J. Randall Curtis, MD, MPH Professor of Medicine Director, UW Palliative Care Center of Excellence Section Head, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Harborview Medical CenterA. Bruce Montgomery, M.D. – American Lung Association Endowed Chair in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Curtis: We examined the effect of a communication-skills intervention for internal medicine and nurse practitioner trainees on patient- and family-reported outcomes.  The study was funded by the National Institutes of Nursing Research of the National Institutes of Heatlh.  We conducted a randomized trial with 391 internal medicine and 81 nurse practitioner trainees at two universities.  Participants were randomized to either an 8-session simulation-based, communication-skills intervention or to usual education.  We collected outcome data from a large number of patients with life-limiting illness and their families, including 1866 patient ratings and 936 family ratings.  The primary outcome was patient-reported quality of communication and, overall, this outcome did not change with the intervention.  However, when we restricted our analyses to only patients who reported their own health status as poor, the intervention was associated with increased communication ratings. Much to our surprise, the intervention was associated with a small but significant increase in depression scores among post-intervention patients.  Overall, this study demonstrates that among internal medicine and nurse practitioner trainees, simulation-based communication training compared with usual education improved communication skills acquisition, but did not improve quality of communication about end-of-life care for all patients.  However, the intervention was associated with improved patient ratings of communication for the sickest patients. Furthermore, the intervention was associated with a small increase in patients’ depressive symptoms, and this appeared most marked among patients of the first-year residents. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, JAMA, University of Pennsylvania / 06.12.2013

James Guevara, MD, MPH Associate Professor of Pediatrics & Epidemiology Senior Diversity Search Advisor, Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania,Director of Interdisciplinary Initiatives PolicyLab: Center to Bridge Research, Practice, & Policy The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia,Philadelphia, PA  19104MedicalResearch.com Interview with: James Guevara, MD, MPH Associate Professor of Pediatrics & Epidemiology Senior Diversity Search Advisor, Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania,Director of Interdisciplinary Initiatives PolicyLab: Center to Bridge Research, Practice, & Policy The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia,Philadelphia, PA  19104 MedicalResearch.com: What did the study attempt to address? Dr. Guevara: Medical schools have sought to build more diverse faculty in their institutions through faculty development programs targeted to underrepresented minority faculty members. This study was conduct by THE CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL OF PHILADELPHIA'S POLICYLAB  and The University of Pennsylvania and sought to determine if there was an association between minority faculty development programs and the representation, recruitment, and promotion of underrepresented minority faculty. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Nutrition, Pediatrics, University of Michigan / 01.12.2013

Richard Schwartz, Ph.D. Professor, Associate Dean for Graduate Academic and Student Affairs College of Natural Science Michigan State University Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-4320MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Richard Schwartz, Ph.D. Professor, Associate Dean for Graduate Academic and Student Affairs College of Natural Science Michigan State University Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-4320 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schwartz: The main finding is that exposure to a high fat diet from the age of puberty onwards hastened the development of chemical carcinogen-induced breast cancer in absence of weight gain. We also found that prior to the appearance of any tumors, we could detect changes in the mammary gland that included increased cellular proliferation, increased vascularity, and changes in immune function. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Menopause, PNAS, Stanford / 28.11.2013

Dr. Victor W. Henderson MD Professor of Health Research and Policy and of Neurology and Neurological Sciences Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Victor W. Henderson MD Professor of Health Research and Policy and of Neurology and Neurological Sciences Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Henderson: Estrogen or hormone therapy effects on some health outcomes differ by age, harmful at one age and beneficial at another. This difference is sometimes referred to as the “critical window” or “timing” theory. It is controversial whether the so-called critical-window applies to memory or other cognitive skills. In assessing the critical window hypothesis, we found that the relation between blood levels of estrogen and memory or reasoning skills is the same in younger postmenopausal women as in older postmenopausal women.  Essentially, there is no association at either age. (more…)
AHRQ, Author Interviews, Electronic Records, Hospital Readmissions, University of Pennsylvania / 28.11.2013

Craig A Umscheid, MD, MSCE, FACP Assistant Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology Director, Center for Evidence-based Practice Medical Director, Clinical Decision Support Chair, Department of Medicine Quality Committee Senior Associate Director, ECRI-Penn AHRQ Evidence-based Practice Center University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Craig A Umscheid, MD, MSCE, FACP Assistant Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology Director, Center for Evidence-based Practice Medical Director, Clinical Decision Support Chair, Department of Medicine Quality Committee Senior Associate Director, ECRI-Penn AHRQ Evidence-based Practice Center University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Umscheid: We developed and successfully deployed into the electronic health record of the University of Pennsylvania Health System an automated prediction tool which identifies newly admitted patients who are at risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge.  Using local data, we found that having been admitted to the hospital two or more times in the 12 months prior to admission was the best way to predict which patients are at risk for being readmitted in the 30 days after discharge. Using this finding, our automated tool identifies patients who are “high risk” for readmission and creates a “flag” in their electronic health record (EHR). The flag appears next to the patient’s name in a column titled “readmission risk.” The flag can be double-clicked to display detailed information relevant to discharge planning.  In a one year prospective validation of the tool, we found that patients who triggered the readmission alert were subsequently readmitted 31 percent of the time. When an alert was not triggered, patients were readmitted only 11 percent of the time.  There was no evidence for an effect of the intervention on 30-day all-cause readmission rates in the 12-month period after implementation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Karolinski Institute / 25.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elin Ekblom Bak | Doktorand Institutionen för Medicin, Enheten för klinisk epidemiologi, Karolinska universitetssjukhuset Solna 114 86 Stockholm MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: That we, in a large sample of 60 y old men and women, found that a generally active day life (compared with an inactive daily life) was significantly associated with a better metabolic health at baseline, and a reduced risk with 27% for a first time cardiovascular event and 30% for all-cause mortality during 12.5 years of follow up. This was seen regardless of intentional exercise. Why this is important is because the focus is often of just exercise for health benefits and longevity. Exercise is still important, but, as we saw in this study, the activity that we do during the extended hours of daily living is as important and has a significant effect on cardiovascular health and longevity. These results are in a reversed way in line with the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting (regardless exercise habits) now frequently reported in an increasing amount of research studies. This is because sedentary time mainly replaces time in daily activity, and vice versa (daily activity replace time spent sitting). (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, McGill, Pediatrics / 25.11.2013

Dr. Michael Shevell Chair of the Pediatrics Department at the McGill Faculty of Medicine and Pediatrician-in-Chief at the Montreal Children’s Hospital and the McGill University Health CentreMedicalResearch.com Interview Dr. Michael Shevell Chair of the Pediatrics Department at the McGill Faculty of Medicine and Pediatrician-in-Chief at the Montreal Children’s Hospital and the McGill University Health Centre MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Shevell: At risk term infants who have spent some time in a Level III NICU after birth are at substantially increased later risk for an autistic spectrum disorder. Frequently this disorder occurs in conjunction with substantial co-morbidity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Erasmus, Statins / 25.11.2013

Prof Ype Elgersma PhD Professor, Neuroscience Neuroscience Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam Rotterdam, NetherlandsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Ype Elgersma PhD Professor, Neuroscience Neuroscience Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam Rotterdam, Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Research in genetic mouse models suggested that inhibition of HMG-CoA-reductase by statins might ameliorate the cognitive and behavioral phenotype of children with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), an autosomal dominant disorder. In a 12-month randomized placebo-controlled study including 84 children with NF1, we found that simvastatin, an inhibitor of the HMG-CoA-reductase pathway had no effect on full-scale intelligence, attention problems or internalizing behavioral problems, or on any of the secondary outcome measures. (more…)
Author Interviews, Compliance, Connective Tissue Disease, UCSF / 25.11.2013

Dr. Jinoos Yazdany MD, MPH Assistant Professor in Residence UCSF School of MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jinoos Yazdany MD, MPH Assistant Professor in Residence UCSF School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: For almost all of the drugs we examined, we found that less than half of patients adhered to treatment.  For some drugs, less than one-third of individuals were adherent. The average medication possession ratios were low across all drugs. We found that several factors played an important part in adherence.  Younger individuals were less likely to adhere to treatment for several drugs, and we also found racial/ethnic differences, with Black, Hispanic and Native populations having lower adherence.  We also found geographic variation in adherence, with individuals in the Northeast being the most likely to adhere to treatment. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Clots, Case Western, Cleveland Clinic, JAMA / 24.11.2013

Ilke Sipahi, MD Department of Cardiology Acibadem University Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, University Hospitals Case Medical Cente  Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OhioMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ilke Sipahi, MD Department of Cardiology Acibadem University Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, University Hospitals Case Medical Cente, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio MedicalResearch.com: Were you surprised at the extreme difference between these 2 analyses? Answer: I was surprised. However, it is not unusual to find completely contradictory results in medical studies. I was more surprised at the fact that FDA paid more attention to it administrative observational dataset rather than the huge large randomized clinical trials, all showing excess GI bleeds with dabigatran (Pradaxa). Anyone who is even slightly familiar with the medical literature knows that randomized trials are the gold standard in medical studies. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Chemotherapy, Lancet, MD Anderson / 24.11.2013

Dr. Kelly K. Hunt, M.D., F.A.C.S. Professor, Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Surgery Chief, Breast Surgical Oncology Section, Department of Surgical Oncology The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TXMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Kelly K. Hunt, M.D., F.A.C.S. Professor, Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Surgery Chief, Breast Surgical Oncology Section, Department of Surgical Oncology The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hunt: The primary endpoint of the Z1041 trial was the proportion of patients who had pathological complete response in the breast, defined as the percentage of women who started the neoadjuvant treatment with no histological evidence of disease in the breast at surgery.  We found that high pathologic response rates were observed in both treatment groups with similar cardiac safety profiles in both arms of the trial.  Specifically, 56.5% of patients in the sequential group (fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide on day one of a 21-day cycle for four cycles followed by paclitaxel plus trastuzumab weekly for 12 weeks) had a complete pathological response versus 54.2% of the patients who received the concurrent regimen (paclitaxel and trastuzumab weekly for 12 weeks followed by fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide on day one of a 21-day cycle with trastuzumab on days one, eight and 15 of the 21-day cycle for four cycles).  The difference in pathologic complete response rates between the treatment arms was not statistically significant.  Cardiac safety was a secondary endpoint of the trial and we found that both regimens had acceptable cardiac safety profiles. (more…)
Antioxidants, Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Medical Research Centers, Nature, Nutrition, Pancreatic / 23.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: dr_ying_baoYing Bao, MD, ScD Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School Boston, MA. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bao: Frequent nut consumption is inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer in women, independent of other potential risk factors for pancreatic cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Johns Hopkins / 21.11.2013

Caleb Alexander, MD, MS Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Drug Safety and Effectiveness Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MarylandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Caleb Alexander, MD, MS Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Drug Safety and Effectiveness Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Division of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Alexander:
  • There have been large shifts in the types of treatments used to treat Type 2 diabetes during the past decade in the United States.
  • We document large declines in the use of glitazones and sulfonylureas and important increases in the use of the newer DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 agonists.
  • We also found large shifts in the types of insulins used, with substantial reductions in the use of regular and intermediate insulins, and large increases in the use of long-acting and ultra short-acting  therapies.
  • Costs have increased significantly over the past 5 years, driven primarily by insulin and DPP-4 inhibitors
  • All of these changes notwithstanding, biguanides continue to remain a mainstay of therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, Nature, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Stanford / 18.11.2013

 James Murphy, M.D. Assistant Professor Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies  UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center 3855 Health Sciences Drive La Jolla, CA 92093MedicalResearch.com Interview with: James Murphy, M.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies ,UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center La Jolla, CA 92093 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Murphy: This study evaluated racial disparity in metastatic colorectal cancer. In a large population-based cohort we found of over 11,000 patients we found that black patients were less likely to be seen in consultation by a cancer specialist, and were less likely to receive treatment with chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation. Furthermore, we found that this disparity in treatment accounted for a substantial portion of the race-based differences between black and white patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Karolinski Institute, OBGYNE, Weight Research / 16.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Olof Stephansson MD, PhD Associate professor, senior consultant in obstetrics and gynaecologyDepartment of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska InstitutetDepartment of Women’s and Children’s Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Women with a history of bariatric surgery have an increased risk of preterm delivery, a doubled risk for small-for-gestational-age births and a reduction in large-for-gestational-age births. Also when considering maternal weight, education, age, parity and year of birth. There was no increased for stillbirth or neonatal mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews, Johns Hopkins, Stroke / 12.11.2013

Yogesh Moradiya MBBS From the Neurosciences Critical Care Division Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD;MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yogesh Moradiya MBBS From the Neurosciences Critical Care Division Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD;   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We studied 712,433 stroke cases in 6,839 hospital samples in United States over 11-year study period (2000-2010) and found that hospitals with neurology residency training program treated stroke patients with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) more frequently than other teaching or non-teaching hospitals. The higher tPA utilization in hospitals with neurology residencies was independent of patient age, gender, ethnicity, insurance status, comorbidities, hospital geographic location, stroke case volume, calendar year and the Joint Commission Primary Stroke Center certification. (more…)
Antioxidants, Author Interviews, Hearing Loss, Nutrition, University of Michigan / 12.11.2013

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2013/11/06/ajcn.113.068437.abstractMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sung Kyun Park, Sc.D., M.P.H Assistant Professor, Epidemiology Assistant Professor, Environmental Health Sciences Departments of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Sciences University of Michigan School of Public Health Ann Arbor, MI MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
 Answer: This study reports that persons who eat more dietary antioxidants (beta carotene and vitamin C) or magnesium have a lower risk of hearing loss. This finding was seen in the levels currently observed in the general US population and independent of demographic and socioeconomic factors, noise exposures from workplaces, recreations or firearms, and other potential risk factors. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Yale / 09.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: John Ney, MD, MPH Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology, University of Washington [email protected] MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ney: My colleagues and I used a large, publicly available dataset to examine the usage and effectiveness of electroencephalography (EEG) in adult intensive care units (ICUs) in the United States over a five year period.  We compared routine EEG, which consists of a portable machine hooked up to the patient to record brainwaves for a short duration, usually 20-40 minutes, with continuous EEG monitoring, where a patient’s brainwaves are recorded continuously for 24 hours or more and examined, ideally in real-time.  Because most patients in the ICU are comatose, we have generally poor and crude indicators of their brain function.  ICU patients are particularly at risk for non-convulsive seizures, where the brain is seizing, but there are few outward signs of a seizure.  EEG is the only means of detecting non-convulsive seizures, and is useful in determining the brain’s reactions to drugs, monitoring for stroke and other abnormal activity. Our main finding is that ICU patients receiving continuous EEG monitoring was associated with increased survival relative to those who received routine EEG only.    In our sample, 39% of ICU patients who received routine EEG died compared to only 25% of those with continuous EEG monitoring. This finding was both substantial and statistically significant, even after adjustment for age and other demographics, clinical disease comorbidity severity measures, and hospital factors.  Although continuous EEG monitoring was more expensive, the increase in hospital charges were not significant after adjustment. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, NYU, Weight Research / 06.11.2013

Manish Parikh MD Associate Professor of Surgery, NYU School of Medicine Director of Bariatric Surgery, Bellevue Hospital Center 550 First Ave NBV 15 South 7 New York, NY 10010MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Manish Parikh MD Associate Professor of Surgery, NYU School of Medicine Director of Bariatric Surgery, Bellevue Hospital Center 550 First Ave NBV 15 South 7 New York, NY 10010 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Parikh: The main findings of this study is that surgery is safe and effective in patients with type 2 diabetes and BMI under 35.  The overall estimated rate of diabetes remission was 55% at 12 months, ranging from 33% for the adjustable gastric banding, 49% for the “mini” gastric bypass, 54% for the sleeve gastrectomy, 64% for the gastric bypass, 71% for the biliopancreatic diversion, and 81% for ileal transposition. (more…)